a package for plotting maps in R with ggplot2
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Latest commit c054613 Oct 11, 2018

README.md

Attention!

Google has recently changed its API requirements, and ggmap users are now required to provide an API key and enable billing. ggmap itself is outdated on CRAN; we hope to have the new version up on CRAN soon, but until then, here is the workaround:

if(!requireNamespace("devtools")) install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("dkahle/ggmap", ref = "tidyup")

When you load ggmap, you can set your API key with register_google() (see ?register_google for details), but don’t forget to enable the Maps Static API in the Google Cloud interface and enable billing! See #51 for an extended discussion on details.

The details of the readme below will be changed shortly to reflect these changes. Thanks for your patience!


ggmap =====

ggmap makes it easy to retrieve raster map tiles from popular online mapping services like Google Maps, OpenStreetMap, Stamen Maps, and plot them using the ggplot2 framework:

library("ggmap")

us <- c(left = -125, bottom = 25.75, right = -67, top = 49)
map <- get_stamenmap(us, zoom = 5, maptype = "toner-lite")
ggmap(map)

ggmap(map, extent = "device")

Use qmplot() in the same way you’d use qplot(), but with a map automatically added in the background:

library("dplyr")
library("forcats")

# define helper
`%notin%` <- function(lhs, rhs) !(lhs %in% rhs)

# reduce crime to violent crimes in downtown houston
violent_crimes <- crime %>% 
  filter(
    offense %notin% c("auto theft", "theft", "burglary"),
    -95.39681 <= lon & lon <= -95.34188,
     29.73631 <= lat & lat <=  29.78400
  ) %>% 
  mutate(
    offense = fct_drop(offense),
    offense = fct_relevel(offense, 
      c("robbery", "aggravated assault", "rape", "murder")
    )
  )

# use qmplot to make a scatterplot on a map
qmplot(lon, lat, data = violent_crimes, maptype = "toner-lite", color = I("red"))

All the ggplot2 geom’s are available. For example, you can make a contour plot with geom = "density2d":

qmplot(lon, lat, data = violent_crimes, maptype = "toner-lite", geom = "density2d", color = I("red"))
#  Using zoom = 14...

In fact, since ggmap’s built on top of ggplot2, all your usual ggplot2 stuff (geoms, polishing, etc.) will work, and there are some unique graphing perks ggmap brings to the table, too.

robberies <- violent_crimes %>% filter(offense == "robbery")

qmplot(lon, lat, data = violent_crimes, geom = "blank", 
  zoom = 15, maptype = "toner-background", darken = .7, legend = "topleft"
) +
  stat_density_2d(aes(fill = ..level..), geom = "polygon", alpha = .3, color = NA) +
  scale_fill_gradient2("Robbery\nPropensity", low = "white", mid = "yellow", high = "red", midpoint = 650)

Faceting works, too:

qmplot(lon, lat, data = violent_crimes, maptype = "toner-background", color = offense) + 
  facet_wrap(~ offense)

For convenience, here are a few maps of Europe:

europe <- c(left = -12, bottom = 35, right = 30, top = 63)
get_stamenmap(europe, zoom = 5) %>% ggmap()

get_stamenmap(europe, zoom = 5, maptype = "toner-lite") %>% ggmap()

Google Maps and Credentials

Google Maps can be used just as easily. However, since Google Maps use a center/zoom specification, their input is a bit different:

get_googlemap("waco texas", zoom = 12) %>% ggmap()
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=12&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=terrain
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=waco%20texas

Moreover, you can get various different styles of Google Maps with ggmap (just like Stamen Maps):

get_googlemap("waco texas", zoom = 12, maptype = "satellite") %>% ggmap()
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=12&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=satellite
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=waco%20texas

get_googlemap("waco texas", zoom = 12, maptype = "roadmap") %>% ggmap()
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=12&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=roadmap
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=waco%20texas

get_googlemap("waco texas", zoom = 12, maptype = "hybrid") %>% ggmap()
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=12&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=hybrid
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=waco%20texas

Google’s geocoding and reverse geocoding API’s are available through geocode() and revgeocode(), respectively:

geocode("1301 S University Parks Dr, Waco, TX 76798")
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=1301%20S%20University%20Parks%20Dr%2C%20Waco%2C%20TX%2076798
#         lon      lat
#  1 -97.1161 31.55099
revgeocode(c(lon = -97.1161, lat = 31.55098))
#  Information from URL : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?latlng=31.55098,-97.1161
#  [1] "1301 S University Parks Dr, Waco, TX 76706, USA"

There is also a mutate_geocode() that works similarly to dplyr’s mutate() function:

df <- data.frame(
  address = c("1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC", "", "waco texas"),
  stringsAsFactors = FALSE
)
df %>% mutate_geocode(address)
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=1600%20Pennsylvania%20Avenue%2C%20Washington%20DC
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=waco%20texas
#                                    address       lon      lat
#  1 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC -77.03657 38.89766
#  2                                                NA       NA
#  3                              waco texas -97.14667 31.54933

Treks use Google’s routing API to give you routes (route() and trek() give slightly different results; the latter hugs roads):

trek_df <- trek("houson, texas", "waco, texas", structure = "route")
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/directions/json?origin=houson%2C%20texas&destination=waco%2C%20texas&mode=driving&units=metric&alternatives=false
qmap("college station, texas", zoom = 8) +
  geom_path(
    aes(x = lon, y = lat),  colour = "blue",
    size = 1.5, alpha = .5,
    data = trek_df, lineend = "round"
  )
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=college+station,+texas&zoom=8&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=terrain&language=en-EN
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=college%20station%2C%20texas

(They also provide information on how long it takes to get from point A to point B.)

Map distances, in both length and anticipated time, can be computed with mapdist()). Moreover the function is vectorized:

mapdist(c("houston, texas", "dallas"), "waco, texas")
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/distancematrix/json?origins=dallas&destinations=waco%2C%20texas&mode=driving&language=en-EN
#  Source : https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/distancematrix/json?origins=houston%2C%20texas&destinations=waco%2C%20texas&mode=driving&language=en-EN
#              from          to      m      km     miles seconds   minutes
#  1 houston, texas waco, texas 299319 299.319 185.99683   10539 175.65000
#  2         dallas waco, texas 152481 152.481  94.75169    5360  89.33333
#       hours
#  1 2.927500
#  2 1.488889

Google credentialing

If you have a Google API key, you can exceed the standard limits Google places on queries. By default, when ggmap is loaded it will set the following credentials and limits:

ggmap_credentials()
#  Google - 
#     key :  
#     account_type : standard 
#     day_limit : 2500 
#     second_limit : 50 
#     client :  
#     signature :

Look at the documentation of ?register_google() to learn more. If you do have an API key, you set it with:

register_google(key = "[your key here]", account_type = "premium", day_limit = 100000)
ggmap_credentials()
#  Google - 
#     key : [your key here] 
#     account_type : premium 
#     day_limit : 1e+05 
#     second_limit : 50 
#     client :  
#     signature :

These will then be used and checked when creating the query URL:

register_google(key = "AbCdEfGhIjKlMnOpQrStUvWxYz")
get_googlemap("waco texas", urlonly = TRUE)
#  [1] "https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=10&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=terrain&key=AbCdEfGhIjKlMnOpQrStUvWxYz"

For anything that hasn’t been implemente (URL-wise), you can inject code into the query usin g inject:

get_googlemap("waco texas", urlonly = TRUE, inject = "otherItem = Stuff")
#  [1] "https://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=waco+texas&zoom=10&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=terrain&key=AbCdEfGhIjKlMnOpQrStUvWxYz&otherItem%20=%20Stuff"

Installation

  • From CRAN: install.packages("ggmap")

  • From Github: devtools::install_github("dkahle/ggmap")