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browser-based, zero-installation, audio-visual live coding language
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Punctual is a language for live coding audio and visuals. It allows you to build and change networks of signal processors (oscillators, filters, etc) on the fly. When definitions are changed, when and how they change can be explicitly indicated.

Punctual runs in a web browser, and is portable to any system with a browser that supports the Web Audio API (for sound) and WebGL (for video). While it can be used in a standalone way, it is also bundled inside the Estuary platform for collaborative live coding.

The easiest way to try Punctual is to point your browser to - you will find there a Punctual editor ready to go with no download or installation required. You can also download Punctual (eg. for use when you don't have Internet access) by downloading the most recent release here on Github, putting the Punctual.jsexe folder somewhere, then opening the index.html file in that folder when you are ready to start live coding. A third way to start using Punctual is via the Estuary test server at (Chrome is strongly recommended; select Solo, then in one of the text editor panels select Punctual from the panel's drop down language selection menu). Using Punctual via Estuary makes it possible both to use it alongside other languages supported by Estuary, as well as to collaborate online with other artists.

Punctual was created by David Ogborn, building on top of the MusicW synthesis library (by David Ogborn, Spencer Park, Jamie Beverley, and others). Conceptually, Punctual extends the work of Julian Rohrhuber and others on SuperCollider's JITlib notations, as well as the work of Shawn Lawson on The Force.

See also REFERENCE.MD for what should be an up-to-date list of Punctual's functions.

Audio Output

sin 440 => centre; -- sound panned to the centre
sin 440 => 50%; -- also panned to the centre
sin 440 => 0.5; -- also panned to the centre
sin 440 => left;
sin 440 => right;
sin 440 => 25%; --panned halfway to the left
sin 440; -- no audible output

Video Output

Video output with Punctual is a matter of directing signals to targets for the red, green, and blue outputs of a "fragment shader" (this is similar to the type of programming one sees in the environment "The Force" - except that Punctual's notations are are turned into a fragment shader instead of programming the shader directly in GLSL).

There are three colour targets - red green blue - and they each respond to values in the range from 0 (darkest) to 1 (brightest). This is different than the usual range for audio signals (-1 to 1). Punctual provides two functions for rescaling between these two ranges. The function unipolar expects a signal from -1 to 1 and gives back a signal from 0 to 1. The function bipolar expects a signal from 0 to 1 and gives back a signal from -1 to 1.

The functions fx and fy represent the position of the current "fragment" (ie. pixel) that is being drawn, as a range from -1 (bottom or left) to +1 (top or right). (Note: when fx and fy are used in expressions targeting sound output, they are constant signals of +1).

1 => red; -- a very red screen
sin 0.2 => red; -- a pulsating red screen
unipolar (sin 0.2) => red; -- using all of the sine wave's range for the colour
unipolar (sin 0.2) * -10db => red; -- a bit darker
fx => red; -- getting redder as we go from left to right
fy * -1 => green; -- getting greener as we go from to bottom
sin (fx * 60m) * sin (fy * 60.05m) * fx * fy * 10db => blue; -- pretty patterns

Oscillators and Filters

sin 440; -- a 440 Hz sine wave
tri 440; -- a 440 Hz triangle wave
sqr 440; -- a 440 Hz square wave
saw 440; -- a 440 Hz sawtooth wave
lpf (saw 110) 1000 1; -- a 1000 Hz (Q=1) low-pass filter applied to a sawtooth wave
hpf (saw 110) 1000 1; -- a 1000 Hz (Q=1) high-pass filter applied to a sawtooth wave

MIDI note numbers and Decibels

When working with musical pitch and loudness, it is often more intuitive to express the frequency of things in MIDI note numbers (where an increase of one is equivalent to one musical semitone) and to express the amplitude of things in decibels (where an increase of six is roughly equivalent to doubling something).

sin 57m; -- also a 440 Hz sine wave, expressed in MIDI note numbers (57m = 440)
sin 57.1m; -- a slightly out of tune 440 Hz sine wave
sin 57m * -10 db; -- a quieter sine wave
sin 57m * -13 db; -- quieter still...
sin 57m * -40 db; -- much quieter

Note in the last few example aboves that the 57m "associates" with the "sin" rather than with the * -40 db - so we get a 440 Hz sine wave whose output is then made quieter by being multiplied by -40 dB. If instead we wanted to multiply the number used as the frequency of the oscillator we'd used brackets like this:

sin (57m * 0.5); -- frequency is half of the frequency corresponding to 57m

Crossfades and quantization

By default, when definitions change the new version of the definition begins to take effect on the next cycle boundary in the current musical tempo, and there is a brief crossfade between the old and new definitions. This default helps old and new things tend towards alignment in time, and avoids clicks and pops. Often, more control over this replacement process is desired:

<8s> sin 440 => centre; -- new definition crossfades over 8 seconds
<2500ms> sin 440 => centre; -- crossfade over 2500 milliseconds
<1.5c> sin 440 => centre; -- crossfade over one and a half cycles (bars)
@4c sin 440 => centre; -- new definition starts on next 4-cycle/bar boundary
@0.5c sin 440 => centre; -- new definition starts on next half cycle boundary
@(2c,0.5c) sin 440 => centre; -- new definition starts half cycle after next two cycle boundary
@2c <2c> sin 440 => centre; -- new def starts at next 2-cycle boundary, crossfades over 2 cycles

Note that in each of the above example lines, you'll have to change the definition to be able to hear the effect of the crossfades and quantization.

Modulated Ranges and Percentages

Punctual's oscillators give results in the range -1 to 1. It is very common to need to rescale that range to another range - for example, when using one oscillator to control the frequency of another, or to control the cutoff frequency of a filter, etc. Modulated ranges are a series of Punctual specific notations for this common mapping/scaling operation:

saw (24m +- 3% : sin 1) => centre; -- go between 3% below MIDI note 24 and 3% above, driven by a 1 Hz sine wave
lpf (saw 24m) (100 .. 1000 : sin 1) 1 => centre; -- filter frequency from 100 to 1000, driven by a 1 Hz sine wave
sin (440 : sin 1) => centre; -- sine wave frequency goes between 0 and 440, driven by a 1 Hz sine wave
saw (24m +- 3% : (sin 1 * sqr 2)) => centre; -- using a more complex "driver" for the modulation
saw ((24m .. 30m : sqr 2) +- 3% : sin 1) => centre; -- the elements of the ranges can be more complex "graphs" or nested modulated ranges as well

Future Work

At the time of writing, the next major anticipated feature of Punctual is a kind of variable system allowing synthesis graphs to be used inside other synthesis graphs. It will probably work like this:

a <2s> 24m +- 3% : saw 1; -- a is approximately 24m (+- 3% according 1 Hz saw modulation)
<8s> tri a * -10db => centre; -- the frequency of this triangle wave is controlled by a
<8s> saw a * -10db => centre; -- the frequency of this sawtooth wave is also controlled by a
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