Skip to content
Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Find file Copy path
Fetching contributors…
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
405 lines (385 sloc) 12.5 KB
/**
* Compiler implementation of the
* $(LINK2 http://www.dlang.org, D programming language).
*
* Copyright: Copyright (C) 1999-2019 by The D Language Foundation, All Rights Reserved
* Authors: $(LINK2 http://www.digitalmars.com, Walter Bright)
* License: $(LINK2 http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt, Boost License 1.0)
* Source: $(LINK2 https://github.com/dlang/dmd/blob/master/src/dmd/sideeffect.d, _sideeffect.d)
* Documentation: https://dlang.org/phobos/dmd_sideeffect.html
* Coverage: https://codecov.io/gh/dlang/dmd/src/master/src/dmd/sideeffect.d
*/
module dmd.sideeffect;
import dmd.apply;
import dmd.declaration;
import dmd.dscope;
import dmd.expression;
import dmd.expressionsem;
import dmd.func;
import dmd.globals;
import dmd.identifier;
import dmd.init;
import dmd.mtype;
import dmd.tokens;
import dmd.visitor;
/**************************************************
* Front-end expression rewriting should create temporary variables for
* non trivial sub-expressions in order to:
* 1. save evaluation order
* 2. prevent sharing of sub-expression in AST
*/
extern (C++) bool isTrivialExp(Expression e)
{
extern (C++) final class IsTrivialExp : StoppableVisitor
{
alias visit = typeof(super).visit;
public:
extern (D) this()
{
}
override void visit(Expression e)
{
/* https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=11201
* CallExp is always non trivial expression,
* especially for inlining.
*/
if (e.op == TOK.call)
{
stop = true;
return;
}
// stop walking if we determine this expression has side effects
stop = lambdaHasSideEffect(e);
}
}
scope IsTrivialExp v = new IsTrivialExp();
return walkPostorder(e, v) == false;
}
/********************************************
* Determine if Expression has any side effects.
*/
extern (C++) bool hasSideEffect(Expression e)
{
extern (C++) final class LambdaHasSideEffect : StoppableVisitor
{
alias visit = typeof(super).visit;
public:
extern (D) this()
{
}
override void visit(Expression e)
{
// stop walking if we determine this expression has side effects
stop = lambdaHasSideEffect(e);
}
}
scope LambdaHasSideEffect v = new LambdaHasSideEffect();
return walkPostorder(e, v);
}
/********************************************
* Determine if the call of f, or function type or delegate type t1, has any side effects.
* Returns:
* 0 has any side effects
* 1 nothrow + constant purity
* 2 nothrow + strong purity
*/
int callSideEffectLevel(FuncDeclaration f)
{
/* https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=12760
* ctor call always has side effects.
*/
if (f.isCtorDeclaration())
return 0;
assert(f.type.ty == Tfunction);
TypeFunction tf = cast(TypeFunction)f.type;
if (tf.isnothrow)
{
PURE purity = f.isPure();
if (purity == PURE.strong)
return 2;
if (purity == PURE.const_)
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
int callSideEffectLevel(Type t)
{
t = t.toBasetype();
TypeFunction tf;
if (t.ty == Tdelegate)
tf = cast(TypeFunction)(cast(TypeDelegate)t).next;
else
{
assert(t.ty == Tfunction);
tf = cast(TypeFunction)t;
}
if (!tf.isnothrow) // function can throw
return 0;
tf.purityLevel();
PURE purity = tf.purity;
if (t.ty == Tdelegate && purity > PURE.weak)
{
if (tf.isMutable())
purity = PURE.weak;
else if (!tf.isImmutable())
purity = PURE.const_;
}
if (purity == PURE.strong)
return 2;
if (purity == PURE.const_)
return 1;
return 0;
}
private bool lambdaHasSideEffect(Expression e)
{
switch (e.op)
{
// Sort the cases by most frequently used first
case TOK.assign:
case TOK.plusPlus:
case TOK.minusMinus:
case TOK.declaration:
case TOK.construct:
case TOK.blit:
case TOK.addAssign:
case TOK.minAssign:
case TOK.concatenateAssign:
case TOK.concatenateElemAssign:
case TOK.concatenateDcharAssign:
case TOK.mulAssign:
case TOK.divAssign:
case TOK.modAssign:
case TOK.leftShiftAssign:
case TOK.rightShiftAssign:
case TOK.unsignedRightShiftAssign:
case TOK.andAssign:
case TOK.orAssign:
case TOK.xorAssign:
case TOK.powAssign:
case TOK.in_:
case TOK.remove:
case TOK.assert_:
case TOK.halt:
case TOK.delete_:
case TOK.new_:
case TOK.newAnonymousClass:
return true;
case TOK.call:
{
CallExp ce = cast(CallExp)e;
/* Calling a function or delegate that is pure nothrow
* has no side effects.
*/
if (ce.e1.type)
{
Type t = ce.e1.type.toBasetype();
if (t.ty == Tdelegate)
t = (cast(TypeDelegate)t).next;
if (t.ty == Tfunction && (ce.f ? callSideEffectLevel(ce.f) : callSideEffectLevel(ce.e1.type)) > 0)
{
}
else
return true;
}
break;
}
case TOK.cast_:
{
CastExp ce = cast(CastExp)e;
/* if:
* cast(classtype)func() // because it may throw
*/
if (ce.to.ty == Tclass && ce.e1.op == TOK.call && ce.e1.type.ty == Tclass)
return true;
break;
}
default:
break;
}
return false;
}
/***********************************
* The result of this expression will be discarded.
* Print error messages if the operation has no side effects (and hence is meaningless).
* Returns:
* true if expression has no side effects
*/
bool discardValue(Expression e)
{
if (lambdaHasSideEffect(e)) // check side-effect shallowly
return false;
switch (e.op)
{
case TOK.cast_:
{
CastExp ce = cast(CastExp)e;
if (ce.to.equals(Type.tvoid))
{
/*
* Don't complain about an expression with no effect if it was cast to void
*/
return false;
}
break; // complain
}
case TOK.error:
return false;
case TOK.variable:
{
VarDeclaration v = (cast(VarExp)e).var.isVarDeclaration();
if (v && (v.storage_class & STC.temp))
{
// https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=5810
// Don't complain about an internal generated variable.
return false;
}
break;
}
case TOK.call:
/* Issue 3882: */
if (global.params.warnings != DiagnosticReporting.off && !global.gag)
{
CallExp ce = cast(CallExp)e;
if (e.type.ty == Tvoid)
{
/* Don't complain about calling void-returning functions with no side-effect,
* because purity and nothrow are inferred, and because some of the
* runtime library depends on it. Needs more investigation.
*
* One possible solution is to restrict this message to only be called in hierarchies that
* never call assert (and or not called from inside unittest blocks)
*/
}
else if (ce.e1.type)
{
Type t = ce.e1.type.toBasetype();
if (t.ty == Tdelegate)
t = (cast(TypeDelegate)t).next;
if (t.ty == Tfunction && (ce.f ? callSideEffectLevel(ce.f) : callSideEffectLevel(ce.e1.type)) > 0)
{
const(char)* s;
if (ce.f)
s = ce.f.toPrettyChars();
else if (ce.e1.op == TOK.star)
{
// print 'fp' if ce.e1 is (*fp)
s = (cast(PtrExp)ce.e1).e1.toChars();
}
else
s = ce.e1.toChars();
e.warning("calling %s without side effects discards return value of type %s, prepend a cast(void) if intentional", s, e.type.toChars());
}
}
}
return false;
case TOK.andAnd:
case TOK.orOr:
{
LogicalExp aae = cast(LogicalExp)e;
return discardValue(aae.e2);
}
case TOK.question:
{
CondExp ce = cast(CondExp)e;
/* https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=6178
* https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14089
* Either CondExp::e1 or e2 may have
* redundant expression to make those types common. For example:
*
* struct S { this(int n); int v; alias v this; }
* S[int] aa;
* aa[1] = 0;
*
* The last assignment statement will be rewitten to:
*
* 1 in aa ? aa[1].value = 0 : (aa[1] = 0, aa[1].this(0)).value;
*
* The last DotVarExp is necessary to take assigned value.
*
* int value = (aa[1] = 0); // value = aa[1].value
*
* To avoid false error, discardValue() should be called only when
* the both tops of e1 and e2 have actually no side effects.
*/
if (!lambdaHasSideEffect(ce.e1) && !lambdaHasSideEffect(ce.e2))
{
return discardValue(ce.e1) |
discardValue(ce.e2);
}
return false;
}
case TOK.comma:
{
CommaExp ce = cast(CommaExp)e;
/* Check for compiler-generated code of the form auto __tmp, e, __tmp;
* In such cases, only check e for side effect (it's OK for __tmp to have
* no side effect).
* See https://issues.dlang.org/show_bug.cgi?id=4231 for discussion
*/
auto fc = firstComma(ce);
if (fc.op == TOK.declaration && ce.e2.op == TOK.variable && (cast(DeclarationExp)fc).declaration == (cast(VarExp)ce.e2).var)
{
return false;
}
// Don't check e1 until we cast(void) the a,b code generation
//discardValue(ce.e1);
return discardValue(ce.e2);
}
case TOK.tuple:
/* Pass without complaint if any of the tuple elements have side effects.
* Ideally any tuple elements with no side effects should raise an error,
* this needs more investigation as to what is the right thing to do.
*/
if (!hasSideEffect(e))
break;
return false;
default:
break;
}
e.error("`%s` has no effect", e.toChars());
return true;
}
/**************************************************
* Build a temporary variable to copy the value of e into.
* Params:
* stc = storage classes will be added to the made temporary variable
* name = name for temporary variable
* e = original expression
* Returns:
* Newly created temporary variable.
*/
VarDeclaration copyToTemp(StorageClass stc, const char* name, Expression e)
{
assert(name[0] == '_' && name[1] == '_');
auto vd = new VarDeclaration(e.loc, e.type,
Identifier.generateId(name),
new ExpInitializer(e.loc, e));
vd.storage_class = stc | STC.temp | STC.ctfe; // temporary is always CTFEable
return vd;
}
/**************************************************
* Build a temporary variable to extract e's evaluation, if e is not trivial.
* Params:
* sc = scope
* name = name for temporary variable
* e0 = a new side effect part will be appended to it.
* e = original expression
* alwaysCopy = if true, build new temporary variable even if e is trivial.
* Returns:
* When e is trivial and alwaysCopy == false, e itself is returned.
* Otherwise, a new VarExp is returned.
* Note:
* e's lvalue-ness will be handled well by STC.ref_ or STC.rvalue.
*/
Expression extractSideEffect(Scope* sc, const char* name,
ref Expression e0, Expression e, bool alwaysCopy = false)
{
if (!alwaysCopy && isTrivialExp(e))
return e;
auto vd = copyToTemp(0, name, e);
vd.storage_class |= e.isLvalue() ? STC.ref_ : STC.rvalue;
e0 = Expression.combine(e0, new DeclarationExp(vd.loc, vd)
.expressionSemantic(sc));
return new VarExp(vd.loc, vd)
.expressionSemantic(sc);
}
You can’t perform that action at this time.