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/**
* This is a low-level messaging API upon which more structured or restrictive
* APIs may be built. The general idea is that every messageable entity is
* represented by a common handle type called a Tid, which allows messages to
* be sent to logical threads that are executing in both the current process
* and in external processes using the same interface. This is an important
* aspect of scalability because it allows the components of a program to be
* spread across available resources with few to no changes to the actual
* implementation.
*
* A logical thread is an execution context that has its own stack and which
* runs asynchronously to other logical threads. These may be preemptively
* scheduled kernel threads, fibers (cooperative user-space threads), or some
* other concept with similar behavior.
*
* The type of concurrency used when logical threads are created is determined
* by the Scheduler selected at initialization time. The default behavior is
* currently to create a new kernel thread per call to spawn, but other
* schedulers are available that multiplex fibers across the main thread or
* use some combination of the two approaches.
*
* Copyright: Copyright Sean Kelly 2009 - 2014.
* License: <a href="http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt">Boost License 1.0</a>.
* Authors: Sean Kelly, Alex Rønne Petersen, Martin Nowak
* Source: $(PHOBOSSRC std/concurrency.d)
*/
/* Copyright Sean Kelly 2009 - 2014.
* Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
* (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at
* http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
*/
module std.concurrency;
public import std.variant;
import core.atomic;
import core.sync.condition;
import core.sync.mutex;
import core.thread;
import std.range.primitives;
import std.range.interfaces : InputRange;
import std.traits;
///
@system unittest
{
__gshared string received;
static void spawnedFunc(Tid ownerTid)
{
import std.conv : text;
// Receive a message from the owner thread.
receive((int i){
received = text("Received the number ", i);
// Send a message back to the owner thread
// indicating success.
send(ownerTid, true);
});
}
// Start spawnedFunc in a new thread.
auto childTid = spawn(&spawnedFunc, thisTid);
// Send the number 42 to this new thread.
send(childTid, 42);
// Receive the result code.
auto wasSuccessful = receiveOnly!(bool);
assert(wasSuccessful);
assert(received == "Received the number 42");
}
private
{
bool hasLocalAliasing(Types...)()
{
// Works around "statement is not reachable"
bool doesIt = false;
static foreach (T; Types)
{
static if (is(T == Tid))
{ /* Allowed */ }
else static if (is(T == struct))
doesIt |= hasLocalAliasing!(typeof(T.tupleof));
else
doesIt |= std.traits.hasUnsharedAliasing!(T);
}
return doesIt;
}
@safe unittest
{
static struct Container { Tid t; }
static assert(!hasLocalAliasing!(Tid, Container, int));
}
enum MsgType
{
standard,
priority,
linkDead,
}
struct Message
{
MsgType type;
Variant data;
this(T...)(MsgType t, T vals) if (T.length > 0)
{
static if (T.length == 1)
{
type = t;
data = vals[0];
}
else
{
import std.typecons : Tuple;
type = t;
data = Tuple!(T)(vals);
}
}
@property auto convertsTo(T...)()
{
static if (T.length == 1)
{
return is(T[0] == Variant) || data.convertsTo!(T);
}
else
{
import std.typecons : Tuple;
return data.convertsTo!(Tuple!(T));
}
}
@property auto get(T...)()
{
static if (T.length == 1)
{
static if (is(T[0] == Variant))
return data;
else
return data.get!(T);
}
else
{
import std.typecons : Tuple;
return data.get!(Tuple!(T));
}
}
auto map(Op)(Op op)
{
alias Args = Parameters!(Op);
static if (Args.length == 1)
{
static if (is(Args[0] == Variant))
return op(data);
else
return op(data.get!(Args));
}
else
{
import std.typecons : Tuple;
return op(data.get!(Tuple!(Args)).expand);
}
}
}
void checkops(T...)(T ops)
{
foreach (i, t1; T)
{
static assert(isFunctionPointer!t1 || isDelegate!t1);
alias a1 = Parameters!(t1);
alias r1 = ReturnType!(t1);
static if (i < T.length - 1 && is(r1 == void))
{
static assert(a1.length != 1 || !is(a1[0] == Variant),
"function with arguments " ~ a1.stringof ~
" occludes successive function");
foreach (t2; T[i + 1 .. $])
{
static assert(isFunctionPointer!t2 || isDelegate!t2);
alias a2 = Parameters!(t2);
static assert(!is(a1 == a2),
"function with arguments " ~ a1.stringof ~ " occludes successive function");
}
}
}
}
@property ref ThreadInfo thisInfo() nothrow
{
if (scheduler is null)
return ThreadInfo.thisInfo;
return scheduler.thisInfo;
}
}
static ~this()
{
thisInfo.cleanup();
}
// Exceptions
/**
* Thrown on calls to `receiveOnly` if a message other than the type
* the receiving thread expected is sent.
*/
class MessageMismatch : Exception
{
///
this(string msg = "Unexpected message type") @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
super(msg);
}
}
/**
* Thrown on calls to `receive` if the thread that spawned the receiving
* thread has terminated and no more messages exist.
*/
class OwnerTerminated : Exception
{
///
this(Tid t, string msg = "Owner terminated") @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
super(msg);
tid = t;
}
Tid tid;
}
/**
* Thrown if a linked thread has terminated.
*/
class LinkTerminated : Exception
{
///
this(Tid t, string msg = "Link terminated") @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
super(msg);
tid = t;
}
Tid tid;
}
/**
* Thrown if a message was sent to a thread via
* $(REF prioritySend, std,concurrency) and the receiver does not have a handler
* for a message of this type.
*/
class PriorityMessageException : Exception
{
///
this(Variant vals)
{
super("Priority message");
message = vals;
}
/**
* The message that was sent.
*/
Variant message;
}
/**
* Thrown on mailbox crowding if the mailbox is configured with
* `OnCrowding.throwException`.
*/
class MailboxFull : Exception
{
///
this(Tid t, string msg = "Mailbox full") @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
super(msg);
tid = t;
}
Tid tid;
}
/**
* Thrown when a Tid is missing, e.g. when `ownerTid` doesn't
* find an owner thread.
*/
class TidMissingException : Exception
{
import std.exception : basicExceptionCtors;
///
mixin basicExceptionCtors;
}
// Thread ID
/**
* An opaque type used to represent a logical thread.
*/
struct Tid
{
private:
this(MessageBox m) @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
mbox = m;
}
MessageBox mbox;
public:
/**
* Generate a convenient string for identifying this Tid. This is only
* useful to see if Tid's that are currently executing are the same or
* different, e.g. for logging and debugging. It is potentially possible
* that a Tid executed in the future will have the same toString() output
* as another Tid that has already terminated.
*/
void toString(scope void delegate(const(char)[]) sink)
{
import std.format : formattedWrite;
formattedWrite(sink, "Tid(%x)", cast(void*) mbox);
}
}
@system unittest
{
// text!Tid is @system
import std.conv : text;
Tid tid;
assert(text(tid) == "Tid(0)");
auto tid2 = thisTid;
assert(text(tid2) != "Tid(0)");
auto tid3 = tid2;
assert(text(tid2) == text(tid3));
}
/**
* Returns: The $(LREF Tid) of the caller's thread.
*/
@property Tid thisTid() @safe
{
// TODO: remove when concurrency is safe
static auto trus() @trusted
{
if (thisInfo.ident != Tid.init)
return thisInfo.ident;
thisInfo.ident = Tid(new MessageBox);
return thisInfo.ident;
}
return trus();
}
/**
* Return the Tid of the thread which spawned the caller's thread.
*
* Throws: A `TidMissingException` exception if
* there is no owner thread.
*/
@property Tid ownerTid()
{
import std.exception : enforce;
enforce!TidMissingException(thisInfo.owner.mbox !is null, "Error: Thread has no owner thread.");
return thisInfo.owner;
}
@system unittest
{
import std.exception : assertThrown;
static void fun()
{
string res = receiveOnly!string();
assert(res == "Main calling");
ownerTid.send("Child responding");
}
assertThrown!TidMissingException(ownerTid);
auto child = spawn(&fun);
child.send("Main calling");
string res = receiveOnly!string();
assert(res == "Child responding");
}
// Thread Creation
private template isSpawnable(F, T...)
{
template isParamsImplicitlyConvertible(F1, F2, int i = 0)
{
alias param1 = Parameters!F1;
alias param2 = Parameters!F2;
static if (param1.length != param2.length)
enum isParamsImplicitlyConvertible = false;
else static if (param1.length == i)
enum isParamsImplicitlyConvertible = true;
else static if (isImplicitlyConvertible!(param2[i], param1[i]))
enum isParamsImplicitlyConvertible = isParamsImplicitlyConvertible!(F1,
F2, i + 1);
else
enum isParamsImplicitlyConvertible = false;
}
enum isSpawnable = isCallable!F && is(ReturnType!F == void)
&& isParamsImplicitlyConvertible!(F, void function(T))
&& (isFunctionPointer!F || !hasUnsharedAliasing!F);
}
/**
* Starts fn(args) in a new logical thread.
*
* Executes the supplied function in a new logical thread represented by
* `Tid`. The calling thread is designated as the owner of the new thread.
* When the owner thread terminates an `OwnerTerminated` message will be
* sent to the new thread, causing an `OwnerTerminated` exception to be
* thrown on `receive()`.
*
* Params:
* fn = The function to execute.
* args = Arguments to the function.
*
* Returns:
* A Tid representing the new logical thread.
*
* Notes:
* `args` must not have unshared aliasing. In other words, all arguments
* to `fn` must either be `shared` or `immutable` or have no
* pointer indirection. This is necessary for enforcing isolation among
* threads.
*/
Tid spawn(F, T...)(F fn, T args)
if (isSpawnable!(F, T))
{
static assert(!hasLocalAliasing!(T), "Aliases to mutable thread-local data not allowed.");
return _spawn(false, fn, args);
}
///
@system unittest
{
static void f(string msg)
{
assert(msg == "Hello World");
}
auto tid = spawn(&f, "Hello World");
}
/// Fails: char[] has mutable aliasing.
@system unittest
{
string msg = "Hello, World!";
static void f1(string msg) {}
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(&f1, msg.dup)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(&f1, msg.idup)));
static void f2(char[] msg) {}
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(&f2, msg.dup)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(&f2, msg.idup)));
}
/// New thread with anonymous function
@system unittest
{
spawn({
ownerTid.send("This is so great!");
});
assert(receiveOnly!string == "This is so great!");
}
@system unittest
{
import core.thread : thread_joinAll;
__gshared string receivedMessage;
static void f1(string msg)
{
receivedMessage = msg;
}
auto tid1 = spawn(&f1, "Hello World");
thread_joinAll;
assert(receivedMessage == "Hello World");
}
/**
* Starts fn(args) in a logical thread and will receive a LinkTerminated
* message when the operation terminates.
*
* Executes the supplied function in a new logical thread represented by
* Tid. This new thread is linked to the calling thread so that if either
* it or the calling thread terminates a LinkTerminated message will be sent
* to the other, causing a LinkTerminated exception to be thrown on receive().
* The owner relationship from spawn() is preserved as well, so if the link
* between threads is broken, owner termination will still result in an
* OwnerTerminated exception to be thrown on receive().
*
* Params:
* fn = The function to execute.
* args = Arguments to the function.
*
* Returns:
* A Tid representing the new thread.
*/
Tid spawnLinked(F, T...)(F fn, T args)
if (isSpawnable!(F, T))
{
static assert(!hasLocalAliasing!(T), "Aliases to mutable thread-local data not allowed.");
return _spawn(true, fn, args);
}
/*
*
*/
private Tid _spawn(F, T...)(bool linked, F fn, T args)
if (isSpawnable!(F, T))
{
// TODO: MessageList and &exec should be shared.
auto spawnTid = Tid(new MessageBox);
auto ownerTid = thisTid;
void exec()
{
thisInfo.ident = spawnTid;
thisInfo.owner = ownerTid;
fn(args);
}
// TODO: MessageList and &exec should be shared.
if (scheduler !is null)
scheduler.spawn(&exec);
else
{
auto t = new Thread(&exec);
t.start();
}
thisInfo.links[spawnTid] = linked;
return spawnTid;
}
@system unittest
{
void function() fn1;
void function(int) fn2;
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(fn1)));
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(fn2, 2)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(fn1, 1)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(fn2)));
void delegate(int) shared dg1;
shared(void delegate(int)) dg2;
shared(void delegate(long) shared) dg3;
shared(void delegate(real, int, long) shared) dg4;
void delegate(int) immutable dg5;
void delegate(int) dg6;
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(dg1, 1)));
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(dg2, 2)));
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(dg3, 3)));
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(dg4, 4, 4, 4)));
static assert(__traits(compiles, spawn(dg5, 5)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(dg6, 6)));
auto callable1 = new class{ void opCall(int) shared {} };
auto callable2 = cast(shared) new class{ void opCall(int) shared {} };
auto callable3 = new class{ void opCall(int) immutable {} };
auto callable4 = cast(immutable) new class{ void opCall(int) immutable {} };
auto callable5 = new class{ void opCall(int) {} };
auto callable6 = cast(shared) new class{ void opCall(int) immutable {} };
auto callable7 = cast(immutable) new class{ void opCall(int) shared {} };
auto callable8 = cast(shared) new class{ void opCall(int) const shared {} };
auto callable9 = cast(const shared) new class{ void opCall(int) shared {} };
auto callable10 = cast(const shared) new class{ void opCall(int) const shared {} };
auto callable11 = cast(immutable) new class{ void opCall(int) const shared {} };
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable1, 1)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(callable2, 2)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable3, 3)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(callable4, 4)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable5, 5)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable6, 6)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable7, 7)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(callable8, 8)));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, spawn(callable9, 9)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(callable10, 10)));
static assert( __traits(compiles, spawn(callable11, 11)));
}
/**
* Places the values as a message at the back of tid's message queue.
*
* Sends the supplied value to the thread represented by tid. As with
* $(REF spawn, std,concurrency), `T` must not have unshared aliasing.
*/
void send(T...)(Tid tid, T vals)
{
static assert(!hasLocalAliasing!(T), "Aliases to mutable thread-local data not allowed.");
_send(tid, vals);
}
/**
* Places the values as a message on the front of tid's message queue.
*
* Send a message to `tid` but place it at the front of `tid`'s message
* queue instead of at the back. This function is typically used for
* out-of-band communication, to signal exceptional conditions, etc.
*/
void prioritySend(T...)(Tid tid, T vals)
{
static assert(!hasLocalAliasing!(T), "Aliases to mutable thread-local data not allowed.");
_send(MsgType.priority, tid, vals);
}
/*
* ditto
*/
private void _send(T...)(Tid tid, T vals)
{
_send(MsgType.standard, tid, vals);
}
/*
* Implementation of send. This allows parameter checking to be different for
* both Tid.send() and .send().
*/
private void _send(T...)(MsgType type, Tid tid, T vals)
{
auto msg = Message(type, vals);
tid.mbox.put(msg);
}
/**
* Receives a message from another thread.
*
* Receive a message from another thread, or block if no messages of the
* specified types are available. This function works by pattern matching
* a message against a set of delegates and executing the first match found.
*
* If a delegate that accepts a $(REF Variant, std,variant) is included as
* the last argument to `receive`, it will match any message that was not
* matched by an earlier delegate. If more than one argument is sent,
* the `Variant` will contain a $(REF Tuple, std,typecons) of all values
* sent.
*/
void receive(T...)( T ops )
in
{
assert(thisInfo.ident.mbox !is null,
"Cannot receive a message until a thread was spawned "
~ "or thisTid was passed to a running thread.");
}
do
{
checkops( ops );
thisInfo.ident.mbox.get( ops );
}
///
@system unittest
{
import std.variant : Variant;
auto process = ()
{
receive(
(int i) { ownerTid.send(1); },
(double f) { ownerTid.send(2); },
(Variant v) { ownerTid.send(3); }
);
};
{
auto tid = spawn(process);
send(tid, 42);
assert(receiveOnly!int == 1);
}
{
auto tid = spawn(process);
send(tid, 3.14);
assert(receiveOnly!int == 2);
}
{
auto tid = spawn(process);
send(tid, "something else");
assert(receiveOnly!int == 3);
}
}
@safe unittest
{
static assert( __traits( compiles,
{
receive( (Variant x) {} );
receive( (int x) {}, (Variant x) {} );
} ) );
static assert( !__traits( compiles,
{
receive( (Variant x) {}, (int x) {} );
} ) );
static assert( !__traits( compiles,
{
receive( (int x) {}, (int x) {} );
} ) );
}
// Make sure receive() works with free functions as well.
version (unittest)
{
private void receiveFunction(int x) {}
}
@safe unittest
{
static assert( __traits( compiles,
{
receive( &receiveFunction );
receive( &receiveFunction, (Variant x) {} );
} ) );
}
private template receiveOnlyRet(T...)
{
static if ( T.length == 1 )
{
alias receiveOnlyRet = T[0];
}
else
{
import std.typecons : Tuple;
alias receiveOnlyRet = Tuple!(T);
}
}
/**
* Receives only messages with arguments of types `T`.
*
* Throws: `MessageMismatch` if a message of types other than `T`
* is received.
*
* Returns: The received message. If `T.length` is greater than one,
* the message will be packed into a $(REF Tuple, std,typecons).
*/
receiveOnlyRet!(T) receiveOnly(T...)()
in
{
assert(thisInfo.ident.mbox !is null,
"Cannot receive a message until a thread was spawned or thisTid was passed to a running thread.");
}
do
{
import std.format : format;
import std.typecons : Tuple;
Tuple!(T) ret;
thisInfo.ident.mbox.get((T val) {
static if (T.length)
ret.field = val;
},
(LinkTerminated e) { throw e; },
(OwnerTerminated e) { throw e; },
(Variant val) {
static if (T.length > 1)
string exp = T.stringof;
else
string exp = T[0].stringof;
throw new MessageMismatch(
format("Unexpected message type: expected '%s', got '%s'", exp, val.type.toString()));
});
static if (T.length == 1)
return ret[0];
else
return ret;
}
///
@system unittest
{
auto tid = spawn(
{
assert(receiveOnly!int == 42);
});
send(tid, 42);
}
///
@system unittest
{
auto tid = spawn(
{
assert(receiveOnly!string == "text");
});
send(tid, "text");
}
///
@system unittest
{
struct Record { string name; int age; }
auto tid = spawn(
{
auto msg = receiveOnly!(double, Record);
assert(msg[0] == 0.5);
assert(msg[1].name == "Alice");
assert(msg[1].age == 31);
});
send(tid, 0.5, Record("Alice", 31));
}
@system unittest
{
static void t1(Tid mainTid)
{
try
{
receiveOnly!string();
mainTid.send("");
}
catch (Throwable th)
{
mainTid.send(th.msg);
}
}
auto tid = spawn(&t1, thisTid);
tid.send(1);
string result = receiveOnly!string();
assert(result == "Unexpected message type: expected 'string', got 'int'");
}
/**
* Tries to receive but will give up if no matches arrive within duration.
* Won't wait at all if provided $(REF Duration, core,time) is negative.
*
* Same as `receive` except that rather than wait forever for a message,
* it waits until either it receives a message or the given
* $(REF Duration, core,time) has passed. It returns `true` if it received a
* message and `false` if it timed out waiting for one.
*/
bool receiveTimeout(T...)(Duration duration, T ops)
in
{
assert(thisInfo.ident.mbox !is null,
"Cannot receive a message until a thread was spawned or thisTid was passed to a running thread.");
}
do
{
checkops(ops);
return thisInfo.ident.mbox.get(duration, ops);
}
@safe unittest
{
static assert(__traits(compiles, {
receiveTimeout(msecs(0), (Variant x) {});
receiveTimeout(msecs(0), (int x) {}, (Variant x) {});
}));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, {
receiveTimeout(msecs(0), (Variant x) {}, (int x) {});
}));
static assert(!__traits(compiles, {
receiveTimeout(msecs(0), (int x) {}, (int x) {});
}));
static assert(__traits(compiles, {
receiveTimeout(msecs(10), (int x) {}, (Variant x) {});
}));
}
// MessageBox Limits
/**
* These behaviors may be specified when a mailbox is full.
*/
enum OnCrowding
{
block, /// Wait until room is available.
throwException, /// Throw a MailboxFull exception.
ignore /// Abort the send and return.
}
private
{
bool onCrowdingBlock(Tid tid) @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
return true;
}
bool onCrowdingThrow(Tid tid) @safe pure
{
throw new MailboxFull(tid);
}
bool onCrowdingIgnore(Tid tid) @safe pure nothrow @nogc
{
return false;
}
}
/**
* Sets a maximum mailbox size.
*
* Sets a limit on the maximum number of user messages allowed in the mailbox.
* If this limit is reached, the caller attempting to add a new message will
* execute the behavior specified by doThis. If messages is zero, the mailbox
* is unbounded.
*
* Params:
* tid = The Tid of the thread for which this limit should be set.
* messages = The maximum number of messages or zero if no limit.
* doThis = The behavior executed when a message is sent to a full
* mailbox.
*/
void setMaxMailboxSize(Tid tid, size_t messages, OnCrowding doThis) @safe pure
{
final switch (doThis)
{
case OnCrowding.block:
return tid.mbox.setMaxMsgs(messages, &onCrowdingBlock);
case OnCrowding.throwException:
return tid.mbox.setMaxMsgs(messages, &onCrowdingThrow);
case OnCrowding.ignore:
return tid.mbox.setMaxMsgs(messages, &onCrowdingIgnore);
}
}
/**
* Sets a maximum mailbox size.
*
* Sets a limit on the maximum number of user messages allowed in the mailbox.
* If this limit is reached, the caller attempting to add a new message will
* execute onCrowdingDoThis. If messages is zero, the mailbox is unbounded.
*
* Params:
* tid = The Tid of the thread for which this limit should be set.
* messages = The maximum number of messages or zero if no limit.
* onCrowdingDoThis = The routine called when a message is sent to a full
* mailbox.
*/
void setMaxMailboxSize(Tid tid, size_t messages, bool function(Tid) onCrowdingDoThis)
{
tid.mbox.setMaxMsgs(messages, onCrowdingDoThis);
}
private
{
__gshared Tid[string] tidByName;
__gshared string[][Tid] namesByTid;
}
private @property Mutex registryLock()
{
__gshared Mutex impl;
initOnce!impl(new Mutex);
return impl;
}
private void unregisterMe()
{
auto me = thisInfo.ident;
if (thisInfo.ident != Tid.init)
{
synchronized (registryLock)
{
if (auto allNames = me in namesByTid)
{
foreach (name; *allNames)
tidByName.remove(name);
namesByTid.remove(me);
}
}
}
}
/**
* Associates name with tid.
*
* Associates name with tid in a process-local map. When the thread
* represented by tid terminates, any names associated with it will be
* automatically unregistered.
*
* Params:
* name = The name to associate with tid.
* tid = The tid register by name.
*
* Returns:
* true if the name is available and tid is not known to represent a
* defunct thread.
*/
bool register(string name, Tid tid)
{
synchronized (registryLock)
{
if (name in tidByName)
return false;
if (tid.mbox.isClosed)
return false;
namesByTid[tid] ~= name;
tidByName[name] = tid;
return true;
}
}
/**
* Removes the registered name associated with a tid.
*
* Params:
* name = The name to unregister.
*
* Returns:
* true if the name is registered, false if not.
*/
bool unregister(string name)
{
import std.algorithm.mutation : remove, SwapStrategy;
import std.algorithm.searching : countUntil;
synchronized (registryLock)
{
if (auto tid = name in tidByName)
{
auto allNames = *tid in namesByTid;
auto pos = countUntil(*allNames, name);
remove!(SwapStrategy.unstable)(*allNames, pos);
tidByName.remove(name);
return true;
}
return false;
}
}
/**
* Gets the Tid associated with name.
*
* Params:
* name = The name to locate within the registry.
*
* Returns:
* The associated Tid or Tid.init if name is not registered.
*/
Tid locate(string name)
{
synchronized (registryLock)
{
if (auto tid = name in tidByName)
return *tid;
return Tid.init;
}
}
/**
* Encapsulates all implementation-level data needed for scheduling.
*
* When defining a Scheduler, an instance of this struct must be associated
* with each logical thread. It contains all implementation-level information
* needed by the internal API.
*/
struct ThreadInfo
{
Tid ident;
bool[Tid] links;
Tid owner;
/**
* Gets a thread-local instance of ThreadInfo.
*
* Gets a thread-local instance of ThreadInfo, which should be used as the
* default instance when info is requested for a thread not created by the
* Scheduler.
*/
static @property ref thisInfo() nothrow
{
static ThreadInfo val;
return val;
}
/**
* Cleans up this ThreadInfo.
*
* This must be called when a scheduled thread terminates. It tears down
* the messaging system for the thread and notifies interested parties of
* the thread's termination.
*/
void cleanup()
{
if (ident.mbox !is null)
ident.mbox.close();
foreach (tid; links.keys)
_send(MsgType.linkDead, tid, ident);
if (owner != Tid.init)
_send(MsgType.linkDead, owner, ident);
unregisterMe(); // clean up registry entries
}
}
/**
* A Scheduler controls how threading is performed by spawn.
*
* Implementing a Scheduler allows the concurrency mechanism used by this
* module to be customized according to different needs. By default, a call
* to spawn will create a new kernel thread that executes the supplied routine
* and terminates when finished. But it is possible to create Schedulers that
* reuse threads, that multiplex Fibers (coroutines) across a single thread,
* or any number of other approaches. By making the choice of Scheduler a
* user-level option, std.concurrency may be used for far more types of
* application than if this behavior were predefined.
*
* Example:
* ---
* import std.concurrency;
* import std.stdio;
*
* void main()
* {
* scheduler = new FiberScheduler;
* scheduler.start(
* {
* writeln("the rest of main goes here");
* });
* }
* ---
*
* Some schedulers have a dispatching loop that must run if they are to work
* properly, so for the sake of consistency, when using a scheduler, start()
* must be called within main(). This yields control to the scheduler and
* will ensure that any spawned threads are executed in an expected manner.
*/
interface Scheduler
{
/**
* Spawns the supplied op and starts the Scheduler.
*
* This is intended to be called at the start of the program to yield all
* scheduling to the active Scheduler instance. This is necessary for
* schedulers that explicitly dispatch threads rather than simply relying
* on the operating system to do so, and so start should always be called
* within main() to begin normal program execution.
*
* Params:
* op = A wrapper for whatever the main thread would have done in the
* absence of a custom scheduler. It will be automatically executed
* via a call to spawn by the Scheduler.
*/
void start(void delegate() op);
/**
* Assigns a logical thread to execute the supplied op.
*
* This routine is called by spawn. It is expected to instantiate a new
* logical thread and run the supplied operation. This thread must call
* thisInfo.cleanup() when the thread terminates if the scheduled thread
* is not a kernel thread--all kernel threads will have their ThreadInfo
* cleaned up automatically by a thread-local destructor.
*
* Params:
* op = The function to execute. This may be the actual function passed
* by the user to spawn itself, or may be a wrapper function.
*/
void spawn(void delegate() op);
/**
* Yields execution to another logical thread.
*
* This routine is called at various points within concurrency-aware APIs
* to provide a scheduler a chance to yield execution when using some sort
* of cooperative multithreading model. If this is not appropriate, such
* as when each logical thread is backed by a dedicated kernel thread,
* this routine may be a no-op.
*/
void yield() nothrow;
/**
* Returns an appropriate ThreadInfo instance.
*
* Returns an instance of ThreadInfo specific to the logical thread that
* is calling this routine or, if the calling thread was not create by
* this scheduler, returns ThreadInfo.thisInfo instead.
*/
@property ref ThreadInfo thisInfo() nothrow;
/**
* Creates a Condition variable analog for signaling.
*
* Creates a new Condition variable analog which is used to check for and
* to signal the addition of messages to a thread's message queue. Like
* yield, some schedulers may need to define custom behavior so that calls
* to Condition.wait() yield to another thread when no new messages are
* available instead of blocking.
*
* Params:
* m = The Mutex that will be associated with this condition. It will be
* locked prior to any operation on the condition, and so in some
* cases a Scheduler may need to hold this reference and unlock the
* mutex before yielding execution to another logical thread.
*/
Condition newCondition(Mutex m) nothrow;
}
/**
* An example Scheduler using kernel threads.
*
* This is an example Scheduler that mirrors the default scheduling behavior
* of creating one kernel thread per call to spawn. It is fully functional
* and may be instantiated and used, but is not a necessary part of the
* default functioning of this module.
*/
class ThreadScheduler : Scheduler
{
/**
* This simply runs op directly, since no real scheduling is needed by
* this approach.
*/
void start(void delegate() op)
{
op();
}
/**
* Creates a new kernel thread and assigns it to run the supplied op.
*/
void spawn(void delegate() op)
{
auto t = new Thread(op);
t.start();
}
/**
* This scheduler does no explicit multiplexing, so this is a no-op.
*/
void yield() nothrow
{
// no explicit yield needed
}
/**
* Returns ThreadInfo.thisInfo, since it is a thread-local instance of
* ThreadInfo, which is the correct behavior for this scheduler.
*/
@property ref ThreadInfo thisInfo() nothrow
{
return ThreadInfo.thisInfo;
}
/**
* Creates a new Condition variable. No custom behavior is needed here.
*/
Condition newCondition(Mutex m) nothrow
{
return new Condition(m);
}
}
/**
* An example Scheduler using Fibers.
*
* This is an example scheduler that creates a new Fiber per call to spawn
* and multiplexes the execution of all fibers within the main thread.
*/
class FiberScheduler : Scheduler
{
/**
* This creates a new Fiber for the supplied op and then starts the
* dispatcher.
*/
void start(void delegate() op)
{
create(op);
dispatch();
}
/**
* This created a new Fiber for the supplied op and adds it to the
* dispatch list.
*/
void spawn(void delegate() op) nothrow
{
create(op);
yield();
}
/**
* If the caller is a scheduled Fiber, this yields execution to another
* scheduled Fiber.
*/
void yield() nothrow
{
// NOTE: It's possible that we should test whether the calling Fiber
// is an InfoFiber before yielding, but I think it's reasonable
// that any (non-Generator) fiber should yield here.
if (Fiber.getThis())
Fiber.yield();
}
/**
* Returns an appropriate ThreadInfo instance.
*
* Returns a ThreadInfo instance specific to the calling Fiber if the
* Fiber was created by this dispatcher, otherwise it returns
* ThreadInfo.thisInfo.
*/
@property ref ThreadInfo thisInfo() nothrow
{
auto f = cast(InfoFiber) Fiber.getThis();
if (f !is null)
return f.info;
return ThreadInfo.thisInfo;
}
/**
* Returns a Condition analog that yields when wait or notify is called.
*/
Condition newCondition(Mutex m) nothrow
{
return new FiberCondition(m);
}
private:
static class InfoFiber : Fiber
{
ThreadInfo info;
this(void delegate() op) nothrow
{
super(op);
}
}
class FiberCondition : Condition
{
this(Mutex m) nothrow
{
super(m);
notified = false;
}
override void wait() nothrow
{
scope (exit) notified = false;
while (!notified)
switchContext();
}
override bool wait(Duration period) nothrow
{
import core.time : MonoTime;
scope (exit) notified = false;
for (auto limit = MonoTime.currTime + period;
!notified && !period.isNegative;
period = limit - MonoTime.currTime)
{
yield();
}
return notified;
}
override void notify() nothrow
{
notified = true;
switchContext();
}
override void notifyAll() nothrow
{
notified = true;
switchContext();
}
private:
void switchContext() nothrow
{
mutex_nothrow.unlock_nothrow();
scope (exit) mutex_nothrow.lock_nothrow();
yield();
}
private bool notified;
}
private:
void dispatch()
{
import std.algorithm.mutation : remove;
while (m_fibers.length > 0)
{
auto t = m_fibers[m_pos].call(Fiber.Rethrow.no);
if (t !is null && !(cast(OwnerTerminated) t))
{
throw t;
}
if (m_fibers[m_pos].state == Fiber.State.TERM)
{
if (m_pos >= (m_fibers = remove(m_fibers, m_pos)).length)
m_pos = 0;
}
else if (m_pos++ >= m_fibers.length - 1)
{
m_pos = 0;
}
}
}
void create(void delegate() op) nothrow
{
void wrap()
{
scope (exit)
{
thisInfo.cleanup();
}
op();
}
m_fibers ~= new InfoFiber(&wrap);
}
private:
Fiber[] m_fibers;
size_t m_pos;
}
@system unittest
{
static void receive(Condition cond, ref size_t received)
{
while (true)
{
synchronized (cond.mutex)
{
cond.wait();
++received;
}
}
}
static void send(Condition cond, ref size_t sent)
{
while (true)
{
synchronized (cond.mutex)
{
++sent;
cond.notify();
}
}
}
auto fs = new FiberScheduler;
auto mtx = new Mutex;
auto cond = fs.newCondition(mtx);
size_t received, sent;
auto waiter = new Fiber({ receive(cond, received); }), notifier = new Fiber({ send(cond, sent); });
waiter.call();
assert(received == 0);
notifier.call();
assert(sent == 1);
assert(received == 0);
waiter.call();
assert(received == 1);
waiter.call();
assert(received == 1);
}
/**
* Sets the Scheduler behavior within the program.
*
* This variable sets the Scheduler behavior within this program. Typically,
* when setting a Scheduler, scheduler.start() should be called in main. This
* routine will not return until program execution is complete.
*/
__gshared Scheduler scheduler;
// Generator
/**
* If the caller is a Fiber and is not a Generator, this function will call
* scheduler.yield() or Fiber.yield(), as appropriate.
*/
void yield() nothrow
{
auto fiber = Fiber.getThis();
if (!(cast(IsGenerator) fiber))
{
if (scheduler is null)
{
if (fiber)
return Fiber.yield();
}
else
scheduler.yield();
}
}
/// Used to determine whether a Generator is running.
private interface IsGenerator {}
/**
* A Generator is a Fiber that periodically returns values of type T to the
* caller via yield. This is represented as an InputRange.
*/
class Generator(T) :
Fiber, IsGenerator, InputRange!T
{
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a static
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* fn = The fiber function.
*
* In:
* fn must not be null.
*/
this(void function() fn)
{
super(fn);
call();
}
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a static
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* fn = The fiber function.
* sz = The stack size for this fiber.
*
* In:
* fn must not be null.
*/
this(void function() fn, size_t sz)
{
super(fn, sz);
call();
}
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a static
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* fn = The fiber function.
* sz = The stack size for this fiber.
* guardPageSize = size of the guard page to trap fiber's stack
* overflows. Refer to $(REF Fiber, core,thread)'s
* documentation for more details.
*
* In:
* fn must not be null.
*/
this(void function() fn, size_t sz, size_t guardPageSize)
{
super(fn, sz, guardPageSize);
call();
}
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a dynamic
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* dg = The fiber function.
*
* In:
* dg must not be null.
*/
this(void delegate() dg)
{
super(dg);
call();
}
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a dynamic
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* dg = The fiber function.
* sz = The stack size for this fiber.
*
* In:
* dg must not be null.
*/
this(void delegate() dg, size_t sz)
{
super(dg, sz);
call();
}
/**
* Initializes a generator object which is associated with a dynamic
* D function. The function will be called once to prepare the range
* for iteration.
*
* Params:
* dg = The fiber function.
* sz = The stack size for this fiber.
* guardPageSize = size of the guard page to trap fiber's stack
* overflows. Refer to $(REF Fiber, core,thread)'s
* documentation for more details.
*
* In:
* dg must not be null.
*/
this(void delegate() dg, size_t sz, size_t guardPageSize)
{
super(dg, sz, guardPageSize);
call();
}
/**
* Returns true if the generator is empty.
*/
final bool empty() @property
{
return m_value is null || state == State.TERM;
}
/**
* Obtains the next value from the underlying function.
*/
final void popFront()
{
call();
}
/**
* Returns the most recently generated value by shallow copy.
*/
final T front() @property
{
return *m_value;
}
/**
* Returns the most recently generated value without executing a
* copy contructor. Will not compile for element types defining a
* postblit, because Generator does not return by reference.
*/
final T moveFront()
{
static if (!hasElaborateCopyConstructor!T)
{
return front;
}
else
{
static assert(0,
"Fiber front is always rvalue and thus cannot be moved since it defines a postblit.");
}
}
final int opApply(scope int delegate(T) loopBody)
{
int broken;
for (; !empty; popFront())
{
broken = loopBody(front);
if (broken) break;
}
return broken;
}
final int opApply(scope int delegate(size_t, T) loopBody)
{
int broken;
for (size_t i; !empty; ++i, popFront())
{
broken = loopBody(i, front);
if (broken) break;
}
return broken;
}
private:
T* m_value;
}
///
@system unittest
{
auto tid = spawn({
int i;
while (i < 9)
i = receiveOnly!int;
ownerTid.send(i * 2);
});
auto r = new Generator!int({
foreach (i; 1 .. 10)
yield(i);
});
foreach (e; r)
tid.send(e);
assert(receiveOnly!int == 18);
}
/**
* Yields a value of type T to the caller of the currently executing
* generator.
*
* Params:
* value = The value to yield.
*/
void yield(T)(ref T value)
{
Generator!T cur = cast(Generator!T) Fiber.getThis();
if (cur !is null && cur.state == Fiber.State.EXEC)
{
cur.m_value = &value;
return Fiber.yield();
}
throw new Exception("yield(T) called with no active generator for the supplied type");
}
/// ditto
void yield(T)(T value)
{
yield(value);
}
@system unittest
{
import core.exception;
import std.exception;
static void testScheduler(Scheduler s)
{
scheduler = s;
scheduler.start({
auto tid = spawn({
int i;
try
{
for (i = 1; i < 10; i++)
{
assertNotThrown!AssertError(assert(receiveOnly!int() == i));
}
}
catch (OwnerTerminated e)
{
}
// i will advance 1 past the last value expected
assert(i == 4);
});
auto r = new Generator!int({
assertThrown!Exception(yield(2.0));
yield(); // ensure this is a no-op
yield(1);
yield(); // also once something has been yielded
yield(2);
yield(3);
});
foreach (e; r)
{
tid.send(e);
}
});
scheduler = null;
}
testScheduler(new ThreadScheduler);
testScheduler(new FiberScheduler);
}
///
@system unittest
{
import std.range;
InputRange!int myIota = iota(10).inputRangeObject;
myIota.popFront();
myIota.popFront();
assert(myIota.moveFront == 2);
assert(myIota.front == 2);
myIota.popFront();
assert(myIota.front == 3);
//can be assigned to std.range.interfaces.InputRange directly
myIota = new Generator!int(
{
foreach (i; 0 .. 10) yield(i);
});
myIota.popFront();
myIota.popFront();
assert(myIota.moveFront == 2);
assert(myIota.front == 2);
myIota.popFront();
assert(myIota.front == 3);
size_t[2] counter = [0, 0];
foreach (i, unused; myIota) counter[] += [1, i];
assert(myIota.empty);
assert(counter == [7, 21]);
}
private
{
/*
* A MessageBox is a message queue for one thread. Other threads may send
* messages to this owner by calling put(), and the owner receives them by
* calling get(). The put() call is therefore effectively shared and the
* get() call is effectively local. setMaxMsgs may be used by any thread
* to limit the size of the message queue.
*/
class MessageBox
{
this() @trusted nothrow /* TODO: make @safe after relevant druntime PR gets merged */
{
m_lock = new Mutex;
m_closed = false;
if (scheduler is null)
{
m_putMsg = new Condition(m_lock);
m_notFull = new Condition(m_lock);
}
else
{
m_putMsg = scheduler.newCondition(m_lock);
m_notFull = scheduler.newCondition(m_lock);
}
}
///
final @property bool isClosed() @safe @nogc pure
{
synchronized (m_lock)
{
return m_closed;
}
}
/*
* Sets a limit on the maximum number of user messages allowed in the
* mailbox. If this limit is reached, the caller attempting to add
* a new message will execute call. If num is zero, there is no limit
* on the message queue.
*
* Params:
* num = The maximum size of the queue or zero if the queue is
* unbounded.
* call = The routine to call when the queue is full.
*/
final void setMaxMsgs(size_t num, bool function(Tid) call) @safe @nogc pure
{
synchronized (m_lock)
{
m_maxMsgs = num;
m_onMaxMsgs = call;
}
}
/*
* If maxMsgs is not set, the message is added to the queue and the
* owner is notified. If the queue is full, the message will still be
* accepted if it is a control message, otherwise onCrowdingDoThis is
* called. If the routine returns true, this call will block until
* the owner has made space available in the queue. If it returns
* false, this call will abort.
*
* Params:
* msg = The message to put in the queue.
*
* Throws:
* An exception if the queue is full and onCrowdingDoThis throws.
*/
final void put(ref Message msg)
{
synchronized (m_lock)
{
// TODO: Generate an error here if m_closed is true, or maybe
// put a message in the caller's queue?
if (!m_closed)
{
while (true)
{
if (isPriorityMsg(msg))
{
m_sharedPty.put(msg);
m_putMsg.notify();
return;
}
if (!mboxFull() || isControlMsg(msg))
{
m_sharedBox.put(msg);
m_putMsg.notify();
return;
}
if (m_onMaxMsgs !is null && !m_onMaxMsgs(thisTid))
{
return;
}
m_putQueue++;
m_notFull.wait();
m_putQueue--;
}
}
}
}
/*
* Matches ops against each message in turn until a match is found.
*
* Params:
* ops = The operations to match. Each may return a bool to indicate
* whether a message with a matching type is truly a match.
*
* Returns:
* true if a message was retrieved and false if not (such as if a
* timeout occurred).
*
* Throws:
* LinkTerminated if a linked thread terminated, or OwnerTerminated
* if the owner thread terminates and no existing messages match the
* supplied ops.
*/
bool get(T...)(scope T vals)
{
import std.meta : AliasSeq;
static assert(T.length);
static if (isImplicitlyConvertible!(T[0], Duration))
{
alias Ops = AliasSeq!(T[1 .. $]);
alias ops = vals[1 .. $];
enum timedWait = true;
Duration period = vals[0];
}
else
{
alias Ops = AliasSeq!(T);
alias ops = vals[0 .. $];
enum timedWait = false;
}
bool onStandardMsg(ref Message msg)
{
foreach (i, t; Ops)
{
alias Args = Parameters!(t);
auto op = ops[i];
if (msg.convertsTo!(Args))
{
static if (is(ReturnType!(t) == bool))
{
return msg.map(op);
}
else
{
msg.map(op);
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}
bool onLinkDeadMsg(ref Message msg)
{
assert(msg.convertsTo!(Tid));
auto tid = msg.get!(Tid);
if (bool* pDepends = tid in thisInfo.links)
{
auto depends = *pDepends;
thisInfo.links.remove(tid);
// Give the owner relationship precedence.
if (depends && tid != thisInfo.owner)
{
auto e = new LinkTerminated(tid);
auto m = Message(MsgType.standard, e);
if (onStandardMsg(m))
return true;
throw e;
}
}
if (tid == thisInfo.owner)
{
thisInfo.owner = Tid.init;
auto e = new OwnerTerminated(tid);
auto m = Message(MsgType.standard, e);
if (onStandardMsg(m))
return true;
throw e;
}
return false;
}
bool onControlMsg(ref Message msg)
{
switch (msg.type)
{
case MsgType.linkDead:
return onLinkDeadMsg(msg);
default:
return false;
}
}
bool scan(ref ListT list)
{
for (auto range = list[]; !range.empty;)
{
// Only the message handler will throw, so if this occurs
// we can be certain that the message was handled.
scope (failure)
list.removeAt(range);
if (isControlMsg(range.front))
{
if (onControlMsg(range.front))
{
// Although the linkDead message is a control message,
// it can be handled by the user. Since the linkDead
// message throws if not handled, if we get here then
// it has been handled and we can return from receive.
// This is a weird special case that will have to be
// handled in a more general way if more are added.
if (!isLinkDeadMsg(range.front))
{
list.removeAt(range);
continue;
}
list.removeAt(range);
return true;
}
range.popFront();
continue;
}
else
{
if (onStandardMsg(range.front))
{
list.removeAt(range);
return true;
}
range.popFront();
continue;
}
}
return false;
}
bool pty(ref ListT list)
{
if (!list.empty)
{
auto range = list[];
if (onStandardMsg(range.front))
{
list.removeAt(range);
return true;
}
if (range.front.convertsTo!(Throwable))
throw range.front.get!(Throwable);
else if (range.front.convertsTo!(shared(Throwable)))
throw range.front.get!(shared(Throwable));
else
throw new PriorityMessageException(range.front.data);
}
return false;
}
static if (timedWait)
{
import core.time : MonoTime;
auto limit = MonoTime.currTime + period;
}
while (true)
{
ListT arrived;
if (pty(m_localPty) || scan(m_localBox))
{
return true;
}
yield();
synchronized (m_lock)
{
updateMsgCount();
while (m_sharedPty.empty && m_sharedBox.empty)
{
// NOTE: We're notifying all waiters here instead of just
// a few because the onCrowding behavior may have
// changed and we don't want to block sender threads
// unnecessarily if the new behavior is not to block.
// This will admittedly result in spurious wakeups
// in other situations, but what can you do?
if (m_putQueue && !mboxFull())
m_notFull.notifyAll();
static if (timedWait)
{
if (period <= Duration.zero || !m_putMsg.wait(period))
return false;
}
else
{
m_putMsg.wait();
}
}
m_localPty.put(m_sharedPty);
arrived.put(m_sharedBox);
}
if (m_localPty.empty)
{
scope (exit) m_localBox.put(arrived);
if (scan(arrived))
{
return true;
}
else
{
static if (timedWait)
{
period = limit - MonoTime.currTime;
}
continue;
}
}
m_localBox.put(arrived);
pty(m_localPty);
return true;
}
}
/*
* Called on thread termination. This routine processes any remaining
* control messages, clears out message queues, and sets a flag to
* reject any future messages.
*/
final void close()
{
static void onLinkDeadMsg(ref Message msg)
{
assert(msg.convertsTo!(Tid));
auto tid = msg.get!(Tid);
thisInfo.links.remove(tid);
if (tid == thisInfo.owner)
thisInfo.owner = Tid.init;
}
static void sweep(ref ListT list)
{
for (auto range = list[]; !range.empty; range.popFront())
{
if (range.front.type == MsgType.linkDead)
onLinkDeadMsg(range.front);
}
}
ListT arrived;
sweep(m_localBox);
synchronized (m_lock)
{
arrived.put(m_sharedBox);
m_closed = true;
}
m_localBox.clear();
sweep(arrived);
}
private:
// Routines involving local data only, no lock needed.
bool mboxFull() @safe @nogc pure nothrow
{
return m_maxMsgs && m_maxMsgs <= m_localMsgs + m_sharedBox.length;
}
void updateMsgCount() @safe @nogc pure nothrow
{
m_localMsgs = m_localBox.length;
}
bool isControlMsg(ref Message msg) @safe @nogc pure nothrow
{
return msg.type != MsgType.standard && msg.type != MsgType.priority;
}
bool isPriorityMsg(ref Message msg) @safe @nogc pure nothrow
{
return msg.type == MsgType.priority;
}
bool isLinkDeadMsg(ref Message msg) @safe @nogc pure nothrow
{
return msg.type == MsgType.linkDead;
}
alias OnMaxFn = bool function(Tid);
alias ListT = List!(Message);
ListT m_localBox;
ListT m_localPty;
Mutex m_lock;
Condition m_putMsg;
Condition m_notFull;
size_t m_putQueue;
ListT m_sharedBox;
ListT m_sharedPty;
OnMaxFn m_onMaxMsgs;
size_t m_localMsgs;
size_t m_maxMsgs;
bool m_closed;
}
/*
*
*/
struct List(T)
{
struct Range
{
import std.exception : enforce;
@property bool empty() const
{
return !m_prev.next;
}
@property ref T front()
{
enforce(m_prev.next, "invalid list node");
return m_prev.next.val;
}
@property void front(T val)
{
enforce(m_prev.next, "invalid list node");
m_prev.next.val = val;
}
void popFront()
{
enforce(m_prev.next, "invalid list node");
m_prev = m_prev.next;
}
private this(Node* p)
{
m_prev = p;
}
private Node* m_prev;
}
void put(T val)
{
put(newNode(val));
}
void put(ref List!(T) rhs)
{
if (!rhs.empty)
{
put(rhs.m_first);
while (m_last.next !is null)
{
m_last = m_last.next;
m_count++;
}
rhs.m_first = null;
rhs.m_last = null;
rhs.m_count = 0;
}
}
Range opSlice()
{
return Range(cast(Node*)&m_first);
}
void removeAt(Range r)
{
import std.exception : enforce;
assert(m_count);
Node* n = r.m_prev;
enforce(n && n.next, "attempting to remove invalid list node");
if (m_last is m_first)
m_last = null;
else if (m_last is n.next)
m_last = n; // nocoverage
Node* to_free = n.next;
n.next = n.next.next;
freeNode(to_free);
m_count--;
}
@property size_t length()
{
return m_count;
}
void clear()
{
m_first = m_last = null;
m_count = 0;
}
@property bool empty()
{
return m_first is null;
}
private:
struct Node
{
Node* next;
T val;
this(T v)
{
val = v;
}
}
static shared struct SpinLock
{
void lock() { while (!cas(&locked, false, true)) { Thread.yield(); } }
void unlock() { atomicStore!(MemoryOrder.rel)(locked, false); }
bool locked;
}
static shared SpinLock sm_lock;
static shared Node* sm_head;
Node* newNode(T v)
{
Node* n;
{
sm_lock.lock();
scope (exit) sm_lock.unlock();
if (sm_head)
{
n = cast(Node*) sm_head;
sm_head = sm_head.next;
}
}
if (n)
{
import std.conv : emplace;
emplace!Node(n, v);
}
else
{
n = new Node(v);
}
return n;
}
void freeNode(Node* n)
{
// destroy val to free any owned GC memory
destroy(n.val);
sm_lock.lock();
scope (exit) sm_lock.unlock();
auto sn = cast(shared(Node)*) n;
sn.next = sm_head;
sm_head = sn;
}
void put(Node* n)
{
m_count++;
if (!empty)
{
m_last.next = n;
m_last = n;
return;
}
m_first = n;
m_last = n;
}
Node* m_first;
Node* m_last;
size_t m_count;
}
}
@system unittest
{
import std.typecons : tuple, Tuple;
static void testfn(Tid tid)
{
receive((float val) { assert(0); }, (int val, int val2) {
assert(val == 42 && val2 == 86);
});
receive((Tuple!(int, int) val) { assert(val[0] == 42 && val[1] == 86); });
receive((Variant val) { });
receive((string val) {
if ("the quick brown fox" != val)
return false;
return true;
}, (string val) { assert(false); });
prioritySend(tid, "done");
}
static void runTest(Tid tid)
{
send(tid, 42, 86);
send(tid, tuple(42, 86));
send(tid, "hello", "there");
send(tid, "the quick brown fox");
receive((string val) { assert(val == "done"); });
}
static void simpleTest()
{
auto tid = spawn(&testfn, thisTid);
runTest(tid);
// Run the test again with a limited mailbox size.
tid = spawn(&testfn, thisTid);
setMaxMailboxSize(tid, 2, OnCrowding.block);
runTest(tid);
}
simpleTest();
scheduler = new ThreadScheduler;
simpleTest();
scheduler = null;
}
private @property shared(Mutex) initOnceLock()
{
static shared Mutex lock;
if (auto mtx = atomicLoad!(MemoryOrder.acq)(lock))
return mtx;
auto mtx = new shared Mutex;
if (cas(&lock, cast(shared) null, mtx))
return mtx;
return atomicLoad!(MemoryOrder.acq)(lock);
}
/**
* Initializes $(D_PARAM var) with the lazy $(D_PARAM init) value in a
* thread-safe manner.
*
* The implementation guarantees that all threads simultaneously calling
* initOnce with the same $(D_PARAM var) argument block until $(D_PARAM var) is
* fully initialized. All side-effects of $(D_PARAM init) are globally visible
* afterwards.
*
* Params:
* var = The variable to initialize
* init = The lazy initializer value
*
* Returns:
* A reference to the initialized variable
*/
auto ref initOnce(alias var)(lazy typeof(var) init)
{
return initOnce!var(init, initOnceLock);
}
/// A typical use-case is to perform lazy but thread-safe initialization.
@system unittest
{
static class MySingleton
{
static MySingleton instance()
{
__gshared MySingleton inst;
return initOnce!inst(new MySingleton);
}
}
assert(MySingleton.instance !is null);
}
@system unittest
{
static class MySingleton
{
static MySingleton instance()
{
__gshared MySingleton inst;
return initOnce!inst(new MySingleton);
}
private:
this() { val = ++cnt; }
size_t val;
__gshared size_t cnt;
}
foreach (_; 0 .. 10)
spawn({ ownerTid.send(MySingleton.instance.val); });
foreach (_; 0 .. 10)
assert(receiveOnly!size_t == MySingleton.instance.val);
assert(MySingleton.cnt == 1);
}
/**
* Same as above, but takes a separate mutex instead of sharing one among
* all initOnce instances.
*
* This should be used to avoid dead-locks when the $(D_PARAM init)
* expression waits for the result of another thread that might also
* call initOnce. Use with care.
*
* Params:
* var = The variable to initialize
* init = The lazy initializer value
* mutex = A mutex to prevent race conditions
*
* Returns:
* A reference to the initialized variable
*/
auto ref initOnce(alias var)(lazy typeof(var) init, shared Mutex mutex)
{
// check that var is global, can't take address of a TLS variable
static assert(is(typeof({ __gshared p = &var; })),
"var must be 'static shared' or '__gshared'.");
import core.atomic : atomicLoad, MemoryOrder, atomicStore;
static shared bool flag;
if (!atomicLoad!(MemoryOrder.acq)(flag))
{
synchronized (mutex)
{
if (!atomicLoad!(MemoryOrder.raw)(flag))
{
var = init;
atomicStore!(MemoryOrder.rel)(flag, true);
}
}
}
return var;
}
/// ditto
auto ref initOnce(alias var)(lazy typeof(var) init, Mutex mutex)
{
return initOnce!var(init, cast(shared) mutex);
}
/// Use a separate mutex when init blocks on another thread that might also call initOnce.
@system unittest
{
import core.sync.mutex : Mutex;
static shared bool varA, varB;
static shared Mutex m;
m = new shared Mutex;
spawn({
// use a different mutex for varB to avoid a dead-lock
initOnce!varB(true, m);
ownerTid.send(true);
});
// init depends on the result of the spawned thread
initOnce!varA(receiveOnly!bool);
assert(varA == true);
assert(varB == true);
}
@system unittest
{
static shared bool a;
__gshared bool b;
static bool c;
bool d;
initOnce!a(true);
initOnce!b(true);
static assert(!__traits(compiles, initOnce!c(true))); // TLS
static assert(!__traits(compiles, initOnce!d(true))); // local variable
}
// test ability to send shared arrays
@system unittest
{
static shared int[] x = new shared(int)[1];
auto tid = spawn({
auto arr = receiveOnly!(shared(int)[]);
arr[0] = 5;
ownerTid.send(true);
});
tid.send(x);
receiveOnly!(bool);
assert(x[0] == 5);
}