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// Written in the D programming language.
/**
* Encode and decode Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs).
* URIs are used in internet transfer protocols.
* Valid URI characters consist of letters, digits,
* and the characters $(B ;/?:@&=+$,-_.!~*'())
* Reserved URI characters are $(B ;/?:@&=+$,)
* Escape sequences consist of $(B %) followed by two hex digits.
*
* See_Also:
* $(LINK2 http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt, RFC 3986)<br>
* $(LINK2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_resource_identifier, Wikipedia)
* Copyright: Copyright Digital Mars 2000 - 2009.
* License: $(HTTP www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt, Boost License 1.0).
* Authors: $(HTTP digitalmars.com, Walter Bright)
* Source: $(PHOBOSSRC std/_uri.d)
*/
/* Copyright Digital Mars 2000 - 2009.
* Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
* (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at
* http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
*/
module std.uri;
//debug=uri; // uncomment to turn on debugging writefln's
debug(uri) import std.stdio;
import std.traits : isSomeChar;
/** This Exception is thrown if something goes wrong when encoding or
decoding a URI.
*/
class URIException : Exception
{
import std.exception : basicExceptionCtors;
mixin basicExceptionCtors;
}
private enum
{
URI_Alpha = 1,
URI_Reserved = 2,
URI_Mark = 4,
URI_Digit = 8,
URI_Hash = 0x10, // '#'
}
private immutable char[16] hex2ascii = "0123456789ABCDEF";
private immutable ubyte[128] uri_flags = // indexed by character
({
ubyte[128] uflags;
// Compile time initialize
uflags['#'] |= URI_Hash;
foreach (c; 'A' .. 'Z' + 1)
{
uflags[c] |= URI_Alpha;
uflags[c + 0x20] |= URI_Alpha; // lowercase letters
}
foreach (c; '0' .. '9' + 1) uflags[c] |= URI_Digit;
foreach (c; ";/?:@&=+$,") uflags[c] |= URI_Reserved;
foreach (c; "-_.!~*'()") uflags[c] |= URI_Mark;
return uflags;
})();
private string URI_Encode(dstring str, uint unescapedSet)
{
import core.exception : OutOfMemoryError;
import core.stdc.stdlib : alloca;
uint j;
uint k;
dchar V;
dchar C;
// result buffer
char[50] buffer = void;
char* R;
uint Rlen;
uint Rsize; // alloc'd size
immutable len = str.length;
R = buffer.ptr;
Rsize = buffer.length;
Rlen = 0;
for (k = 0; k != len; k++)
{
C = str[k];
// if (C in unescapedSet)
if (C < uri_flags.length && uri_flags[C] & unescapedSet)
{
if (Rlen == Rsize)
{
char* R2;
Rsize *= 2;
if (Rsize > 1024)
{
R2 = (new char[Rsize]).ptr;
}
else
{
R2 = cast(char *) alloca(Rsize * char.sizeof);
if (!R2)
throw new OutOfMemoryError("Alloca failure");
}
R2[0 .. Rlen] = R[0 .. Rlen];
R = R2;
}
R[Rlen] = cast(char) C;
Rlen++;
}
else
{
char[6] Octet;
uint L;
V = C;
// Transform V into octets
if (V <= 0x7F)
{
Octet[0] = cast(char) V;
L = 1;
}
else if (V <= 0x7FF)
{
Octet[0] = cast(char)(0xC0 | (V >> 6));
Octet[1] = cast(char)(0x80 | (V & 0x3F));
L = 2;
}
else if (V <= 0xFFFF)
{
Octet[0] = cast(char)(0xE0 | (V >> 12));
Octet[1] = cast(char)(0x80 | ((V >> 6) & 0x3F));
Octet[2] = cast(char)(0x80 | (V & 0x3F));
L = 3;
}
else if (V <= 0x1FFFFF)
{
Octet[0] = cast(char)(0xF0 | (V >> 18));
Octet[1] = cast(char)(0x80 | ((V >> 12) & 0x3F));
Octet[2] = cast(char)(0x80 | ((V >> 6) & 0x3F));
Octet[3] = cast(char)(0x80 | (V & 0x3F));
L = 4;
}
else
{
throw new URIException("Undefined UTF-32 code point");
}
if (Rlen + L * 3 > Rsize)
{
char *R2;
Rsize = 2 * (Rlen + L * 3);
if (Rsize > 1024)
{
R2 = (new char[Rsize]).ptr;
}
else
{
R2 = cast(char *) alloca(Rsize * char.sizeof);
if (!R2)
throw new OutOfMemoryError("Alloca failure");
}
R2[0 .. Rlen] = R[0 .. Rlen];
R = R2;
}
for (j = 0; j < L; j++)
{
R[Rlen] = '%';
R[Rlen + 1] = hex2ascii[Octet[j] >> 4];
R[Rlen + 2] = hex2ascii[Octet[j] & 15];
Rlen += 3;
}
}
}
return R[0 .. Rlen].idup;
}
private uint ascii2hex(dchar c) @nogc @safe pure nothrow
{
return (c <= '9') ? c - '0' :
(c <= 'F') ? c - 'A' + 10 :
c - 'a' + 10;
}
private dstring URI_Decode(Char)(in Char[] uri, uint reservedSet)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import core.exception : OutOfMemoryError;
import core.stdc.stdlib : alloca;
import std.ascii : isHexDigit;
uint j;
uint k;
uint V;
dchar C;
// Result array, allocated on stack
dchar* R;
uint Rlen;
immutable len = uri.length;
auto s = uri.ptr;
// Preallocate result buffer R guaranteed to be large enough for result
auto Rsize = len;
if (Rsize > 1024 / dchar.sizeof)
{
R = (new dchar[Rsize]).ptr;
}
else
{
R = cast(dchar *) alloca(Rsize * dchar.sizeof);
if (!R)
throw new OutOfMemoryError("Alloca failure");
}
Rlen = 0;
for (k = 0; k != len; k++)
{
char B;
uint start;
C = s[k];
if (C != '%')
{
R[Rlen] = C;
Rlen++;
continue;
}
start = k;
if (k + 2 >= len)
throw new URIException("Unexpected end of URI");
if (!isHexDigit(s[k + 1]) || !isHexDigit(s[k + 2]))
throw new URIException("Expected two hexadecimal digits after '%'");
B = cast(char)((ascii2hex(s[k + 1]) << 4) + ascii2hex(s[k + 2]));
k += 2;
if ((B & 0x80) == 0)
{
C = B;
}
else
{
uint n;
for (n = 1; ; n++)
{
if (n > 4)
throw new URIException("UTF-32 code point size too large");
if (((B << n) & 0x80) == 0)
{
if (n == 1)
throw new URIException("UTF-32 code point size too small");
break;
}
}
// Pick off (7 - n) significant bits of B from first byte of octet
V = B & ((1 << (7 - n)) - 1); // (!!!)
if (k + (3 * (n - 1)) >= len)
throw new URIException("UTF-32 unaligned String");
for (j = 1; j != n; j++)
{
k++;
if (s[k] != '%')
throw new URIException("Expected: '%'");
if (!isHexDigit(s[k + 1]) || !isHexDigit(s[k + 2]))
throw new URIException("Expected two hexadecimal digits after '%'");
B = cast(char)((ascii2hex(s[k + 1]) << 4) + ascii2hex(s[k + 2]));
if ((B & 0xC0) != 0x80)
throw new URIException("Incorrect UTF-32 multi-byte sequence");
k += 2;
V = (V << 6) | (B & 0x3F);
}
if (V > 0x10FFFF)
throw new URIException("Unknown UTF-32 code point");
C = V;
}
if (C < uri_flags.length && uri_flags[C] & reservedSet)
{
// R ~= s[start .. k + 1];
immutable width = (k + 1) - start;
for (int ii = 0; ii < width; ii++)
R[Rlen + ii] = s[start + ii];
Rlen += width;
}
else
{
R[Rlen] = C;
Rlen++;
}
}
assert(Rlen <= Rsize); // enforce our preallocation size guarantee
// Copy array on stack to array in memory
return R[0 .. Rlen].idup;
}
/*************************************
* Decodes the URI string encodedURI into a UTF-8 string and returns it.
* Escape sequences that resolve to reserved URI characters are not replaced.
* Escape sequences that resolve to the '#' character are not replaced.
*/
string decode(Char)(in Char[] encodedURI)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import std.algorithm.iteration : each;
import std.utf : encode;
auto s = URI_Decode(encodedURI, URI_Reserved | URI_Hash);
char[] r;
s.each!(c => encode(r, c));
return r;
}
/*******************************
* Decodes the URI string encodedURI into a UTF-8 string and returns it. All
* escape sequences are decoded.
*/
string decodeComponent(Char)(in Char[] encodedURIComponent)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import std.algorithm.iteration : each;
import std.utf : encode;
auto s = URI_Decode(encodedURIComponent, 0);
char[] r;
s.each!(c => encode(r, c));
return r;
}
/*****************************
* Encodes the UTF-8 string uri into a URI and returns that URI. Any character
* not a valid URI character is escaped. The '#' character is not escaped.
*/
string encode(Char)(in Char[] uri)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import std.utf : toUTF32;
auto s = toUTF32(uri);
return URI_Encode(s, URI_Reserved | URI_Hash | URI_Alpha | URI_Digit | URI_Mark);
}
/********************************
* Encodes the UTF-8 string uriComponent into a URI and returns that URI.
* Any character not a letter, digit, or one of -_.!~*'() is escaped.
*/
string encodeComponent(Char)(in Char[] uriComponent)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import std.utf : toUTF32;
auto s = toUTF32(uriComponent);
return URI_Encode(s, URI_Alpha | URI_Digit | URI_Mark);
}
/* Encode associative array using www-form-urlencoding
*
* Params:
* values = an associative array containing the values to be encoded.
*
* Returns:
* A string encoded using www-form-urlencoding.
*/
package string urlEncode(in string[string] values)
{
if (values.length == 0)
return "";
import std.array : Appender;
import std.format : formattedWrite;
Appender!string enc;
enc.reserve(values.length * 128);
bool first = true;
foreach (k, v; values)
{
if (!first)
enc.put('&');
formattedWrite(enc, "%s=%s", encodeComponent(k), encodeComponent(v));
first = false;
}
return enc.data;
}
@system unittest
{
// @system because urlEncode -> encodeComponent -> URI_Encode
// URI_Encode uses alloca and pointer slicing
string[string] a;
assert(urlEncode(a) == "");
assert(urlEncode(["name1" : "value1"]) == "name1=value1");
assert(urlEncode(["name1" : "value1", "name2" : "value2"]) == "name1=value1&name2=value2");
}
/***************************
* Does string s[] start with a URL?
* Returns:
* -1 it does not
* len it does, and s[0 .. len] is the slice of s[] that is that URL
*/
ptrdiff_t uriLength(Char)(in Char[] s)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
/* Must start with one of:
* http://
* https://
* www.
*/
import std.ascii : isAlphaNum;
import std.uni : icmp;
ptrdiff_t i;
if (s.length <= 4)
return -1;
if (s.length > 7 && icmp(s[0 .. 7], "http://") == 0)
{
i = 7;
}
else
{
if (s.length > 8 && icmp(s[0 .. 8], "https://") == 0)
i = 8;
else
return -1;
}
ptrdiff_t lastdot;
for (; i < s.length; i++)
{
auto c = s[i];
if (isAlphaNum(c))
continue;
if (c == '-' || c == '_' || c == '?' ||
c == '=' || c == '%' || c == '&' ||
c == '/' || c == '+' || c == '#' ||
c == '~' || c == '$')
continue;
if (c == '.')
{
lastdot = i;
continue;
}
break;
}
if (!lastdot)
return -1;
return i;
}
///
@safe unittest
{
string s1 = "http://www.digitalmars.com/~fred/fredsRX.html#foo end!";
assert(uriLength(s1) == 49);
string s2 = "no uri here";
assert(uriLength(s2) == -1);
assert(uriLength("issue 14924") < 0);
}
/***************************
* Does string s[] start with an email address?
* Returns:
* -1 it does not
* len it does, and s[0 .. i] is the slice of s[] that is that email address
* References:
* RFC2822
*/
ptrdiff_t emailLength(Char)(in Char[] s)
if (isSomeChar!Char)
{
import std.ascii : isAlpha, isAlphaNum;
ptrdiff_t i;
if (!isAlpha(s[0]))
return -1;
for (i = 1; 1; i++)
{
if (i == s.length)
return -1;
auto c = s[i];
if (isAlphaNum(c))
continue;
if (c == '-' || c == '_' || c == '.')
continue;
if (c != '@')
return -1;
i++;
break;
}
/* Now do the part past the '@'
*/
ptrdiff_t lastdot;
for (; i < s.length; i++)
{
auto c = s[i];
if (isAlphaNum(c))
continue;
if (c == '-' || c == '_')
continue;
if (c == '.')
{
lastdot = i;
continue;
}
break;
}
if (!lastdot || (i - lastdot != 3 && i - lastdot != 4))
return -1;
return i;
}
///
@safe unittest
{
string s1 = "my.e-mail@www.example-domain.com with garbage added";
assert(emailLength(s1) == 32);
string s2 = "no email address here";
assert(emailLength(s2) == -1);
assert(emailLength("issue 14924") < 0);
}
@system unittest
{
//@system because of encode -> URI_Encode
debug(uri) writeln("uri.encodeURI.unittest");
string source = "http://www.digitalmars.com/~fred/fred's RX.html#foo";
string target = "http://www.digitalmars.com/~fred/fred's%20RX.html#foo";
auto result = encode(source);
debug(uri) writefln("result = '%s'", result);
assert(result == target);
result = decode(target);
debug(uri) writefln("result = '%s'", result);
assert(result == source);
result = encode(decode("%E3%81%82%E3%81%82"));
assert(result == "%E3%81%82%E3%81%82");
result = encodeComponent("c++");
assert(result == "c%2B%2B");
auto str = new char[10_000_000];
str[] = 'A';
result = encodeComponent(str);
foreach (char c; result)
assert(c == 'A');
result = decode("%41%42%43");
debug(uri) writeln(result);
import std.meta : AliasSeq;
foreach (StringType; AliasSeq!(char[], wchar[], dchar[], string, wstring, dstring))
{
import std.conv : to;
StringType decoded1 = source.to!StringType;
string encoded1 = encode(decoded1);
assert(decoded1 == source.to!StringType); // check that `decoded1` wasn't changed
assert(encoded1 == target);
assert(decoded1 == decode(encoded1).to!StringType);
StringType encoded2 = target.to!StringType;
string decoded2 = decode(encoded2);
assert(encoded2 == target.to!StringType); // check that `encoded2` wasn't changed
assert(decoded2 == source);
assert(encoded2 == encode(decoded2).to!StringType);
}
}