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% Pandoc User's Guide
% John MacFarlane
% March 20, 2010


pandoc [*options*] [*input-file*]...


Pandoc is a [Haskell] library for converting from one markup format to
another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read
[markdown] and (subsets of) [Textile], [reStructuredText], [HTML],
and [LaTeX]; and it can write plain text, [markdown], [reStructuredText],
[HTML], [LaTeX], [ConTeXt], [RTF], [DocBook XML], [OpenDocument XML], [ODT],
[GNU Texinfo], [MediaWiki markup], [EPUB], [Textile], [groff man] pages,
[Emacs Org-Mode], and [Slidy] or [S5] HTML slide shows.

Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes,
tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, delimited code blocks,
superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables of
contents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and markdown inside HTML block
elements. (These enhancements, described below under [Pandoc's markdown
vs. standard markdown](#pandocs-markdown-vs.-standard-markdown),
can be disabled using the `--strict` option.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which
use regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a
set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native
representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert
this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input
or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.

Using Pandoc

If no *input-file* is specified, input is read from *stdin*.
Otherwise, the *input-files* are concatenated (with a blank
line between each) and used as input.  Output goes to *stdout* by
default (though output to *stdout* is disabled for the `odt` and
`epub` output formats).  For output to a file, use the `-o` option:

    pandoc -o output.html input.txt

Instead of a file, an absolute URI may be given.  In this case
pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:

    pandoc -f html -t markdown

If multiple input files are given, `pandoc` will concatenate them all (with
blank lines between them) before parsing.

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using
command-line options.  The input format can be specified using the
`-r/--read` or `-f/--from` options, the output format using the
`-w/--write` or `-t/--to` options.  Thus, to convert `hello.txt` from
markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

    pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert `hello.html` from html to markdown:

    pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported output formats are listed below under the `-t/--to` option.
Supported input formats are listed below under the `-f/--from` option. Note
that the `rst`, `textile`, `latex`, and `html` readers are not complete;
there are some constructs that they do not parse.

If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, `pandoc`
will attempt to guess it from the extensions of
the input and output filenames.  Thus, for example,

    pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert `hello.txt` from markdown to LaTeX.  If no output file
is specified (so that output goes to *stdout*), or if the output file's
extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML.
If no input file is specified (so that input comes from *stdin*), or
if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will
be assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified.

Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output.
If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you
should pipe input and output through `iconv`:

    iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8



The standard Pandoc installation includes `markdown2pdf`, a wrapper
around `pandoc` and `pdflatex` that produces PDFs directly from markdown
sources. The default behavior of `markdown2pdf` is to create a file with
the same base name as the first argument and the extension `pdf`; thus,
for example,

    markdown2pdf sample.txt endnotes.txt

will produce `sample.pdf`.  (If `sample.pdf` exists already,
it will be backed up before being overwritten.)  An output file
name can be specified explicitly using the `-o` option:

    markdown2pdf -o book.pdf chap1 chap2

If no input file is specified, input will be taken from *stdin*.
All of `pandoc`'s options will work with `markdown2pdf` as well.

`markdown2pdf` assumes that `pdflatex` is in the path.  It also
assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available:
`unicode`, `fancyhdr` (if you have verbatim text in footnotes),
`graphicx` (if you use images), `array` (if you use tables),
and `ulem` (if you use strikeout text).  If they are not already
included in your LaTeX distribution, you can get them from
[CTAN]. A full [TeX Live] or [MacTeX] distribution will have all of
these packages.


A user who wants a drop-in replacement for `` may create
a symbolic link to the `pandoc` executable called `hsmarkdown`. When
invoked under the name `hsmarkdown`, `pandoc` will behave as if the
`--strict` flag had been selected, and no command-line options will be
recognized. However, this approach does not work under Cygwin, due to
problems with its simulation of symbolic links.

[CTAN]: "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network"
[TeX Live]:


`-f` *FORMAT*, `-r` *FORMAT*, `--from=`*FORMAT*, `--read=`*FORMAT*
:   Specify input format.  *FORMAT* can be `native` (native Haskell),
    `json` (JSON version of native AST), `markdown` (markdown),
    `textile` (Textile), `rst` (reStructuredText), `html` (HTML),
    or `latex` (LaTeX).  If `+lhs` is appended to `markdown`, `rst`,
    or `latex`, the input will be treated as literate Haskell source:
    see [Literate Haskell support](#literate-haskell-support),

`-t` *FORMAT*, `-w` *FORMAT*, `--to=`*FORMAT*, `--write=`*FORMAT*
:   Specify output format.  *FORMAT* can be `native` (native Haskell),
    `json` (JSON version of native AST), `plain` (plain text),
    `markdown` (markdown), `rst` (reStructuredText),
    `html` (HTML), `latex` (LaTeX), `context` (ConTeXt), `man` (groff man), 
    `mediawiki` (MediaWiki markup), `textile` (Textile), `org` (Emacs
    Org-Mode), `texinfo` (GNU Texinfo), `docbook` (DocBook XML),
    `opendocument` (OpenDocument XML), `odt` (OpenOffice text document),
    `epub` (EPUB book), `slidy` (Slidy HTML and javascript slide show),
    `s5` (S5 HTML and javascript slide show), or `rtf` (rich text
    format). Note that `odt` and `epub` output will not be directed to
    *stdout*; an output filename must be specified using the `-o/--output`
    option.  If `+lhs` is appended to `markdown`, `rst`, `latex`, or `html`,
    the output will be rendered as literate Haskell source:
    see [Literate Haskell support](#literate-haskell-support),

`-s`, `--standalone`
:   Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a
    standalone HTML, LaTeX, or RTF file, not a fragment).

`-o` *FILE*, `--output=`*FILE*
:   Write output to *FILE* instead of *stdout*.  If *FILE* is
    `-`, output will go to *stdout*.  (Exception: if the output
    format is `odt` or `epub`, output to stdout is disabled.)

`-p`, `--preserve-tabs`
:   Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default).

:   Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).

:   Use strict markdown syntax, with no pandoc extensions or variants.
    When the input format is HTML, this means that constructs that have no
    equivalents in standard markdown (e.g. definition lists or strikeout
    text) will be parsed as raw HTML.

:   Normalize the document after reading:  merge adjacent
    `Str` or `Emph` elements, for example, and remove repeated `Space`s.

:   Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing markdown
    or reStructuredText.  By default inline links are used.

`-R`, `--parse-raw`
:   Parse untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments as raw HTML
    or LaTeX, instead of ignoring them.  Affects only HTML and LaTeX
    input. Raw HTML can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, Slidy,
    and S5 output; raw LaTeX can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText,
    LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit
    untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader
    does pass through untranslatable LaTeX *commands*, even if `-R` is not

`-S`, `--smart`
:   Produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes
    to curly quotes, `---` and `--` to dashes, ande `...` to ellipses.
    Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such
    as "Mr." (Note: This option is significant only when the input format is
    `markdown` or `textile`.  It is selected automatically when the input
    format is `textile` or the output format is `latex` or `context`.)

`-5`, `--html5`
:   Produce HTML5 instead of HTML4.  This option has no effect for writers
    other than `html`.

`-m` *URL*, `--latexmathml=`*URL*
:   Use the [LaTeXMathML] script to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.
    To insert a link to a local copy of the `LaTeXMathML.js` script,
    provide a *URL*. If no *URL* is provided, the contents of the
    script will be inserted directly into the HTML header, preserving
    portability at the price of efficiency. If you plan to use math on
    several pages, it is much better to link to a copy of the script,
    so it can be cached.

:   Convert TeX math to MathML.  In standalone mode, a small javascript
    will be inserted that allows the MathML to be viewed on some browsers.

:   Use [jsMath] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.
    The *URL* should point to the jsMath load script (e.g.
    `jsMath/easy/load.js`); if provided, it will be linked to in
    the header of standalone HTML documents.

:   Use [MathJax] to display embedded TeX math in HTML output.
    The *URL* should point to the `MathJax.js` load script.

:   Enclose TeX math in `<eq>` tags in HTML output.  These can then
    be processed by [gladTeX] to produce links to images of the typeset

:   Render TeX math using the [mimeTeX] CGI script.  If *URL* is not
    specified, it is assumed that the script is at `/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi`.

:   Render TeX formulas using an external script that converts TeX
    formulas to images. The formula will be concatenated with the URL
    provided. If *URL* is not specified, the Google Chart API will be used.

`-i`, `--incremental`
:   Make list items in Slidy or S5 display incrementally (one by one).
    The default is for lists to be displayed all at once.

:   Include all the CSS and javascript needed for a Slidy or S5 slide
    show in the output, so that the slide show will work even when no
    internet connection is available.

:   Create LaTeX outut suitable for processing by XeTeX.

:   Treat top-level headers as chapters in LaTeX, ConTeXt, and DocBook

`-N`, `--number-sections`
:   Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, or HTML output.
    By default, sections are not numbered.

:   Wrap sections in `<div>` tags (or `<section>` tags in HTML5),
    and attach identifiers to the enclosing `<div>` (or `<section>`)
    rather than the header itself.
    See [Section identifiers](#automatic-identifiers-in-html), below.

:   Disable text wrapping in output. By default, text is wrapped
    appropriately for the output format.

:   Specify length of lines in characters (for text wrapping).

:   Specify a method for obfuscating `mailto:` links in HTML documents.
    *none* leaves `mailto:` links as they are.  *javascript* obfuscates
    them using javascript. *references* obfuscates them by printing their
    letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references.
    If `--strict` is specified, *references* is used regardless of the
    presence of this option.

:   Specify a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers
    in HTML output.  This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers
    when generating fragments to be included in other pages.

:   Specify classes to use for indented code blocks--for example,
    `perl,numberLines` or `haskell`. Multiple classes may be separated
    by spaces or commas.

`--toc`, `--table-of-contents`
:   Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in
    the case of `latex`, `context`, and `rst`, an instruction to create
    one) in the output document. This option has no effect on `man`,
    `docbook`, `slidy`, or `s5` output.

:   Specify the base level for headers (defaults to 1).

:   Use *FILE* as a custom template for the generated document. Implies
    `--standalone`. See [Templates](#templates) below for a description
    of template syntax. If this option is not used, a default
    template appropriate for the output format will be used. See also

`-V` *KEY=VAL*, `--variable=`*KEY:VAL*
:   Set the template variable *KEY* to the value *VAL* when rendering the
    document in standalone mode. This is only useful when the
    `--template` option is used to specify a custom template, since
    pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default

`-c` *URL*, `--css=`*URL*
:   Link to a CSS style sheet.

`-H` *FILE*, `--include-in-header=`*FILE*
:   Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the header.
    This can be used, for example, to include special
    CSS or javascript in HTML documents.  This option can be used
    repeatedly to include multiple files in the header.  They will be
    included in the order specified.  Implies `--standalone`.

`-B` *FILE*, `--include-before-body=`*FILE*
:   Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the beginning of the
    document body (e.g. after the `<body>` tag in HTML, or the
    `\begin{document}` command in LaTeX). This can be used to include
    navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be
    used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in
    the order specified.  Implies `--standalone`.

`-A` *FILE*, `--include-after-body=`*FILE*
:   Include contents of *FILE*, verbatim, at the end of the document
    body (before the `</body>` tag in HTML, or the
    `\end{document}` command in LaTeX). This option can be be used
    repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the
    order specified.  Implies `--standalone`.

:   Use the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT.
    For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version
    of an ODT produced using pandoc.  The contents of the reference ODT
    are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no
    reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look
    for a file `reference.odt` in the user data directory (see
    `--data-dir`). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be

:   Use the specified CSS file to style the EPUB.  If no stylesheet
    is specified, pandoc will look for a file `epub.css` in the
    user data directory (see `--data-dir`, below).  If it is not
    found there, sensible defaults will be used.

:   Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB.
    The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements,
    as documented at <>.
    For example:

         <dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>

    By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements:
    `<dc:title>` (from the document title), `<dc:creator>` (from the
    document authors), `<dc:language>` (from the locale), and
    `<dc:identifier id="BookId">` (a randomly generated UUID). Any of
    these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.

`-D` *FORMAT*, `--print-default-template=`*FORMAT*
:   Print the default template for an output *FORMAT*. (See `-t`
    for a list of possible *FORMAT*s.)

`-T` *STRING*, `--title-prefix=`*STRING*
:   Specify *STRING* as a prefix at the beginning of the title
    that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it
    appears at the beginning of the HTML body).  Implies

:   Specify bibliography database to be used in resolving
    citations. The database type will be determined from the
    extension of *FILE*, which may be `.mods` (MODS format),
    `.bib` (BibTeX format), `.bbx` (BibLaTeX format),
    `.ris` (RIS format), `.enl` (EndNote format),
    `.xml` (EndNote XML format), `.wos` (ISI format),
    `.medline` (MEDLINE format), `.copac` (Copac format),
    or `.json` (citeproc JSON).  If you want to use multiple
    bibliographies, just use this option repeatedly.

:   Specify [CSL] style to be used in formatting citations and
    the bibliography. If *FILE* is not found, pandoc will look
    for it in


    in unix and

        C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\csl

    in Windows. If the `--csl` option is not specified, pandoc
    will use a default style:  either `default.csl` in the
    user data directory (see `--data-dir`), or, if that is
    not present, the Chicago author-date style.

:   Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files.
    If this option is not specified, the default user data directory
    will be used:


    in unix and

        C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc

    in Windows. A `reference.odt`, `epub.css`, `templates` directory,
    or `s5` directory placed in this directory will override pandoc's
    normal defaults.

:   Print information about command-line arguments to *stdout*, then exit.
    This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts.
    The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified
    with the `-o` option, or `-` (for *stdout*) if no output file was
    specified.  The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments,
    one per line, in the order they appear.  These do not include regular
    Pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing
    after a `--` separator at the end of the line.

:   Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts).
    Regular Pandoc options are not ignored.  Thus, for example,

        pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

    is equivalent to

        pandoc -o foo.html -s

`-v`, `--version`
:   Print version.

`-h`, `--help`
:   Show usage message.



When the `-s/--standalone` option is used, pandoc uses a template to
add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing
document.  To see the default template that is used, just type

    pandoc -D FORMAT

where `FORMAT` is the name of the output format. A custom template
can be specified using the `--template` option.  You can also override
the system default templates for a given output format `FORMAT`
by putting a file `templates/FORMAT.template` in the user data
directory (see `--data-dir`, above).

Templates may contain *variables*.  Variable names are sequences of
alphanumerics, `-`, and `_`, starting with a letter.  A variable name
surrounded by `$` signs will be replaced by its value.  For example,
the string `$title$` in


will be replaced by the document title.

To write a literal `$` in a template, use `$$`.

Some variables are set automatically by pandoc.  These vary somewhat
depending on the output format, but include:

:   contents specified by `-H/--include-in-header` (may have multiple
:   non-null value if `--toc/--table-of-contents` was specified
:   contents specified by `-B/--include-before-body` (may have
    multiple values)
:   contents specified by `-A/--include-after-body` (may have
    multiple values)
:   body of document
:   title of document, as specified in title block
:   author of document, as specified in title block (may have
    multiple values)
:   date of document, as specified in title block
:   language code for HTML documents

Variables may be set at the command line using the `-V/--variable`
option. This allows users to include custom variables in their

Templates may contain conditionals.  The syntax is as follows:


This will include `X` in the template if `variable` has a non-null
value; otherwise it will include `Y`. `X` and `Y` are placeholders for
any valid template text, and may include interpolated variables or other
conditionals. The `$else$` section may be omitted.

When variables can have multiple values (for example, `author` in
a multi-author document), you can use the `$for$` keyword:

    <meta name="author" content="$author$" />

You can optionally specify a separator to be used between
consecutive items:

    $for(author)$$author$$sep$, $endfor$

Pandoc's markdown vs. standard markdown

In parsing markdown, Pandoc departs from and extends [standard markdown]
in a few respects.  Except where noted, these differences can
be suppressed by specifying the `--strict` command-line option.

[standard markdown]:
  "Markdown syntax description"

Backslash escapes

Except inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space
character preceded by a backslash will be treated literally, even if it
would normally indicate formatting.  Thus, for example, if one writes


one will get


instead of


This rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule,
which allows only the following characters to be backslash-escaped:


A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space.  It will
appear in TeX output as `~` and in HTML and XML as `\&#160;` or

A backslash-escaped newline (i.e. a backslash occurring at the end of
a line) is parsed as a hard line break.  It will appear in TeX output as
`\\` and in HTML as `<br />`.  This is a nice alternative to
markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using
two trailing spaces on a line.

Subscripts and superscripts

Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by `^`
characters; subscripts may be written by surrounding the subscripted
text by `~` characters.  Thus, for example,

    H~2~O is a liquid.  2^10^ is 1024.

If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these spaces
must be escaped with backslashes.  (This is to prevent accidental
superscripting and subscripting through the ordinary use of `~` and `^`.)
Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat' in subscripts, use
`P~a\ cat~`, not `P~a cat~`.


To strikeout a section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it
with `~~`. Thus, for example,

    This ~~is deleted text.~~

Nested Lists

Pandoc behaves differently from standard markdown on some "edge
cases" involving lists.  Consider this source: 

    1.  First
    2.  Second:
    	-   Fee
    	-   Fie
    	-   Foe

    3.  Third

Pandoc transforms this into a "compact list" (with no `<p>` tags around
"First", "Second", or "Third"), while markdown puts `<p>` tags around
"Second" and "Third" (but not "First"), because of the blank space
around "Third". Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is followed by
a blank line, it is treated as a paragraph. Since "Second" is followed
by a list, and not a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph. The
fact that the list is followed by a blank line is irrelevant. (Note:
Pandoc works this way even when the `--strict` option is specified. This
behavior is consistent with the official markdown syntax description,
even though it is different from that of ``.)

Ordered Lists

Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked
with uppercase and lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to
arabic numerals. (This behavior can be turned off using the `--strict`
option.) List markers may be enclosed in parentheses or followed by a
single right-parentheses or period. They must be separated from the
text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker is a
capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[^2]

[^2]:  The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs
    starting with people's initials, like

        B. Russell was an English philosopher.

    do not get treated as list items.

    This rule will not prevent

        (C) 2007 Joe Smith

    from being interpreted as a list item.  In this case, a backslash
    escape can be used:

        (C\) 2007 Joe Smith

Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to the
starting number, and both of these are preserved where possible in the
output format. Thus, the following yields a list with numbers followed
by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and a sublist with lowercase
roman numerals:

     9)  Ninth
    10)  Tenth
    11)  Eleventh
           i. subone
          ii. subtwo
         iii. subthree

Note that Pandoc pays attention only to the *starting* marker in a list.
So, the following yields a list numbered sequentially starting from 2:

    (2) Two
    (5) Three
    1.  Four
    *   Five

If default list markers are desired, use `#.`:

    #.  one
    #.  two
    #.  three

Numbered examples

The special list marker `@` can be used for sequentially numbered
examples. The first list item with a `@` marker will be numbered '1',
the next '2', and so on, throughout the document. The numbered examples
need not occur in a single list; each new list using `@` will take up
where the last stopped. So, for example:

    (@)  My first example will be numbered (1).
    (@)  My second example will be numbered (2).

    Explanation of examples.

    (@)  My third example will be numbered (3).

Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in the

    (@good)  This is a good example.

    As (@good) illustrates, ...

The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores,
or hyphens.

Definition lists

Pandoc supports definition lists, using a syntax inspired by
[PHP Markdown Extra] and [reStructuredText]:[^3]

    Term 1

    :   Definition 1

    Term 2 with *inline markup*

    :   Definition 2

            { some code, part of Definition 2 }

        Third paragraph of definition 2.

Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by
a blank line, and must be followed by one or more definitions.
A definition begins with a colon or tilde, which may be indented one
or two spaces. A term may have multiple definitions, and each definition
may consist of one or more block elements (paragraph, code block, list,
etc.), each indented four spaces or one tab stop.

If you leave space after the definition (as in the example above),
the blocks of the definitions will be considered paragraphs. In some
output formats, this will mean greater spacing between term/definition
pairs. For a compact definition list, do not leave space between the
definition and the next term:

    Term 1
      ~ Definition 1
    Term 2
      ~ Definition 2a
      ~ Definition 2b

[^3]:  I have also been influenced by the suggestions of [David Wheeler](

[PHP Markdown Extra]:

Reference links

Pandoc allows implicit reference links with just a single set of
brackets.  So, the following links are equivalent:

    1. Here's my [link]
    2. Here's my [link][]


(Note:  Pandoc works this way even if `--strict` is specified, because
`` 1.0.2b7 allows single-bracket links.)


Pandoc's markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax:

    Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote]

    [^1]: Here is the footnote.

    [^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks.

        Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they 
    belong to the previous footnote.

            { some.code }

        The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first
        line.  In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like
        multi-paragraph list items.

    This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it isn't indented.

The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs,
or newlines.  These identifiers are used only to correlate the
footnote reference with the note itself; in the output, footnotes
will be numbered sequentially.

The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the
document.  They may appear anywhere except inside other block elements
(lists, block quotes, tables, etc.).

Inline footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes,
they cannot contain multiple paragraphs).  The syntax is as follows:

    Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since
    you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the

Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely.


Three kinds of tables may be used. All three kinds presuppose the use of
a fixed-width font, such as Courier.

**Simple tables** look like this:

      Right     Left     Center     Default
    -------     ------ ----------   -------
         12     12        12            12
        123     123       123          123
          1     1          1             1

    Table:  Demonstration of simple table syntax.

The headers and table rows must each fit on one line.  Column
alignments are determined by the position of the header text relative
to the dashed line below it:[^4]

  - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side
    but extends beyond it on the left, the column is right-aligned.
  - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side 
    but extends beyond it on the right, the column is left-aligned.
  - If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides,
    the column is centered.
  - If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides,
    the default alignment is used (in most cases, this will be left).

[^4]:  This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the
       [Markdown discussion list](

The table must end with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by
a blank line. A caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated in
the example above). A caption is a paragraph beginning with the string
`Table:` (or just `:`), which will be stripped off. It may appear either
before or after the table.  If a caption is provided, in HTML output
the table will be assigned an `id` attribute based on the caption (see
[Automatic identifiers in HTML](#automatic-identifiers-in-html).

The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used
to end the table. For example:

    -------     ------ ----------   -------
         12     12        12             12
        123     123       123           123
          1     1          1              1
    -------     ------ ----------   -------

When headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis
of the first line of the table body. So, in the tables above, the columns
would be right, left, center, and right aligned, respectively.

**Multiline tables** allow headers and table rows to span multiple lines
of text (but cells that span multiple columns or rows of the table are
not supported).  Here is an example:

     Centered   Default           Right Left
      Header    Aligned         Aligned Aligned
    ----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
       First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
                                        spans multiple lines.

      Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
                                        the blank line between

    Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span
    multiple lines.

These work like simple tables, but with the following differences:

  - They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text
    (unless the headers are omitted).
  - They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line.
  - The rows must be separated by blank lines.

In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of
the columns, and the writers try to reproduce these relative widths in
the output. So, if you find that one of the columns is too narrow in the
output, try widening it in the markdown source.

Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables:

    ----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
       First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
                                        spans multiple lines.

      Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
                                        the blank line between

    : Here's a multiline table without headers.

It is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row
should be followed by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends
the table), or the table may be interpreted as a simple table.

**Grid tables** look like this:

    : Sample grid table.
    | Fruit         | Price         | Advantages         |
    | Bananas       | $1.34         | - built-in wrapper |
    |               |               | - bright color     |
    | Oranges       | $2.10         | - cures scurvy     |
    |               |               | - tasty            |

The row of `=`s separates the header from the table body, and can be
omitted for a headerless table. The cells of grid tables may contain
arbitrary block elements (multiple paragraphs, code blocks, lists,
etc.). Alignments are not supported, nor are cells that span multiple
columns or rows. Grid tables can be created easily using [Emacs table mode].

  [Emacs table mode]:

Delimited Code blocks

In addition to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports
*delimited* code blocks.  These begin with a row of three or more
tildes (`~`) and end with a row of tildes that must be at least
as long as the starting row.  Everything between the tilde-lines
is treated as code.  No indentation is necessary:

    {code here}

Like regular code blocks, delimited code blocks must be separated
from surrounding text by blank lines.

If the code itself contains a row of tildes, just use a longer
row of tildes at the start and end:

    code including tildes

Optionally, you may specify the language of the code block using
this syntax:

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ {.haskell .numberLines}
    qsort []     = []
    qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++
                   qsort (filter (>= x) xs) 

Some output formats can use this information to do syntax highlighting.
Currently, the only output format that uses this information is HTML.

If pandoc has been compiled with syntax highlighting support, then the
code block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines.  (To see
which languages are supported, do `pandoc --version`.)

If pandoc has not been compiled with syntax highlighting support, the
code block above will appear as follows:

    <pre class="haskell">

Images with captions

An image occurring by itself in a paragraph will be rendered as
a figure with a caption.[^5] (In LaTeX, a figure environment will be
used; in HTML, the image will be placed in a `div` with class
`figure`, together with a caption in a `p` with class `caption`.)

    ![This is the caption](/url/of/image.png)

[^5]: This feature is not yet implemented for RTF, OpenDocument, or
    ODT. In those formats, you'll just get an image in a paragraph by
    itself, with no caption.

The image's `alt` text will be used as the caption.  In HTML output,
both the figure and the contained image will be assigned an
identifier based on the caption (see [Automatic identifiers in HTML]
(#automatic-identifiers-in-html). The identifiers will be distinguished
with a numerical suffix.

If you just want a regular inline image, just make sure it is not
the only thing in the paragraph. One way to do this is to insert a
nonbreaking space after the image:

    ![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\ 

Title blocks

If the file begins with a title block

    % title
    % author(s) (separated by semicolons)
    % date

it will be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text.  (It
will be used, for example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML
output.)  The block may contain just a title, a title and an author,
or all three elements. If you want to include an author but no
title, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line:

    % Author

    % My title
    % June 15, 2006

The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines must
begin with leading space, thus:

    % My title
      on multiple lines

If a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put on
separate lines with leading space, or separated by semicolons, or
both.  So, all of the following are equivalent:

    % Author One
      Author Two

    % Author One; Author Two

    % Author One;
      Author Two

The date must fit on one line.

All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting
(italics, links, footnotes, etc.).

Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output only
when the `--standalone` (`-s`) option is chosen. In HTML output, titles
will appear twice: once in the document head -- this is the title that
will appear at the top of the window in a browser -- and once at the
beginning of the document body. The title in the document head can have
an optional prefix attached (`--title-prefix` or `-T` option). The title
in the body appears as an H1 element with class "title", so it can be
suppressed or reformatted with CSS. If a title prefix is specified with
`-T` and no title block appears in the document, the title prefix will
be used by itself as the HTML title.

The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and
other header and footer information from the title line. The title
is assumed to be the first word on the title line, which may optionally
end with a (single-digit) section number in parentheses. (There should
be no space between the title and the parentheses.)  Anything after
this is assumed to be additional footer and header text. A single pipe
character (`|`) should be used to separate the footer text from the header
text.  Thus,

    % PANDOC(1)

will yield a man page with the title `PANDOC` and section 1.

    % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals

will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer.

    % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0

will also have "Version 4.0" in the header.

Markdown in HTML blocks

While standard markdown leaves HTML blocks exactly as they are, Pandoc
treats text between HTML tags as markdown. Thus, for example, Pandoc
will turn

    		<td>[a link](</td>


    		<td><a href="">a link</a></td>

whereas `` will preserve it as is.

There is one exception to this rule:  text between `<script>` and
`</script>` tags is not interpreted as markdown.

This departure from standard markdown should make it easier to mix
markdown with HTML block elements.  For example, one can surround
a block of markdown text with `<div>` tags without preventing it
from being interpreted as markdown.

Automatic identifiers in HTML

Each header element in pandoc's HTML output is given a unique
identifier. This identifier is based on the text of the header. To
derive the identifier from the header text,

  - Remove all formatting, links, etc.
  - Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, and periods.
  - Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens.
  - Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase.
  - Remove everything up to the first letter (identifiers may
    not begin with a number or punctuation mark).
  - If nothing is left after this, use the identifier `section`.

Thus, for example,

  Header                                  Identifier
  -------------------------------------   ----------------------------
  Header identifiers in HTML              `header-identifiers-in-html`
  *Dogs*?--in *my* house?                 `dogs--in-my-house`
  [HTML], [S5], or [RTF]?                 `html-s5-or-rtf`
  3. Applications                         `applications`
  33                                      `section`

These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier
from the header text. The exception is when several headers have the
same text; in this case, the first will get an identifier as described
above; the second will get the same identifier with `-1` appended; the
third with `-2`; and so on.

These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of
contents generated by the `--toc|--table-of-contents` option. They
also make it easy to provide links from one section of a document to
another. A link to this section, for example, might look like this:

    See the section on [header identifiers](#automatic-identifiers-in-html). 

Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works
only in HTML.

If the `--section-divs` option is specified, then each section will
be wrapped in a `div` (or a `section`, if `--html5` was specified),
and the identifier will be attached to the enclosing `<div>`
(or `<section>`) tag rather than the header itself. This allows entire
sections to be manipulated using javascript or treated differently in

Images are given identifiers based on their `alt` attribute.
Tables are given identifiers based on their captions, if present.
Note that headers are assigned identifiers before any images
or tables, so if you have an image with `alt` text `hi` before
a section header with text `hi`, the section header will get
the identifier `hi` and the image will get `hi-1`.

Blank lines before headers and blockquotes

Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a header
or blockquote.  Pandoc does require this (except, of course, at the
beginning of the document). The reason for the requirement is that
it is all too easy for a `>` or `#` to end up at the beginning of a
line by accident (perhaps through line wrapping).  Consider, for

    I like several of their flavors of ice cream:
    #22, for example, and #5.


Anything between two $ characters will be treated as TeX math.  The
opening $ must have a character immediately to its right, while the
closing $ must have a character immediately to its left.  Thus,
`$20,000 and $30,000` won't parse as math.  If for some reason
you need to enclose text in literal $ characters, backslash-escape
them and they won't be treated as math delimiters.

TeX math will be printed in all output formats. In Markdown,
reStructuredText, LaTeX, Org-Mode, and ConTeXt output, it will appear
verbatim between $ characters.

In reStructuredText output, it will be rendered using an interpreted
text role `:math:`, as described

In Texinfo output, it will be rendered inside a `@math` command.

In groff man output, it will be rendered verbatim without $'s.

In MediaWiki output, it will be rendered inside `<math>` tags.

In Textile output, it will be rendered inside `<span class="math">` tags.

In RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output, it will be rendered, as far as
possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim.
Unknown commands and symbols, and commands that cannot be dealt with
this way (like `\frac`), will be rendered verbatim. So the results may
be a mix of raw TeX code and properly rendered unicode math.

In HTML, Slidy, and S5 output, the way math is rendered will depend on the
command-line options selected:

1.  The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using unicode
    characters, as with RTF, Docbook, and OpenDocument output. Formulas
    are put inside a `span` with `class="math"`, so that they may be
    styled differently from the surrounding text if needed.

2.  If the `--latexmathml` option is used, TeX math will be displayed
    between $ or $$ characters and put in `<span>` tags with class `LaTeX`.
    The [LaTeXMathML] script will be used to render it as formulas.
    (This trick does not work in all browsers, but it works in Firefox.
    In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX math will appear
    verbatim between $ characters.)

3.  If the `--jsmath` option is used, TeX math will be put inside
    `<span>` tags (for inline math) or `<div>` tags (for display math)
    with class `math`.  The [jsMath] script will be used to render

4.  If the `--mimetex` option is used, the [mimeTeX] CGI script will
    be called to generate images for each TeX formula. This should
    work in all browsers. The `--mimetex` option takes an optional URL
    as argument. If no URL is specified, it will be assumed that the
    mimeTeX CGI script is at `/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi`.

5.  If the `--gladtex` option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed
    in `<eq>` tags in the HTML output.  The resulting `htex` file may then
    be processed by [gladTeX], which will produce image files for each
    formula and an `html` file with links to these images.  So, the
    procedure is:

        pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex
        gladtex -d myfile-images myfile.htex
        # produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images

6.  If the `--webtex` option is used, TeX formulas will be converted
    to `<img>` tags that link to an external script that converts
    formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated
    with the URL provided. If no URL is specified, the Google Chart
    API will be used (``).

LaTeX Macros

For output formats other than LaTeX, pandoc will parse LaTeX `\newcommand` and
`\renewcommand` definitions and apply the resulting macros to all LaTeX
math.  So, for example, the following will work in all output formats,
not just LaTeX:

    \newcommand{\tuple}[1]{\langle #1 \rangle}

    $\tuple{a, b, c}$

Inline TeX

Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the
LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to
include BibTeX citations:

    This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}.

Note that in LaTeX environments, like

    Age & Frequency \\ \hline
    18--25  & 15 \\
    26--35  & 33 \\ 
    36--45  & 22 \\ \hline

the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw
LaTeX, not as markdown.

Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX,
and ConTeXt.


Pandoc can automatically generate citations and a bibliography in a number of
styles (using Andrea Rossato's `hs-citeproc`). In order to use this feature,
you will need a bibliographic database in one of the following formats:

  Format          File extension
  ------------    --------------
  MODS            .mods
  BibTeX          .bib
  BibLaTeX        .bbx
  RIS             .ris
  EndNote         .enl
  EndNote XML     .xml
  ISI             .wos
  MEDLINE         .medline
  Copac           .copac
  JSON citeproc   .json

You will need to specify the bibliography file using the `--bibliography`
command-line option (which may be repeated if you have several

By default, pandoc will use a Chicago author-date format for citations
and references.  To use another style, you will need to use the
`--csl` option to specify a [CSL] 1.0 style file.  A primer on
creating and modifying CSL styles can be found at
A repository of CSL styles can be found at

Citations go inside square brackets and are separated by semicolons.
Each citation must have a key, composed of '@' + the citation
identifier from the database, and may optionally have a prefix,
a locator, and a suffix.  Here are some examples:

    Blah blah [see @doe99, pp. 33-35; also @smith04, ch. 1].

    Blah blah [@doe99, pp. 33-35, 38-39 and *passim*].

    Blah blah [@smith04; @doe99].

A minus sign (`-`) before the `@` will suppress mention of
the author in the citation.  This can be useful when the
author is already mentioned in the text:

    Smith says blah [-@smith04].

You can also write an in-text citation, as follows:

    @smith04 says blah.

    @smith04 [p. 33] says blah.

If the style calls for a list of works cited, it will be placed
at the end of the document.  Normally, you will want to end your
document with an appropriate header:

    last paragraph...

    # References

The bibliography will be inserted after this header.

Producing HTML slide shows with Pandoc

You can use Pandoc to produce an HTML + javascript slide presentation
that can be viewed via a web browser.  There are two ways to do this,
using [S5] or [Slidy].

Here's the markdown source for a simple slide show, `eating.txt`:

    % Eating Habits
    % John Doe
    % March 22, 2005

    # In the morning

    - Eat eggs
    - Drink coffee

    # In the evening

    - Eat spaghetti
    - Drink wine


    ![picture of spaghetti](images/spaghetti.jpg)

To produce the slide show, simply type

    pandoc -w s5 -s eating.txt > eating.html

for S5, or

    pandoc -w slidy -s eating.txt > eating.html

for Slidy.

A title page is constructed automatically from the document's title
block. Each level-one header and horizontal rule begins a new slide.

The file produced by pandoc with the `-s/--standalone` option embeds a
link to javascripts and CSS files, which are assumed to be available at
the relative path `ui/default` (for S5) or at the Slidy website at
`` (for Slidy). If the `--offline` option is specified, the
scripts and CSS will be included directly in the generated file, so that
it may be used offline.

You can change the style of the slides by putting customized CSS files
in `$DATADIR/s5/default` (for S5) or `$DATADIR/slidy` (for Slidy),
where `$DATADIR` is the user data directory (see `--data-dir`, above).
The originals may be found in pandoc's system data directory (generally
`$CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/default`). Pandoc will look there for any
files it does not find in the user data directory.

Incremental lists

By default, these writers produces lists that display "all at once."
If you want your lists to display incrementally (one item at a time),
use the `-i` option. If you want a particular list to depart from the
default (that is, to display incrementally without the `-i` option and
all at once with the `-i` option), put it in a block quote:

    > - Eat spaghetti
    > - Drink wine

In this way incremental and nonincremental lists can be mixed in
a single document.

Literate Haskell support

If you append `+lhs` to an appropriate input or output format (`markdown`,
`rst`, or `latex` for input or output; `html` for output only), pandoc
will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that

  - In markdown input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell
    code rather than block quotations.  Text between `\begin{code}`
    and `\end{code}` will also be treated as Haskell code.

  - In markdown output, code blocks with class `haskell` will be
    rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be
    indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code.
    In addition, headers will be rendered setext-style (with underlines)
    rather than atx-style (with '#' characters). (This is because ghc
    treats '#' characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.)

  - In restructured text input, "bird track" sections will be parsed
    as Haskell code.

  - In restructured text output, code blocks with class `haskell` will
    be rendered using bird tracks.

  - In LaTeX input, text in `code` environments will be parsed as
    Haskell code.

  - In LaTeX output, code blocks with class `haskell` will be rendered
    inside `code` environments.

  - In HTML output, code blocks with class `haskell` will be rendered
    with class `literatehaskell` and bird tracks.


    pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html

reads literate Haskell source formatted with markdown conventions and writes
ordinary HTML (without bird tracks).

    pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html+lhs

writes HTML with the Haskell code in bird tracks, so it can be copied
and pasted as literate Haskell source.


© 2006-2010 John MacFarlane (jgm at berkeley dot edu). Released under the
[GPL], version 2 or greater.  This software carries no warranty of
any kind.  (See COPYRIGHT for full copyright and warranty notices.)
Other contributors include Recai Oktaş, Paulo Tanimoto, Peter Wang,
Andrea Rossato, Eric Kow, infinity0x, Luke Plant, shreevatsa.public,
Puneeth Chaganti, Paul Rivier, rodja.trappe, Bradley Kuhn, thsutton,
Nathan Gass, Jonathan Daugherty, Jérémy Bobbio, Justin Bogner.

[DocBook XML]:
[OpenDocument XML]: 
[MediaWiki markup]:
[groff man]:
[GNU Texinfo]:
[Emacs Org-Mode]:
[GPL]: "GNU General Public License"

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