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* (Backwards incompatible) The old Crypto.Hash.HMAC module is
gone, replaced by a copy of from Python 2.2's standard
library. It will display a warning on interpreter versions
older than 2.2.
* (Backwards incompatible) Restored the Crypto.Protocol package,
and modernized and tidied up the two modules in it, and, renaming various methods
and changing the interface.
* (Backwards incompatible) Changed the function names in
* Restored the Crypto.PublicKey package at user request. I
think I'll leave it in the package and warn about it in the
documentation. I hope that eventually I can point to
someone else's better public-key code, and at that point I
may insert warnings and begin the process of deprecating
this code.
* Fix use of a Python 2.2 C function, replacing it with a
2.1-compatible equivalent. (Bug report and patch by Andrew
* Fix endianness bugs that caused test case failures on Sparc,
PPC, and doubtless other platforms.
* Fixed compilation problem on FreeBSD.
* Expanded the test suite (requires Sancho, from
* Added lots of docstrings, so 'pydoc Crypto' now produces
helpful output. (Open question: maybe *all* of the documentation
should be moved into docstrings?)
* Make automatically add the build/* directory to sys.path.
* Removed 'inline' declaration from C functions. Some compilers
don't support it, and Python's pyconfig.h no longer tells you whether
it's supported or not. After this change, some ciphers got slower,
but others got faster.
* The C-level API has been changed to reduce the amount of
memory-to-memory copying. This makes the code neater, but
had ambiguous performance effects; again, some ciphers got slower
and others became faster. Probably this is due to my compiler
optimizing slightly worse or better as a result.
* Moved C source implementations into src/ from block/, hash/,
and stream/. Having Hash/ and hash/ directories causes problems
on case-insensitive filesystems such as Mac OS.
* Cleaned up the C code for the extensions.
* Added Crypto.Cipher.AES.
* Added the CTR mode and the variable-sized CFB mode from the
NIST standard on feedback modes.
* Removed Diamond, HAVAL, MD5, Sapphire, SHA, and Skipjack. MD5
and SHA are included with Python; the others are all of marginal
usefulness in the real world.
* Renamed the module-level constants ECB, CFB, &c., to MODE_ECB,
MODE_CFB, as part of making the block encryption modules
compliant with PEP 272. (I'm not sure about this change;
if enough users complain about it, I might back it out.)
* Made the hashing modules compliant with PEP 247 (not backward
compatible -- the major changes are that the constructor is now and not MD2.MD2, and the size of the digest is now
given as 'digest_size', not 'digestsize'.
* The Crypto.PublicKey package is no longer installed; the
interfaces are all wrong, and I have no idea what the right
interfaces should be.
* Most importantly, the distribution has been broken into two
parts: exportable, and export-controlled. The exportable part
contains all the hashing algorithms, signature-only public key
algorithms, chaffing & winnowing, random number generation, various
utility modules, and the documentation.
The export-controlled part contains public-key encryption
algorithms such as RSA and ElGamal, and bulk encryption algorithms
like DES, IDEA, or Skipjack. Getting this code still requires that
you go through an access control CGI script, and denies you access if
you're outside the US or Canada.
* Added the RIPEMD hashing algorithm. (Contributed by
Hirendra Hindocha.)
* Implemented the recently declassified Skipjack block
encryption algorithm. My implementation runs at 864 K/sec on a
PII/266, which isn't particularly fast, but you're probably better off
using another algorithm anyway. :)
* A simple XOR cipher has been added, mostly for use by the
chaffing/winnowing code. (Contributed by Barry Warsaw.)
* Added Protocol.Chaffing and (Contributed by
Barry Warsaw.)
Protocol.Chaffing implements chaffing and winnowing, recently
proposed by R. Rivest, which hides a message (the wheat) by adding
many noise messages to it (the chaff). The chaff can be discarded by
the receiver through a message authentication code. The neat thing
about this is that it allows secret communication without actually
having an encryption algorithm, and therefore this falls within the
exportable subset.
* Tidied up, and removed its use of a block
cipher; this makes it work with only the export-controlled subset
* Various renamings and reorganizations, mostly internal.
* Changed files to work with Python 1.5; everything has been
re-arranged into a hierarchical package. (Not backward compatible.)
The package organization is:
ARC2, ARC4, Blowfish, CAST, DES, DES3, Diamond,
IDEA, RC5, Sapphire
DSA, ElGamal, qNEW, RSA
number, randpool, RFC1751
Since this is backward-incompatible anyway, I also changed
module names from all lower-case to mixed-case: diamond -> Diamond,
rc5 -> RC5, etc. That had been an annoying inconsistency for a while.
* Added CAST5 module contributed by <>.
* Added qNEW digital signature algorithm (from the
I advertised a while back). (If anyone would like to suggest new
algorithms that should be implemented, please do; I think I've got
everything that's really useful at the moment, but...)
* Support for keyword arguments has been added. This allowed
removing the obnoxious key handling for Diamond and RC5, where the
first few bytes of the key indicated the number of rounds to use, and
various other parameters. Now you need only do something like:
from Crypto.Cipher import RC5
obj =, RC5.ECB, rounds=8)
(Not backward compatible.)
* Various function names have been changed, and parameter
names altered. None of these were part of the public interface, so it
shouldn't really matter much.
* Various bugs fixed, the test suite has been expanded, and
the build process simplified.
* Updated the documentation accordingly.
* Changed files to work with Python 1.4 .
* The DES and DES3 modules now automatically correct the
parity of their keys.
* Added R. Rivest's DES test (see
* REDOC III succumbed to differential cryptanalysis, and has
been removed.
* The crypt and rotor modules have been dropped; they're still
available in the standard Python distribution.
* The Ultra-Fast crypt() module has been placed in a separate
* Various bugs fixed.
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