Skip to content
Kafka CLI with Powershell flavor
Branch: master
Clone or download
Latest commit 81c013b Mar 4, 2019
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
Examples
Private
Public
bin
.gitignore Initial commit Mar 5, 2019
README.Rmd
README.md
pskafka.psd1
pskafka.psm1 Initial commit Mar 5, 2019

README.md

pskafka: Enhancing the Kafka CLI with Powershell flavor.

Read this on GitHub or my site.

Overview

Apache Kafka is a useful publish & subscribe messaging system. Data is transmitted, or “produced”, to a Kafka as “messages” that are later retrieved, “consumed”, by any number of recipients. A simple way of producing and consuming messages is with the default Kafka command-line interface, which uses Java to interact with a Kafka instance. Another Kafka CLI exists, kafkacat, which depends on the C/C++ library librdkafka. This Powershell module, pskafka, wraps around either the default Kafka CLI, or kafkacat, to provide the following:

  1. a syntax friendly to Powershell developers.
  2. easy reuse of Kafka producer(s) throughout a pipeline by communicating with the Kafka CLI over the standard input stream.
  3. easily spawn and read from multiple Kafka consumers in separate threads.

Powershell is an object-oriented scripting language that was recently made open-source and cross-platform. Powershell can natively convert to and from JSON, which is a common format in which Kafka messages are produced. By parsing a JSON message into a Powershell object, transformations in the command-line are made much easier.

pskafka has comment-based help (i.e., docstring) that can be explored using Powershell’s help system.

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1
# List all commands in the `pskafka` module.
Get-Command -Module pskafka | Select-Object CommandType, Name
## 
## CommandType Name
## ----------- ----
##       Alias Get-KafkaConsumer
##       Alias Read-KafkaConsumer
##       Alias Receive-KafkaConsumer
##       Alias Remove-KafkaConsumer
##       Alias Stop-KafkaConsumer
##       Alias Wait-KafkaConsumer
##    Function Get-KafkaHome
##    Function Get-KafkaTopics
##    Function Out-KafkaTopic
##    Function Read-Job
##    Function Read-JobStreams
##    Function Read-KafkaTopic
##    Function Set-KafkaHome
##    Function Start-KafkaConsumer
##    Function Start-KafkaProducer
##    Function Stop-KafkaProducer
Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1
# Get help for a command.
Get-Help -Name 'Start-KafkaConsumer'
## 
## NAME
##     Start-KafkaConsumer
##     
## SYNOPSIS
##     
##     
## SYNTAX
##     Start-KafkaConsumer [-TopicName] <String[]> [-BrokerList] <String[]> 
##     [[-Instances] <UInt16>] [[-Arguments] <String>] [[-ConsumerGroup] 
##     <String>] [[-MessageCount] <UInt64>] [-Persist] [-FromBeginning] 
##     [<CommonParameters>]
##     
##     
## DESCRIPTION
##     Starts a Kafka consumer process in a dedicated thread.
##     
## 
## RELATED LINKS
## 
## REMARKS
##     To see the examples, type: "get-help Start-KafkaConsumer -examples".
##     For more information, type: "get-help Start-KafkaConsumer -detailed".
##     For technical information, type: "get-help Start-KafkaConsumer -full".

Requirements

  • A Kafka instance (if you don’t have one, follow steps 1-3 of the Kafka quickstart guide).
  • Powershell v5+ (if you’re on a non-Windows system, install Powershell Core).
  • The ThreadJob module (ships with Powershell Core; if necessary, install with Install-Module -Name 'ThreadJob').
  • The pskafka module, of course –> install with Install-Module -Name 'pskafka'.

You will also need a local Kafka command-line interface, either kafkacat or the standard Kafka CLI. pskafka ships with compiled builds of kafkacat v1.4.0RC1 for Debian Linux, Mac, and Windows. Either CLI has dependencies of its own that may need to be resolved; consult the documentation if necessary.

Topics

First, get a list of all existing topics.

Using the Kafka CLI:

~/kafka/bin/kafka-topics.sh --zookeeper localhost --list

Using kafkacat:

./bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost -L

Using pskafka:

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

Get-KafkaTopics -BrokerList localhost -Verbose
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost -L
## __consumer_offsets
## test
## test_two

Notice that, with -Verbose specified, any pskafka command will output the command issued to either CLI. Above, kafkacat was used, which ships with pskafka. To use the Java-based Kafka CLI, or another instance of kafkacat, specify the path in KAFKA_HOME. pskafka provides the command Set-KafkaHome, which will set KAFKA_HOME for the session.

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

Set-KafkaHome '~/kafka'

Get-KafkaTopics -BrokerList localhost -Verbose
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/kafka/bin/kafka-topics.sh --zookeeper localhost --list
## __consumer_offsets
## test
## test_two

Produce

When producing streams of messages, Kafka does so more efficiently by queueing up messages until a specified message count has been reached or time period has elapsed. A batch of messages is sent when one of either threshold is reached.

Producing with the Kafka CLI:

0..9999 |
  Select-Object @{Name='TsTicks';Expression={(Get-Date).Ticks}}, `
                @{Name='Message'; Expression={ 'Hello world #' + $_.ToString() }} |
  ForEach-Object { $_ | ConvertTo-JSON -Compress } |
  ~/kafka/bin/kafka-console-producer.sh --broker-list 'localhost:9092' --topic 'test' --batch-size 100 --timeout 1000 | Out-Null

Producing with kafkacat:

0..9999 |
  Select-Object @{Name='TsTicks';Expression={(Get-Date).Ticks}}, `
                @{Name='Message'; Expression={ 'Hello world #' + $_.ToString() }} |
  ForEach-Object { $_ | ConvertTo-JSON -Compress } |
  ./bin/deb/kafkacat -b 'localhost:9092' -t 'test' -P -X queue.buffering.max.messages=100,queue.buffering.max.ms=1000

Producing with pskafka using Out-KafkaTopic:

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

0..9999 |
  Select-Object @{Name='TsTicks';Expression={(Get-Date).Ticks}}, `
                @{Name='Message'; Expression={ 'Hello world #' + $_.ToString() }} |
    Out-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -BatchSize 100 -Verbose -ErrorAction Stop
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -t test -P -X message.send.max.retries=3,queue.buffering.max.ms=1000,queue.buffering.max.messages=100

Persistent Producer

A useful feature of pskafka is the ability to start a Kafka CLI producer and write to it later. This allows for a more flexible workflow, such as writing messages to Kafka topic(s) given a condition. The example below first starts a Kafka producer, produces messages for a short duration, then stops the producer.

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

# start producer process
$p = Start-KafkaProducer -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -BatchSize 100 -TimeoutMS 1000 -Verbose

# start a timer
$timer = New-Object System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch
$timer.Start()

for ($i = 0; $timer.Elapsed.TotalSeconds -lt 5; $i++)
{
  $obj = New-Object PSObject -Property @{
    'TsTicks'=(Get-Date).Ticks;
    'Message'="Hello Kafka #$i"
  }

  # write to producer process over STDIN.
  $obj | Out-KafkaTopic -Producer $p
}

# stop timer
$timer.Stop()

# stop producer
$p | Stop-KafkaProducer | Out-Null

Write-Host $("Produced {0} messages in {1} seconds." -f $i, [math]::Round($timer.Elapsed.TotalSeconds, 2))
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -t test -P -X message.send.max.retries=3,queue.buffering.max.ms=1000,queue.buffering.max.messages=100
## Produced 4086 messages in 5 seconds.

Consume

Kafka consumers read messages from a topic. A consumer starts reading from a specific offset, which is typically either:

  1. latest offset; the end of the topic messages (default).
  2. earliest offset; the beginning of the topic messages.
  3. stored offset; the offset stored for a consumer group.

A useful feature of Kafka is its ability to efficiently store offsets for consumers in a “consumer group”. A stored offset allows a consumer to beginning reading where it last left off. In addition, all consumers in a group share the workload across Kafka topic partitions; no single message is sent to two consumers in the same group.

Simple Consumer

Offsets are not committed for a simple consumer, so a simple consumer will either begin reading from the end of a topic (default) or the beginning (if specified).

Consuming with Kafka CLI:

$messages = ~/kafka/bin/kafka-console-consumer.sh --bootstrap-server 'localhost:9092' --topic 'test' --max-messages 1000 --from-beginning

Write-Host $("{0} total messages consumed" -f $messages.Length)
## Processed a total of 1000 messages
## 1000 total messages consumed

Consuming with kafkacat:

$messages = ./bin/deb/kafkacat -C -b 'localhost:9092' -t 'test' -o beginning -c 1000

Write-Host $("{0} total messages consumed" -f $messages.Length)
## 1000 total messages consumed

Consuming with pskafka:

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

$messages = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -MessageCount 1000 -FromBeginning -Verbose

Write-Host $("{0} total messages consumed" -f $messages.Length)
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -c 1000 -e -C -t test
## 1000 total messages consumed

Consuming with pskafka (multiple consumers):

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

$messages = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -Instances 3 -MessageCount 1000 -FromBeginning -Verbose

Write-Host $("{0} total messages consumed" -f $messages.Length)
Write-Host $("{0} unique messages consumed" -f @($messages | Select-Object -Unique).Length)
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -c 1000 -e -C -t test
## 3000 total messages consumed
## 1000 unique messages consumed

In the example above, notice how three consumers were created (-Instances 3), and 3,000 messages were consumed, but only 1,000 of the messages are unique. This is because each consumer received the same set of messages from the topic.

Consuming with pskafka (multiple consumers in consumer group):

In the example below, the three consumers are made part of the same consumer group with the -ConsumerGroup parameter. Thus, all of the 3,000 consumed messages are distinct; i.e., each consumer received a unique set of messages from the topic.

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

$messages = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -ConsumerGroup 'my_consumer_group' -Instances 3 -MessageCount 1000 -FromBeginning -Verbose

Write-Host $("{0} total messages consumed" -f $messages.Length)
Write-Host $("{0} unique messages consumed" -f @($messages | Select-Object -Unique).Length)
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -X auto.offset.reset=earliest -c 1000 -e -G my_consumer_group test
## 3000 total messages consumed
## 3000 unique messages consumed

Note that -FromBeginning is only applicable for a consumer group that does not already have a stored offset to read from.

MultiTopic Consumer

Specify an array of topic names to -TopicName in order to spawn a consumer for each topic. If -Instances is greater than 1, each topic will get the number of instances (e.g., 3 topics w/ 2 instances each = 6 total instances).

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

$one = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -FromBeginning -Verbose |
        Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Count

$two = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test_two' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -FromBeginning -Verbose |
        Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Count

$one_and_two = Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test','test_two' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -FromBeginning -Verbose |
                Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Count
                
($one + $two) -eq $one_and_two
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -e -C -t test
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -e -C -t test_two
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -e -C -t test
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -e -C -t test_two
## True

Persistent Consumer

By default, a consumer will exit soon after all topic messages have been processed. Include the -Persist parameter to instruct a consumer persist after reaching the end of a topic. The parameter -TimeoutMS instructs the consumer to exit if no messages have been received within the specified duration. Without this, the consumer would persist indefinitely, passing messages down the pipeline as they arrive.

Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -ConsumerGroup 'my_consumer_group_3' -Instances 3 -FromBeginning -Persist -TimeoutMS 30000 -Verbose |
ForEach-Object `
  -Begin {
    $i=0
    $timer = New-Object System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch
    $timer.Start()
  } `
  -Process {
    $i++
    if ($i % 10000 -eq 0) {
      Write-Host $( '{0} msg/sec; {1} total messages.' -f ($i / $timer.Elapsed.TotalSeconds ).ToString(), $i )
    }
  } `
  -End {
    Write-Host "Consumed $i total messages."
    $timer.Stop()
  }
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -X auto.offset.reset=earliest -G my_consumer_group_3 test
## 1726.00749473878 msg/sec; 10000 total messages.
## 2323.40185529447 msg/sec; 20000 total messages.
## 2735.28886428345 msg/sec; 30000 total messages.
## Consumed 34086 total messages.

Consumer Threads

The command Read-KafkaTopic actually encapsulates three aptly-named commands:

  1. Start-KafkaConsumer: invokes consumer processes in separate threads; consumers immediately begin consuming messages in background threads.
  2. Read-KafkaConsumer: reads and clears the output streams from a thread.
  3. Stop-KafkaConsumer: stops a thread.

The object returned from Start-KafkaConsumer is a ThreadJob that is compatible with the standard Powershell commands (Get-Job, Wait-Job, Receive-Job). In fact, the commands Get-KafkaConsumer, Wait-KafkaConsumer, and Receive-KafkaConsumer are just aliases to these native Powershell commands.

It is very easy to start a background consumer with Start-KafkaConsumer and never read from or stop it. If this happens, the consumer could read an unbounded number of messages until system resources are exceeded. Be responsible with calls to Start-KafkaConsumer by following up with Read-KafkaConsumer and Stop-KafkaConsumer. When in doubt, kill all background jobs using Get-Job | Remove-Job -Force.

Powershell Object Example

Earlier, I alluded to Powershell’s powerful object-oriented approach to the shell. I’ll conclude this walkthrough with an example that illustrates this. The following example:

  1. reads messages in JSON format.
  2. converts them to a Powershell object.
  3. augments the original message.
  4. outputs new message to Kafka.
  5. outputs new message to a local CSV file.
Import-Module ./pskafka.psd1

Read-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -FromBeginning -MessageCount 100 -Verbose |
  ConvertFrom-Json |
  Select-Object *, @{Name='Timestamp'; Expression={ ([datetime]$_['TsTicks']).ToLongTimeString() }} |
  Out-KafkaTopic -TopicName 'test_two' -BrokerList 'localhost:9092' -BatchSize 100 -PassThru -Verbose |
  Export-Csv 'test.csv'
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -q -u -o beginning -c 100 -e -C -t test
## VERBOSE: /home/donald/dev/pwsh/pskafka/bin/deb/kafkacat -b localhost:9092 -t test_two -P -X message.send.max.retries=3,queue.buffering.max.ms=1000,queue.buffering.max.messages=100
You can’t perform that action at this time.
You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.