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Merkle Generator and Prover in Solidity

Tests Slither

Murky contains contracts that can generate merkle roots and proofs. Murky also performs inclusion verification. Both XOR-based and a concatenation-based hashing are currently supported.

The root generation, proof generation, and verification functions are all fuzz tested (configured 5,000 runs by default) using arbitrary bytes32 arrays and uint leaves. There is also standardized testing and differential testing.

Note: Code is not audited (yet). Please do your own due dilligence testing if you are planning to use this code!

You can currently see Murky in action in the Seaport test suite.

Building Locally

You can run the repo using Foundry.

  1. clone the repo
  2. git submodule update --init
  3. forge test

Example Usage

// Initialize
Merkle m = new Merkle();
// Toy Data
bytes32[] memory data = new bytes32[](4);
data[0] = bytes32("0x0");
data[1] = bytes32("0x1");
data[2] = bytes32("0x2");
data[3] = bytes32("0x3");
// Get Root, Proof, and Verify
bytes32 root = m.getRoot(data);
bytes32[] memory proof = m.getProof(data, 2); // will get proof for 0x2 value
bool verified = m.verifyProof(root, proof, data[2]); // true!


  • Xorkle.sol is implemented as a XOR tree. This allows for greater gas efficiency: hashes are calculated on 32 bytes instead of 64; it is agnostic of sibling order so there is less lt/gt branching. Note that XOR trees are not appropriate for all use-cases*.

  • Merkle.sol is implemented using concatenation and thus is a generic merkle tree. It's less efficient, but is compatible with OpenZeppelin's Prover and other implementations. Use this one if you aren't sure. Compatiblity with OZ Prover is implemented as a fuzz test.


The code is both "fuzz" tested and tested with standardized data. Standard data info.

When measuring a change's performance impact, please ensure you are benchmarking using standardized data only*:

forge snapshot --ffi --match-path src/test/StandardInput.t.sol

Passing just standardized tests is not sufficient for implementation changes. All changes must pass all tests, preferably with 10,000+ fuzz runs.

There is also early support for differential testing.

  • It's possible that an improvement is not adequetly revealed by the current standardized data. If that is the case, new standard data should be provided with an accompanying description/justification.

Latest Gas

gas report

Gas Snapshots are run only on the standardized tests. See Testing.


  • * Do a writeup on the use-cases for XORs.


Merkle Proof Generator and Validator in Solidity







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