Skip to content

dnaeon/cl-migratum

master
Switch branches/tags
Code

Files

Permalink
Failed to load latest commit information.

Database Schema Migration System for Common Lisp

cl-migratum is a Common Lisp system, which provides facilities for performing database schema migrations.

migratum-demo

Requirements

Systems

The following systems are available as part of this repo.

System Description
cl-migratum Core system
cl-migratum.provider.local-path Provider which discovers migrations from local-path
cl-migratum.driver.dbi cl-dbi database driver
cl-migratum.driver.rmdbs-postgresql PostgreSQL driver based on hu.dwim.rdbms
cl-migratum.driver.mixins Various mixin classes used by drivers
cl-migratum.test Test suite for cl-migratum
cl-migratum.cli CLI application of migratum

Installation

Latest development version can be installed from the Git repo.

Clone the cl-migratum repo in your Quicklisp local-projects directory.

git clone https://github.com/dnaeon/cl-migratum.git

CLI

You can install the CLI application of migratum by executing the following command.

make cli

The migratum binary will be built into the bin/migratum directory. You can now install the binary somewhere in your PATH.

Once the migratum binary is built you can also generate the Zsh completions by executing the following command.

migratum zsh-completions > ~/.zsh-completions/_migratum

Make sure that ~/.zsh-completions is part of your Zsh FPATH.

In order to generate the Markdown documentation of the CLI app use the cli-doc target:

make cli-doc

Or you can build a Docker image instead.

docker build -t migratum.cli:latest -f Dockerfile.cli .

Concepts

The cl-migratum system uses the following concepts to describe the process of discovering and applying schema migrations, so it is important that you get familiar with them first.

Migration

A migration represents a resource that provides information about a schema change, e.g. it provides the unique id of the change, the required scripts that can be used to upgrade and/or downgrade the database.

Migration resources are discovered via providers and are being used by drivers during the upgrade or downgrade process.

Provider

The provider is responsible for discovering migration resources.

For example a provider can discover migrations from a local path by scanning for files that match a given pattern or fetch migrations from a remote endpoint (e.g. HTTP service).

The provider is also responsible for creating new migration sequences.

The following providers are supported by cl-migratum.

Name Description System
local-path Provider that can discover migration resources from a local path cl-migratum.provider.local-path

Driver

The driver carries out the communication with the database against which schema changes will be applied.

It is responsible for applying schema changes, registering successfully applied migrations and unregistering them when reverting back to a previous state.

A driver internally uses a provider in order to discover migrations, which can be applied against the database it is connected to.

The following drivers are currently supported by cl-migratum.

Name Description System Migration Registration
dbi Driver for performing schema migrations against a SQL database using CL-DBI cl-migratum.driver.dbi In table migration
rdbms-postgresql Driver for performing schema migrations against a SQL database using hu.dwim.rdbms cl-migratum.driver.rdbms-postgresql In table migration

Usage

The following section contains some examples to get you started.

In order to use cl-migratum you will need to load the core system, along with any provider and driver systems.

Load the core system.

CL-USER> (ql:quickload :cl-migratum)

Create Provider

First, we will create a new provider that can discover migration files from a local path. In order to create a local-path provider we need to load the respective system.

CL-USER> (ql:quickload :cl-migratum.provider.local-path)

Once you load the system we can create a local-path provider. The local-path provider can discover migrations from multiple paths.

Typical example where having multiple paths with migration resources might be useful is when you have a set of base migrations you want to apply to all environments, and then have a separate path for each environment with their own migrations. For example you might want to run specific migrations only in your dev environment, but don't want them in your production environment.

In that case it makes sense to separate the migration resources in multiple paths, for each environment respectively.

CL-USER> (defparameter *provider*
           (migratum.provider.local-path:make-provider (list #P"/path/to/cl-migratum/t/migrations/")))
*PROVIDER*

The LOCAL-PATH-PROVIDER discovers migration files which match the following pattern.

Pattern Description
<id>-<description>.up.<kind> Upgrade script
<id>-<description>.down.<kind> Downgrade script

In above pattern <id> is a monotonically increasing integer, which represents the timestamp the migration has been created. The format of <id> is YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.

The supported migration kinds by LOCAL-PATH-PROVIDER are these.

Extension Kind Description
.sql :sql SQL migration resource
.lisp :lisp Migration resource which invokes a Lisp function

A provider can optionally be initialized, which can be done using the MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-INIT generic function. Not all providers would require initialization, but some will and therefore it is good that you always initialize them first.

In order to list the migrations provided by a provider you can use the MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-LIST-MIGRATIONS function, e.g.

CL-USER> (migratum:provider-list-migrations *provider*)
(#<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:LISP-MIGRATION {1004713F73}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {1004603BE3}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {1004603B03}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {10046039B3}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {1004603733}>)

The following generic functions can be used to interact with discovered migrations.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-ID Returns the unique migration id
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-DESCRIPTION Returns the description of the migration
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-APPLIED Returns the timestamp of when the migration was applied
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-LOAD Loads the :up or :down migration
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-KIND Returns the kind of the migration, e.g. :sql, :lisp, etc.

For example in order to collect the unique IDs of all migration resources you can evaluate the following while at the REPL.

CL-USER> (mapcar #'migratum:migration-id
                 (migratum:provider-list-migrations *provider*))
(20200421180337 20200421173908 20200421173657 ...)

Create Driver

Once we have a provider for discovering migration resources we need to create a driver, which can be used to communicate with the database we want to apply migrations on.

DBI Driver

Here is how we can create a dbi driver. First, lets load the system, which provides that driver.

CL-USER> (ql:quickload :cl-migratum.driver.dbi)

The dbi driver uses CL-DBI interface to communicate with the database, so we will need to create a database connection in order to initialize it.

CL-USER> (defparameter *conn*
           (dbi:connect :sqlite3 :database-name "/path/to/migratum.db"))
*CONN*

And now we can instantiate our SQL driver using the previously created provider and connection.

CL-USER> (defparameter *driver*
           (migratum.driver.dbi:make-driver *provider* *conn*))
*DRIVER*

RDBMS PostgreSQL Driver

The process to create an rdbms-postgresql driver is analogous. The driver needs a connection specification to create a DB connection. In this example we use the same environment variables which are used by the PostgreSQL client psql to override the defaults:

(ql:quickload :cl-migratum.driver.rdbms-postgresql)
(defparameter *driver*
  (migratum.driver.rdbms-postgresql:make-driver
   *provider*
   `(:host ,(or (uiop:getenv "PGHOST") "localhost")
     :database ,(or (uiop:getenv "PGDATABASE") "migratum")
     :user-name ,(or (uiop:getenv "PGUSER") "migratum")
     :password ,(or (uiop:getenv "PGPASSWORD") "tiger"))))

Initialization

A driver and provider may require some initialization steps to be executed before being able to apply migrations, so make sure that you initialize them.

In order to initialize your provider use the MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-INIT function.

CL-USER> (migratum:provider-init *provider*)

An example requirement for a driver might be to create some required database schema used to track which migrations have been applied already, so lets initialize our driver first.

CL-USER> (migratum:driver-init *driver*)

Pending Migrations

In order to get the list of pending (not applied yet) migrations we can use the MIGRATUM:LIST-PENDING function, e.g.

CL-USER> (migratum:list-pending *driver*)
(#<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {100363DFC3}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {100363E0A3}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {100363E183}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {100363E263}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:LISP-MIGRATION {100363E343}>)

Or, we can display a table of the pending migrations using the MIGRATUM:DISPLAY-PENDING function instead.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-pending *driver*)
.---------------------------------------------.
|             PENDING MIGRATIONS              |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| ID             | DESCRIPTION         | KIND |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| 20200421173657 | create_table_foo    | SQL  |
| 20200421173908 | create_table_bar    | SQL  |
| 20200421180337 | create_table_qux    | SQL  |
| 20200605144633 | multiple_statements | SQL  |
| 20220327224455 | lisp_code_migration | LISP |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
|                | TOTAL               |    5 |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
NIL

The migrations will be sorted in the order they need to be applied.

Applying Migrations

The following functions are used for applying pending migrations.

  • MIGRATUM:APPLY-PENDING - applies all pending migrations
  • MIGRATUM:APPLY-NEXT - applies the next pending migration

This is how we can apply all pending migrations for example.

CL-USER> (migratum:apply-pending *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-pending base-driver) -
  Found 5 pending migration(s) to be applied
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421173657 - create_table_foo (SQL)
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421173908 - create_table_bar (SQL)
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421180337 - create_table_qux (SQL)
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200605144633 - multiple_statements (SQL)
 <INFO> [21:20:51] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20220327224455 - lisp_code_migration (LISP)
NIL

Get Latest Migration

You can use the MIGRATUM:LATEST-MIGRATION function to get the latest applied migration, e.g.

CL-USER> (migratum:migration-id (migratum:latest-migration *driver*))
20220327224455 (45 bits, #x1263E96BE487)

The MIGRATUM:CONTAINS-APPLIED-MIGRATIONS-P predicate can be used to query whether there are any migrations applied, e.g.

CL-USER> (migratum:contains-applied-migrations-p *driver*)
T

Displaying Applied Migrations

The following functions can be used to get and display the list of applied database migrations.

Function Description
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-LIST-APPLIED Returns the list of applied migrations
MIGRATUM:DISPLAY-APPLIED Display a table of applied migrations

This is how we can get the list of applied migrations.

CL-USER> (migratum:driver-list-applied *driver*)
(#<CL-MIGRATUM.CORE:BASE-MIGRATION {1002175993}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.CORE:BASE-MIGRATION {10021759D3}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.CORE:BASE-MIGRATION {1002175A13}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.CORE:BASE-MIGRATION {1002175A53}>
 #<CL-MIGRATUM.CORE:BASE-MIGRATION {1002175A93}>)

Or we can display a nice table of the applied migrations instead.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-applied *driver*)
.-------------------------------------------------------------------.
|                        APPLIED MIGRATIONS                         |
+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+------+
| ID             | DESCRIPTION         | APPLIED             | KIND |
+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+------+
| 20220327224455 | lisp_code_migration | 2022-03-29 18:20:53 | LISP |
| 20200605144633 | multiple_statements | 2022-03-29 18:20:51 | SQL  |
| 20200421180337 | create_table_qux    | 2022-03-29 18:20:51 | SQL  |
| 20200421173908 | create_table_bar    | 2022-03-29 18:20:51 | SQL  |
| 20200421173657 | create_table_foo    | 2022-03-29 18:20:51 | SQL  |
+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+------+
|                |                     | TOTAL               |    5 |
+----------------+---------------------+---------------------+------+
NIL

The output of these functions will be the applied migrations in descending order by their id, first one being the most recent one.

The dbi and rdbms-postgresql drivers by default will fetch the last 100 applied migrations. You can control this behaviour by using the :offset and :limit keyword parameters, which allows you to fetch applied migrations in pages.

For example, if you are interested only in the last ten applied migrations you can evaluate the following expression.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-applied *driver* :limit 10)

Or if you want to skip the first ten migrations, you can evaluate this expression instead.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-applied *driver* :offset 10 :limit 10)

Stepping through migrations

Using the following functions you can step through migrations.

Function Description
MIGRATUM:APPLY-NEXT Apply the next pending migration(s)
MIGRATUM:REVERT-LAST Revert the last applied migration(s)

This is useful in situations when you don't want to apply all migrations at once, but rather do it one at a time. Both of these functions accept a keyword parameter :count which specifies the number of migrations to apply or revert.

Consider the following pending migrations.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-pending *driver*)
.---------------------------------------------.
|             PENDING MIGRATIONS              |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| ID             | DESCRIPTION         | KIND |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| 20200421173657 | create_table_foo    | SQL  |
| 20200421173908 | create_table_bar    | SQL  |
| 20200421180337 | create_table_qux    | SQL  |
| 20200605144633 | multiple_statements | SQL  |
| 20220327224455 | lisp_code_migration | LISP |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
|                | TOTAL               |    5 |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
NIL

We can apply them one by one and verify them as we go.

CL-USER> (migratum:apply-next *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:25:45] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421173657 - create_table_foo (SQL)
NIL
CL-USER> (migratum:apply-next *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:25:47] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421173908 - create_table_bar (SQL)
NIL
CL-USER> (migratum:apply-next *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:25:48] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200421180337 - create_table_qux (SQL)
NIL
CL-USER> (migratum:apply-next *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:25:49] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20200605144633 - multiple_statements (SQL)
NIL
CL-USER> (migratum:apply-next *driver*)
 <INFO> [21:25:50] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (apply-and-register base-driver) -
  Applying migration 20220327224455 - lisp_code_migration (LISP)
NIL

If we want to revert the last three migrations we can use the MIGRATUM:REVERT-LAST function, e.g.

CL-USER> (migratum:revert-last *driver* :count 3)
 <INFO> [21:26:14] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (revert-and-unregister base-driver) -
  Reverting migration 20220327224455 - lisp_code_migration (LISP)
 <INFO> [21:26:14] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (revert-and-unregister base-driver) -
  Reverting migration 20200605144633 - multiple_statements (SQL)
 <INFO> [21:26:14] cl-migratum.core core.lisp (revert-and-unregister base-driver) -
  Reverting migration 20200421180337 - create_table_qux (SQL)
NIL

Now, we should have 3 pending migrations again.

CL-USER> (migratum:display-pending *driver*)
.---------------------------------------------.
|             PENDING MIGRATIONS              |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| ID             | DESCRIPTION         | KIND |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
| 20200421180337 | create_table_qux    | SQL  |
| 20200605144633 | multiple_statements | SQL  |
| 20220327224455 | lisp_code_migration | LISP |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
|                | TOTAL               |    3 |
+----------------+---------------------+------+
NIL

Creating New Migrations

The MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-CREATE-MIGRATION generic function creates a new migration sequence. The arguments it expects are the direction (e.g. :up or :down), the migration kind (e.g. :sql, :lisp, etc.), an instance of a provider, id, description and content.

SQL migrations

Here's an example of using the LOCAL-PATH provider for creating a new SQL migration.

CL-USER> (defparameter *migration-id* (migratum:make-migration-id))
*MIGRATION-ID*
CL-USER>
CL-USER> (migratum:provider-create-migration
          :up            ;; <- direction
          :sql           ;; <- kind
          *provider*     ;; <- provider
          *migration-id* ;; <- the migration id
          "fubar"        ;; <- description
          "CREATE ...")  ;; <- contents
#<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:SQL-MIGRATION {1009570AD3}>

The downgrade migration is created in a similar way. Simply use the :down direction and the appropriate contents for it. Also, make sure that the description and id are the same when creating a pair of upgrade/downgrade migrations.

Lisp migrations

The :lisp migration kind allows invoking a handler, which performs the upgrade and downgrade.

The handler is a regular Lisp function, which accepts a single argument that is an instance of a driver.

In order to create a :lisp migration you need to create a spec, which specifies the Common Lisp system, package, upgrade and downgrade handler.

Here's an example of a spec, which is a regular property list.

(:system :my-system :package :my-system.package :handler :upgrade-handler)

And here's a full example of creating an :up and :down migration.

CL-USER> (let ((id (migratum:make-migration-id))
               (desc "my lisp migration")
               (up-spec '(:system :my-system
                          :package :my-system.package
                          :handler :upgrade-handler))
               (down-spec '(:system :my-system
                            :package :my-system.package
                            :handler :downgrade-handler)))
           (values
            (migratum:provider-create-migration :up :lisp *provider* id desc up-spec)
            (migratum:provider-create-migration :down :lisp *provider* id desc down-spec)))
#<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:LISP-MIGRATION {100A39C083}>
#<CL-MIGRATUM.PROVIDER.LOCAL-PATH:LISP-MIGRATION {100A39D6C3}>

Multiple SQL Statements

If you need to run multiple SQL statements when using the dbi or rdbms-postgresql driver you can separate each statement in the migration using the --;; separator.

The following example migration would create two tables as part of a single transaction.

CREATE TABLE foo (
    id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
);
--;;
CREATE TABLE bar (
    id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
);

Debug logging

cl-migratum uses log4cl, so you can enable debug logging, if needed.

CL-USER> (log:config :debug)

Shutdown / Teardown

Once done with the migrations you should call the cleanup functions of the provider and driver.

CL-USER> (migratum:provider-shutdown *provider*)
CL-USER> (migratum:driver-shutdown *driver*)

Implemeting new migration resources

Generally new migration resources will be implemented along with a provider, which discovers them.

You can implement a new migration resource by inheriting from the MIGRATUM:BASE-MIGRATION class.

The following generic functions should be implemented on the newly defined class.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-LOAD Loads the :up and :down scripts
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-KIND Returns the kind of the migration

The following generic functions can be overriden, if needed.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-ID Returns the unique migration id
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-DESCRIPTION Returns description of the migration
MIGRATUM:MIGRATION-APPLIED Returns timestamp of when the migration was applied

Example implementation that loads migration resources from a remote HTTP server might look like this. The following code uses Dexador as the HTTP client.

(defun http-get (url)
  "HTTP GETs the given URL"
  (let ((contents (dex:get url :force-string t)))
    contents))

(defclass http-migration (base-migration)
  ((up-script-url
    :initarg :up-script-url
    :initform (error "Must specify URL to upgrade script")
    :accessor http-migration-up-script-url
    :documentation "URL to the upgrade script")
   (down-script-url
    :initarg :down-script-url
    :initform (error "Must specify URL to downgrade script")
    :accessor http-migration-down-script-url
    :documentation "URL to the downgrade script"))
  (:documentation "HTTP migration resource"))

(defmethod migration-load ((direction (eql :up)) (migration http-migration))
  (http-get (http-migration-up-script-url migration)))

(defmethod migration-load ((direction (eql :down)) (migration http-migration))
  (http-get (http-migration-down-script-url migration)))

A provider should simply MAKE-INSTANCE of the HTTP-MIGRATION class by providing values for the required slots while discovering migrations via the PROVIDER-LIST-MIGRATIONS function.

Implementing new providers

You can implement custom providers, which can discover migration resources from various sources, e.g. local path, remote HTTP endpoints, etc.

Each provider determines the rules, which identify a resource as a valid migration, so custom logic for discovering them can be implemented by using your own provider. For example the local-path provider considers files to be valid migrations, if they match a given regex pattern.

In order to create a new provider you should inherit from the MIGRATUM:BASE-PROVIDER class and implement the following generic functions on your newly defined class.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-LIST-MIGRATIONS Responsible for discovering migrations
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-CREATE-MIGRATION Creates a new migration using the provider

The following methods can be overriden, if needed.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-NAME Returns a human-friendly name of the provider
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-INIT Initializes the provider, if needed
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-INITIALIZED Returns T if provider is initialized, NIL otherwise
MIGRATUM:PROVIDER-SHUTDOWN Shutdowns the provider and cleans up any allocated resources

You can also check the local-path provider implementation for some example code.

Implementing new drivers

A driver is responsible for communicating with the database we are migrating and executes the upgrade and downgrade scripts.

The driver also takes care of registering applied migrations after applying an upgrade script and also unregistering them during downgrade, thus it is the drivers' decision how to implement registering and unregistering. For example the dbi builtin driver registers applied migrations in the same database it is migrating, but a custom driver could choose a different stategy instead, e.g. use a key/value store, local files, or some remote endpoint instead.

New drivers can be implemented by inheriting from the MIGRATUM:BASE-DRIVER class. The following methods should be implemented on new drivers.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-LIST-APPLIED Returns the list of applied migrations
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-REGISTER-MIGRATION Registers/unregister a successfully applied migration
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-APPLY-MIGRATION Applies a migration according to the given direction

The following methods can be overriden, if needed.

Method Description
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-INIT Initializes the driver, if needed
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-NAME Returns the human-friendly name of the driver
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-PROVIDER Returns the provider used by the driver
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-INITIALIZED Returns T if driver is initialized, NIL otherwise
MIGRATUM:DRIVER-SHUTDOWN Shutdowns the driver and cleans up any allocated resources

You can check the dbi driver implementation for some example code.

Additional methods can also be overriden, if needed. For example if you need to have a different representation for the pending migrations you can override the MIGRATUM:DISPLAY-PENDING method.

Tests

Tests are provided as part of the cl-migratum.test system.

In order to run the tests you can execute.

make test

Or you can run the tests in a Docker container instead.

Contributing

cl-migratum is hosted on Github. Please contribute by reporting issues, suggesting features or by sending patches using pull requests.

Authors

License

This project is Open Source and licensed under the BSD License.

About

Database Schema Migration System for Common Lisp

Topics

Resources

License

Stars

Watchers

Forks

Packages

No packages published

Languages