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/* * Copyright (c) 2014-2021 by Farsight Security, Inc. * * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. * You may obtain a copy of the License at * * http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 * * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and * limitations under the License. */ Table of Contents: * Introduction * Dependencies needed * Installing dependencies * Building and installing * Getting Started * Background on ASINFO/CIDR lookups and annotations Introduction: This is a pure C99 program that accesses passive DNS database systems such as: * the DNSDB API server at Farsight Security * the CIRCL pDNS server at Computer Incident Response Center (LU) An API key is required for operation. The command syntax was inspired by a python script called dnsdb_query, but significant departure has occured, largely inspired by a modern understanding of "time fencing" and a desire for new features such as CSV output and JSON reprocessing. NOTE: Prior to version 2.5.3, the default pDNS system supported was Farsight Security APIv1, and it was called "dnsdb". As of version 2.5.3, the default system is Farsight Security APIv2 and system "dnsdb2" is synonymous with "dnsdb". For APIv1, specify "dnsdb1" using the command line -u option or the DNSDBQ_SYSTEM variable. Dependencies needed: jansson (2.5 or later) libcurl (7.28 or later) modern compiler (clang or GCC) Installing dependencies: On Debian 8 Linux: apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev apt-get install libjansson-dev On CentOS 6 Linux: # Based on PHP instructions for installing libcurl... wget http://curl.haxx.se/download/curl-7.28.1.tar.gz tar xvzf curl-7.28.1.tar.gz cd curl-7.28.1/ ./configure --with-libssh2 --enable-ares=/usr/local/ --enable-ipv6 make make install # lib jansson wget http://www.digip.org/jansson/releases/jansson-2.5.tar.gz tar -xpzf jansson-2.5.tar.gz cd jansson-2.5 ./configure make make install echo /usr/local/lib >> /etc/ld.so.conf.d/local.conf ldconfig On CentOS 7 Linux: yum install libcurl-devel.x86_64 yum install jansson-devel.x86_64 yum install centos-release-scl yum install devtoolset-8 scl enable devtoolset-8 bash # do the build from that bash On CentOS 8 Linux: dnf install gcc dnf install jansson.x86_64 jansson-devel.x86_64 dnf install libcurl-devel.x86_64 On FreeBSD 10: pkg install curl jansson On macOS: brew install jansson Building and installing: (Assumes you have "git") git clone https://github.com/dnsdb/dnsdbq.git cd dnsdbq make install clean On FreeBSD, you may need to remove -lresolv in the LIBS line of the Makefile. On macOS on Apple M1 processors, Homebrew now defaults to be installed in /opt/homebrew instead of /usr/local. If that is the case on your system, in the Makefile, uncomment the line #JANSBASE=/opt/homebrew On macOS, if you want an almost static dnsdbq binary on macOS, that is, one with minimal non-System library dependencies, you can rebuild dnsdbq with a static jansson library. That binary could then be deployed on any identical macOS version and architecture. 1. Find the static jansson library, probably as installed by brew /usr/local/lib/libjansson.a or /opt/homebrew/lib/libjansson.a 2. Change the Makefile's line JANSLIBS = -L$(JANSBASE)/lib -ljansson to instead specify the static library location, probably to: JANSLIBS = $(JANSBASE)/lib/libjansson.a 3. Then run make Getting Started: Add the API key to ~/.dnsdb-query.conf in the below given format, APIKEY="YOURAPIKEYHERE" If you're interested in purchasing a Farsight DNSDB subscription, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. Farsight also has a grant program for selected researchers, investigative journalists, and cybersecurity workers at some public benefit non-profits. See https://www.farsightsecurity.com/grant-access/ Here's an example query and output after dnsdbq is compiled: $ ./dnsdbq -r farsightsecurity.com/A -l 1 ;; record times: 2013-09-25 15:37:03 .. 2015-04-01 06:17:25 (~1y ~187d) ;; count: 6350; bailiwick: farsightsecurity.com. farsightsecurity.com. A 188.8.131.52 Background on ASINFO/CIDR lookups and annotations: Annotating IP addresses with ASN information can help an analyst focus their attention on unusual or unexpected ASNs (for example, perhaps a domestic US corporation's IP address inexplicably ended up being originated by a foreign consumer ISP). This code has been tested against three sources of ASN information, each of which are valid arguments to the -D parameter. 1. asn.routeviews.org (the default value for the -D parameter). Given an IPv4 in reverse order, this returns a space separated three-tuple: "ASN" "CIDR prefix" "prefix length" For badly formatted addresses, it returns: "4294967295" "0" "0" For unknown addresses, it returns no answers. Examples: $ dig +short 184.108.40.206.asn.routeviews.org TXT "23724" "220.127.116.11" "21" $ dig +short a.b.c.d.asn.routeviews.org TXT "4294967295" "0" "0" $ dig +short 0.0.0.128.aspath.routeviews.org TXT $ 2. aspath.routeviews.org The same as asn.routeviews.org, except it returns a three-tuple: AS path, CIDR prefix, prefix length. Examples: $ dig +short 0.0.0.4.aspath.routeviews.org TXT "3303 3356" "18.104.22.168" "9" 3. origin.asn.cymru.com Given an IPv4 in reverse order, this returns a pipe-separated five-tuple: ASN | CIDR prefix/prefix length | CC | Registry | Allocated date Example: $ dig +short 0.0.0.4.origin.asn.cymru.com TXT "3356 | 22.214.171.124/9 | US | arin | 1992-12-01" Function asinfo_from_dns() in asinfo.c has specific code to parse those formats. asn.routeviews.org and aspath.routeviews.org do not currently handle IPv6 addresses properly, so dnsdbq does not support IPv6 annotation now. There is a complication that arises when doing those sort of IP to ASN mappings, however: publicly available IP to ASN zones are based on currently observed IP to ASN mappings, while the IPs that are being mapped may have been seen in passive DNS months or even years earlier, when that IP may have been originated by a different ASN. Often the IP to ASN mappings are quite static, in which case historical IPs will map just fine using the current IP to ASN data. On the other hand, some IPs may have been hijacked and used without authorization, or transferred, or otherwise ended up going from one ASN to another. Therefore the IP to ASN mapping should be viewed as an experimental best effort feature, and interpreted with care. In addition to the issue of potential ASN misalignment, the size and origin of the reported origin IP and prefix length may also have changed over time. For example, a /19 may have been de-aggregated into a set of more specific /24's. Again, we report the state of the world as it is currently seen by the service used for the IP to ASN mapping. Other miscellaneous notes: * dnsdbq does not support mapping IPv6 addresses to ASNs at this time. * In the case of Multiple Origin ASNs, typically IP to ASN services will report one of the multiple ASNs; other origin ASNs may also exist but not be reported. * We do not map ASNs to their owner or the owner description string. Please see WHOIS for information about the entity currently assigned a given ASN. We welcome feedback on this feature. Do you use it and find it useful? Are there IP-to-ASN service providers we've inadvertently omitted? Share your feedback by writing <email@example.com>.