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20 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/articles/building-products/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+#
+# $FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/building-products/Makefile 38826 2012-05-17 19:12:14Z hrs $
+#
+# Article: Building products using FreeBSD
+
+DOC?= article
+
+FORMATS?= html
+
+INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
+INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
+
+SRCS= article.sgml
+
+IMAGES_EN= freebsd-branches.pic freebsd-organization.pic
+
+URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
+DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
+
+.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
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1,080 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/articles/building-products/article.sgml
@@ -0,0 +1,1080 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" standalone="no"?>
+<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.2-Based Extension//EN"
+ "../../../share/sgml/freebsd42.dtd" [
+<!ENTITY % entities PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PT" i
+ "../../share/sgml/entities.ent">
+%entities;
+]>
+
+<!--
+ The FreeBSD Documentation Project
+ The FreeBSD Brazilian Portuguese Documentation Project
+
+ Original revision: r39544
+-->
+
+<article lang='pt_br'>
+ <articleinfo>
+ <title>Building Products with FreeBSD</title>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Joseph</firstname>
+ <surname>Koshy</surname>
+ <affiliation>
+ <orgname>The FreeBSD Project</orgname>
+ <address><email>jkoshy@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
+ </affiliation>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+
+ <legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
+ &tm-attrib.freebsd;
+ &tm-attrib.general;
+ </legalnotice>
+
+ <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
+
+ <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
+
+ <abstract>
+ <title>Abstract</title>
+
+ <para>The FreeBSD project is a worldwide, voluntary, and
+ collaborative project, which develops a portable and high-quality
+ operating system. The FreeBSD project distributes the source
+ code for its product under a liberal license, with the
+ intention of encouraging the use of its code. Collaborating
+ with the FreeBSD project can help organizations reduce their
+ time to market, reduce engineering costs and improve their
+ product quality.</para>
+
+ <para>This article examines the issues in using FreeBSD code in
+ appliances and software products. It highlights the
+ characteristics of FreeBSD that make it an excellent substrate
+ for product development. The article concludes by suggesting a
+ few <quote>best practices</quote> for organizations
+ collaborating with the FreeBSD project.</para>
+ </abstract>
+ </articleinfo>
+
+ <sect1 id="introduction">
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD today is well-known as a high-performance server
+ operating system. It is deployed on millions of web servers and
+ internet-facing hosts worldwide. FreeBSD code also forms an
+ integral part of many products, ranging from appliances such as
+ network routers, firewalls, and storage devices, to personal
+ computers. Portions of FreeBSD have also been used in
+ commercial shrink-wrapped software (see
+ <xref linkend="freebsd-intro"/>).</para>
+
+ <para>In this article we look at the <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/">FreeBSD project</ulink> as a software
+ engineering resource&mdash;as a collection of building blocks
+ and processes which you can use to build products.</para>
+
+ <para>While FreeBSD's source is distributed freely to the public,
+ to fully enjoy the benefits of the project's work, organizations
+ need to <emphasis>collaborate</emphasis> with the project. In
+ subsequent sections of this article we discuss effective means
+ of collaboration with the project and the pitfalls that need to
+ be avoided while doing so.</para>
+
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Caveat Reader</title>
+ <para>The author believes that the characteristics of the FreeBSD
+ Project listed in this article were substantially true at the
+ time the article was conceived and written (2005). However, the
+ reader should keep in mind that the practices and processes used
+ by open-source communities can change over time, and that the information
+ in this article should therefore be taken as indicative rather
+ than normative.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Target Audience</title>
+ <para>This document would be of interest to the following broad
+ groups of people:</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Decision makers in product companies looking at
+ ways to improve their product quality, reduce their time
+ to market and lower engineering costs in the long
+ term.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Technology consultants looking for best-practices
+ in leveraging <quote>open-source</quote>.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Industry observers interested in understanding the
+ dynamics of open-source projects.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Software developers seeking to use FreeBSD and
+ looking for ways to contribute back.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Article Goals</title>
+ <para>After reading this article you should have:</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>An understanding of the goals of the FreeBSD
+ Project and its organizational structure.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>An overview of the available technology in the
+ project.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>An understanding of its development model and
+ release engineering processes.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>An understanding of how conventional corporate
+ software development processes differ from that used in
+ the FreeBSD project.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Awareness of the communication channels used by the
+ project and the level of transparency you can
+ expect.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Awareness of optimal ways of working with the
+ project&mdash;how best to reduce engineering costs,
+ improve time to market, manage security vulnerabilities,
+ and preserve future compatibility with your product as the
+ FreeBSD project evolves.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Article Structure</title>
+ <para>The rest of the article is structured as follows:</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara><xref linkend="freebsd-intro"/> introduces the
+ FreeBSD project, explores its organizational structure,
+ key technologies and release engineering
+ processes.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara><xref linkend="freebsd-collaboration"/> describes
+ ways to collaborate with the FreeBSD project. It examines
+ common pitfalls encountered by corporates working with
+ voluntary projects like FreeBSD.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara><xref linkend="conclusion"/> concludes.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="freebsd-intro">
+ <title>FreeBSD as a set of building blocks</title>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD makes an excellent foundation on which to build
+ products:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD source code is distributed under a liberal
+ BSD license facilitating its adoption in commercial products
+ <citation>Mon2005</citation> with minimum hassle.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>The FreeBSD project has excellent engineering
+ practices that can be leveraged.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>The project offers exceptional transparency into its
+ workings, allowing organizations using its code to plan
+ effectively for the future.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>The culture of the FreeBSD project, carried over from
+ the Computer Science Research Group at The University of
+ California, Berkeley <citation>McKu1999-1</citation>,
+ fosters high-quality work. Some features in FreeBSD define
+ the state of the art.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <simpara><citation>GoldGab2005</citation> examines the business
+ reasons for using open-source in greater detail. For
+ organizations, the benefits of using FreeBSD components in their
+ products include a shorter time to market, lower development
+ costs and lower development risks. </simpara>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Building with FreeBSD</title>
+
+ <simpara>Here are a few ways organizations have used
+ FreeBSD:</simpara>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As an upstream source for tested code for libraries
+ and utilities.</simpara>
+ <simpara>By being <quote>downstream</quote> of the project,
+ organizations leverage the new features, bug fixes and
+ testing that the upstream code receives.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As an embedded OS (for example, for an OEM router
+ and firewall device). In this model, organizations use a
+ customized FreeBSD kernel and application program set
+ along with a proprietary management layer for their
+ device. OEMs benefit from new hardware support being added
+ by the FreeBSD project upstream, and from the testing that
+ the base system receives.</simpara>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD ships with a self-hosting development
+ environment that allows easy creation of such
+ configurations.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As a Unix compatible environment for the management
+ functions of high-end storage and networking devices,
+ running on a separate processor <quote>blade</quote>.</simpara>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD provides the tools for creating dedicated
+ OS and application program images. Its implementation of
+ a BSD unix API is mature and tested. FreeBSD can also
+ provide a stable cross-development environment for the
+ other components of the high-end device.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As a vehicle to get widespread testing and support
+ from a worldwide team of developers for non-critical
+ <quote>intellectual property</quote>.</simpara>
+ <simpara>In this model, organizations contribute useful
+ infrastructural frameworks to the FreeBSD project (for
+ example, see &man.netgraph.3;). The widespread
+ exposure that the code gets helps to quickly identify
+ performance issues and bugs. The involvement of
+ top-notch developers also leads to useful extensions to
+ the infrastructure that the contributing organization also
+ benefits from.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As a development environment supporting
+ cross-development for embedded OSes like <ulink
+ url="http://www.rtems.com/">RTEMS</ulink> and <ulink
+ url="http://ecos.sourceware.org/">eCOS</ulink>.</simpara>
+ <simpara>There are many full-fledged development environments
+ in the &os.numports;-strong collection of applications ported and
+ packaged with FreeBSD.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>As a way to support a Unix-like API in an otherwise
+ proprietary OS, increasing its palatability for
+ application developers.</simpara>
+ <simpara>Here parts of FreeBSD's kernel and application
+ programs are <quote>ported</quote> to run alongside
+ other tasks in the proprietary OS. The availability of a
+ stable and well tested <trademark>Unix</trademark> API
+ implementation can reduce the effort needed to port
+ popular applications to the proprietary OS. As FreeBSD
+ ships with high-quality documentation for its internals
+ and has effective vulnerability management and release
+ engineering processes, the costs of keeping upto-date are
+ kept low.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 id="freebsd-technologies">
+ <title>Technologies</title>
+
+ <para>There are a large number of technologies supported by the
+ FreeBSD project. A selection of these are listed
+ below:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>A complete system that can cross-host itself for
+ the following architectures: alpha (up to &os; version 6.X), amd64, ia64, i386,
+ sparc64, powerpc (see &man.build.7;).</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Support for the following technologies, protocols
+ and standards: <!-- Keyword soup. Urk. -->
+ <acronym>ATA</acronym>, <acronym>ATAPI</acronym>,
+ <acronym>ATM</acronym>, <trademark>Bluetooth</trademark>,
+ <acronym>CAM</acronym>, <trademark>CardBus</trademark>,
+ <acronym>DHCP</acronym>, <acronym>DNS</acronym>,
+ <trademark>EISA</trademark>,
+ <trademark>Ethernet</trademark>, <acronym>FDDI</acronym>,
+ Fibre Channel, <acronym>GPIB</acronym>, IEEE 1394, IPv4,
+ IPv6, <acronym>IPSEC</acronym>,
+ <trademark>IPX</trademark>, <acronym>ISDN</acronym>,
+ <acronym>MAC</acronym>, <acronym>NIS</acronym>,
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym>, OpenSSH, <acronym>OPIE</acronym>,
+ <acronym>PAM</acronym>, <trademark>PCI</trademark>,
+ <acronym>PCMCIA</acronym>, <trademark>POSIX</trademark>,
+ <acronym>PnP</acronym>, <acronym>RAID</acronym>,
+ <acronym>RPC</acronym>, <acronym>SATA</acronym>,
+ <acronym>SCSI</acronym>, <acronym>SMB</acronym>,
+ <acronym>TCP</acronym>, <acronym>USB</acronym>,
+ <acronym>VESA</acronym>, <acronym>VLAN</acronym>,
+ <acronym>VLB</acronym>,
+ <trademark>WebNFS</trademark>.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>A modular symmetric multiprocessing capable kernel,
+ with loadable kernel modules and a flexible and easy to
+ use configuration system.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Support for emulation of
+ <trademark>Linux</trademark> and SVR4 binaries at near
+ machine speeds. Support for binary
+ <trademark>Windows</trademark> (<acronym>NDIS</acronym>)
+ network drivers.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Libraries for many programming tasks: archivers,
+ FTP and HTTP support, thread support, in addition to a
+ full <trademark>POSIX</trademark> like programming
+ environment.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Advanced security features: Mandatory Access
+ Control (&man.mac.9;), jails (&man.jail.2;),
+ <acronym>ACL</acronym>s, and in-kernel
+ cryptographic device support.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Advanced networking features: firewall-ing, QoS
+ management, high-performance TCP/IP networking with
+ support for many advanced features.</simpara>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD's in-kernel Netgraph (&man.netgraph.4;)
+ framework allows kernel networking modules to be connected
+ together in flexible ways.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Support for advanced storage technologies: Fibre
+ Channel, <acronym>SCSI</acronym>, software and hardware
+ RAID, <acronym>ATA</acronym> and
+ <acronym>SATA</acronym>.</simpara>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD supports a number of filesystems, and its
+ native UFS2 filesystem supports soft updates, snapshots and
+ very large filesystem sizes (16TB per filesystem)
+ <citation>McKu1999</citation>.</simpara>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD's in-kernel <acronym>GEOM</acronym> (&man.geom.4;)
+ framework allows kernel storage modules to be
+ composed in flexible ways.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Over &os.numports; ported applications, both commercial
+ and open-source, managed via the FreeBSD ports
+ collection.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Organizational Structure</title>
+ <para>FreeBSD's organizational structure is
+ non-hierarchical.</para>
+
+ <para>There are essentially two kinds of contributors to
+ FreeBSD, general users of FreeBSD, and developers with write
+ access (known as <firstterm>committers</firstterm> in the
+ jargon) to the source base.</para>
+
+ <para>There are many thousands of contributors in the first
+ group; the vast majority of contributions to FreeBSD come from
+ individuals in this group. Commit rights (write access) to
+ the repository are granted to individuals who contribute
+ consistently to the project. Commit rights come with
+ additional responsibilities, and new committers are assigned
+ mentors to help them learn the ropes.</para>
+
+ <figure>
+ <title>FreeBSD Organization</title>
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="freebsd-organization" format="PIC"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Conflict resolution is performed by a nine member
+ <quote>Core Team</quote> that is elected from the group of
+ committers.</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD does not have <quote>corporate</quote> committers.
+ Individual committers are required to take responsibility for
+ the changes they introduce to the code. The <ulink
+ url="&url.articles.committers-guide;">FreeBSD Committer's
+ guide</ulink> <citation>ComGuide</citation> documents the
+ rules and responsibilities for committers.</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD's project model is examined in detail in
+ <citation>Nik2005</citation>.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>FreeBSD Release Engineering Processes</title>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD's release engineering processes play a major role
+ in ensuring that its released versions are of a high quality.
+ At any point of time, FreeBSD's volunteers support multiple
+ code lines (<xref linkend="fig-freebsd-branches"/>):</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>New features and disruptive code enters on the
+ development branch, also known as the
+ <firstterm>-CURRENT</firstterm> branch.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara><firstterm>-STABLE</firstterm> branches are code
+ lines that are branched from HEAD at regular intervals.
+ Only tested code is allowed onto a -STABLE branch. New
+ features are allowed once they have been tested and
+ stabilized in the -CURRENT branch.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara><firstterm>-RELEASE</firstterm> branches are
+ maintained by the FreeBSD security team. Only bug fixes
+ for critical issues are permitted onto -RELEASE
+ branches.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <figure id="fig-freebsd-branches">
+ <title>FreeBSD Release Branches</title>
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="freebsd-branches" format="EPS"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Code lines are kept alive for as long as there is user and
+ developer interest in them.</para>
+
+ <para>Machine architectures are grouped into
+ <quote>tiers</quote>; <firstterm>Tier 1</firstterm>
+ architectures are fully supported by the project's release
+ engineering and security teams, <firstterm>Tier 2</firstterm>
+ architectures are supported on a best effort basis, and
+ experimental architectures comprise <firstterm>Tier
+ 3</firstterm>. The list of <ulink
+ url="&url.articles.committers-guide;/archs.html">supported
+ architectures</ulink> is part of the FreeBSD documentation
+ collection.</para>
+
+ <para>The release engineering team publishes a <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/releng/">road map</ulink> for future
+ releases of FreeBSD on the project's web site. The dates laid
+ down in the road map are not deadlines; FreeBSD is released
+ when its code and documentation are ready.</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD's release engineering processes are described in
+ <citation>RelEngDoc</citation>.</para>
+
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="freebsd-collaboration">
+ <title>Collaborating with FreeBSD</title>
+
+ <para>Open-source projects like FreeBSD offer finished code of a
+ very high quality <citation>Cov2005</citation>. Previous
+ studies have examined the effect of source code availability on
+ software development <citation>Com2004</citation>.</para>
+
+ <para>While access to quality source code can reduce the cost of
+ initial development, in the long-term the costs of managing
+ change begin to dominate. As computing environments change over
+ the years and new security vulnerabilities are discovered, your
+ product too needs to change and adapt. Using open-source code is
+ best viewed not as a one-off activity, but as an
+ <emphasis>ongoing process</emphasis>. The best projects to
+ collaborate with are the ones that are
+ <emphasis>live</emphasis>; i.e., with an active community, clear
+ goals and a transparent working style.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD has an active developer community around it.
+ At the time of writing there are many thousands of
+ contributors from every populated continent in the world and
+ over 300 individuals with write access to the project's
+ source repositories.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>The goals of the FreeBSD project are
+ <citation>Hub1994</citation>:</simpara>
+ <itemizedlist spacing="compact">
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>To develop a high-quality operating system for
+ popular computer hardware, and,</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>To make our work available to all under a liberal
+ license.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD enjoys an open and transparent working
+ culture. Nearly all discussion in the project happens by
+ email, on <ulink url="&a.mailman.listinfo;">public mailing
+ lists</ulink> that are also archived for posterity. The
+ project's policies are <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/internal/policies.html">documented</ulink>
+ and maintained under revision control. Participation in the
+ project is open to all.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <sect2 id="freebsd-org">
+ <title>Understanding FreeBSD culture</title>
+
+ <para>To be able to work effectively with the FreeBSD project,
+ you need to understand the project's culture.</para>
+
+ <para>Volunteer driven projects operate under different rules
+ than for-profit corporates. A common mistake that companies
+ make when venturing into the open-source world is that of
+ underplaying these differences.</para>
+
+ <!-- XXX using <formalpara> constructs is clunky, but I like using
+ <variablelist> even less -->
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Motivation</title>
+
+ <para>Most contributions to FreeBSD are done voluntarily
+ without monetary rewards entering the picture. The factors
+ that motivate individuals are complex, ranging from
+ altruism, to an interest in solving the kinds of problems
+ that FreeBSD attempts to solve. In this environment,
+ <quote>elegance is never optional</quote>
+ <citation>Nor1993</citation>.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>The Long Term View</title>
+ <para>FreeBSD traces its roots back nearly twenty years to the
+ work of the Computer Science Research Group at the
+ University of California Berkeley.<footnote>
+ <simpara>FreeBSD's <ulink
+ url="http://cvsweb.freebsd.org/">source
+ repository</ulink> contains a history of the project
+ since its inception, and there are <ulink
+ url="http://www.mckusick.com/csrg/">CDROMs
+ available</ulink> that contain earlier code from the
+ CSRG.</simpara>
+ </footnote> A number of the original CSRG developers remain
+ associated with the project.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+
+ <para>The project values long-term perspectives
+ <citation>Nor2001</citation>. A frequent acronym encountered
+ in the project is <acronym>DTRT</acronym>, which stands for
+ <quote>Do The Right Thing</quote>.</para>
+
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Development Processes</title>
+ <para>Computer programs are tools for communication: at one
+ level programmers communicate their intentions using a
+ precise notation to a tool (a compiler) that translates
+ their instructions to executable code. At another level,
+ the same notation is used for communication of intent
+ between two programmers.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+
+ <para>Formal specifications and design documents are seldom used
+ in the project. Clear and well-written code and well-written
+ change logs (<xref linkend="fig-change-log"/>) are used in
+ their place. FreeBSD development happens by <quote>rough
+ consensus and running code</quote>
+ <citation>Carp1996</citation>.</para>
+
+ <figure id="fig-change-log">
+ <title>A sample change log entry</title>
+ <programlisting>
+bde 2005-10-29 16:34:50 UTC
+
+ FreeBSD src repository
+
+ Modified files:
+ lib/msun/src e_rem_pio2f.c
+ Log:
+ Use double precision to simplify and optimize arg reduction for small
+ and medium size args too: instead of conditionally subtracting a float
+ 17+24, 17+17+24 or 17+17+17+24 bit approximation to pi/2, always
+ subtract a double 33+53 bit one. The float version is now closer to
+ the double version than to old versions of itself &mdash; it uses the same
+ 33+53 bit approximation as the simplest cases in the double version,
+ and where the float version had to switch to the slow general case at
+ |x| == 2^7*pi/2, it now switches at |x| == 2^19*pi/2 the same as the
+ double version.
+
+ This speeds up arg reduction by a factor of 2 for |x| between 3*pi/4 and
+ 2^7*pi/4, and by a factor of 7 for |x| between 2^7*pi/4 and 2^19*pi/4.
+
+ Revision Changes Path
+ 1.14 +22 -97 src/lib/msun/src/e_rem_pio2f.c
+ </programlisting>
+ </figure>
+
+ <simpara>Communication between programmers is enhanced by the
+ use of a common coding standard &man.style.9;.</simpara>
+
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Communication Channels</title>
+ <para>FreeBSD's contributors are spread across the world.
+ Email (and to a lesser extent, IRC) is the preferred means
+ of communication in the project.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Best Practices for collaborating with the FreeBSD
+ project</title>
+
+ <para>We now look at a few best practices for making the best
+ use of FreeBSD in product development.</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Plan for the long term</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Setup processes that help in tracking the development of
+ FreeBSD. For example:</para>
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Track FreeBSD source code</title>
+ <para>The project makes it easy to mirror its CVS
+ repository using <ulink
+ url="&url.articles.cvsup-advanced;"><!--
+ --><application>CVSup</application></ulink>. Having
+ the complete history of the source is useful when
+ debugging complex problems and offers valuable insight
+ into the intentions of the original developers. Use a
+ capable source control system that allows you to
+ easily merge changes between the upstream FreeBSD code
+ base and your own in-house code.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+ <para><xref linkend="fig-cvs-annotate"/> shows a portion of
+ an annotated listing of the file referenced by the
+ change log in <xref linkend="fig-change-log"/>. The
+ ancestry of each line of the source is clearly visible.
+ Annotated listings showing the history of every file
+ that is part of FreeBSD are <ulink
+ url="http://cvsweb.freebsd.org/">available on the
+ web</ulink>.</para>
+ <figure id="fig-cvs-annotate">
+ <title>An annotated source listing generated using <command>cvs annotate</command></title>
+ <programlisting>
+<![CDATA[
+#LINE #REV #WHO #DATE #TEXT
+
+62 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): int32_t __ieee754_rem_pio2f(float x, float *y)
+63 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): {
+64 1.14 (bde 29-Oct-05): double z,w,t,r,fn;
+65 1.13 (bde 29-Oct-05): double tx[3];
+66 1.14 (bde 29-Oct-05): int32_t e0,i,nx,n,ix,hx;
+67 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94):
+68 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): GET_FLOAT_WORD(hx,x);
+69 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): ix = hx&0x7fffffff;
+70 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): if(ix<=0x3f490fd8) /* |x| ~<= pi/4 , no need for reduction */
+71 1.1 (jkh 19-Aug-94): {y[0] = x; y[1] = 0; return 0;}
+72 1.14 (bde 29-Oct-05): /* 33+53 bit pi is good enough for special and medium size cases */
+73 1.2 (bde 07-Apr-95): if(ix<0x4016cbe4) { /* |x| < 3pi/4, special case with n=+-1 */
+74 1.14 (bde 29-Oct-05): if(hx>0) {
+75 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): z = x - pio2;
+76 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): n = 1;
+77 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): } else {
+78 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): z = x + pio2;
+79 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): n = 3;
+80 1.9 (bde 08-Oct-05): }
+81 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): y[0] = z;
+82 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): y[1] = z - y[0];
+83 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): return n;
+84 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): }
+85 1.15 (bde 06-Nov-05): if(ix<0x407b53d1) { /* |x| < 5*pi/4, special case with n=+-2 */
+]]>
+ </programlisting>
+ </figure>
+
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Use a gatekeeper</title>
+ <para>Appoint a <firstterm>gatekeeper</firstterm> to
+ monitor FreeBSD development, to keep an eye out for
+ changes that could potentially impact your
+ products.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+ <formalpara>
+ <title>Report bugs upstream</title>
+ <para>If you notice bug in the FreeBSD code that you are
+ using, file a <ulink url="&url.base;/send-pr.html">bug
+ report</ulink>. This step helps ensure that you do
+ not have to fix the bug the next time you take a code
+ drop from upstream.</para>
+ </formalpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Leverage FreeBSD's release engineering efforts</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Use code from a -STABLE development branch of
+ FreeBSD. These development branches are formally
+ supported by FreeBSD's release engineering and security
+ teams and comprise of tested code.
+ </simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Donate code to reduce costs</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>A major proportion of the costs associated with
+ developing products is that of doing maintenance. By
+ donating non-critical code to the project, you benefit
+ by having your code see much wider exposure than it
+ would otherwise get. This in turn leads to more bugs
+ and security vulnerabilities being flushed out and
+ performance anomalies being identified and fixed.
+ </simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Get support effectively</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>For products with tight deadlines, it is
+ recommended that you hire or enter into a consulting
+ agreement with a developer or firm with FreeBSD
+ experience. The &a.jobs; is a useful communication
+ channel to find talent. The FreeBSD project maintains a
+ <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/commercial/consult_bycat.html">gallery
+ of consultants and consulting firms</ulink>
+ undertaking FreeBSD work. The <ulink
+ url="http://www.bsdcertification.org/">BSD
+ Certification Group</ulink> offers certification for
+ all the major BSD derived OSes.</simpara>
+
+ <simpara>For less critical needs, you can ask for help on
+ the <ulink
+ url="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo">project
+ mailing lists</ulink>. A useful guide to follow when
+ asking for help is given in
+ <citation>Ray2004</citation>.
+ </simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Publicize your involvement</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>You are not required to publicize your use of
+ FreeBSD, but doing so helps both your effort as well as
+ that of the project.</simpara>
+ <simpara>Letting the FreeBSD community know that your
+ company uses FreeBSD helps improve your chances of
+ attracting high quality talent. A large roster of
+ support for FreeBSD also means more mind share for it
+ among developers. This in turn yields a healthier
+ foundation for your future.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Support FreeBSD developers</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <simpara>Sometimes the most direct way to get a desired
+ feature into FreeBSD is to support a developer who is
+ already looking at a related problem. Help can range
+ from hardware donations to direct financial assistance.
+ In some countries, donations to the FreeBSD project
+ enjoy tax benefits. The project has a dedicated <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/donations/">donations liaison</ulink>
+ to assist donors. The project also maintains a web page
+ where developers <ulink
+ url="&url.base;/donations/wantlist.html">list their
+ needs</ulink>.
+ </simpara>
+ <simpara>As a policy the FreeBSD project <ulink
+ url="&url.articles.contributors;">acknowledges</ulink>
+ all contributions received on its web site.</simpara>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="conclusion">
+ <title>Conclusion</title>
+ <para>The FreeBSD project's goals are to create and give away the
+ source code for a high-quality operating system. By working
+ with the FreeBSD project you can reduce development costs and
+ improve your time to market in a number of product development
+ scenarios.</para>
+ <para>We examined the characteristics of the FreeBSD project that
+ make it an excellent choice for being part of an organization's
+ product strategy. We then looked at the prevailing culture of
+ the project and examined effective ways of interacting with its
+ developers. The article concluded with a list of best-practices
+ that could help organizations collaborating with the
+ project.</para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <bibliography>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>Carp1996</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1958.txt">The
+ Architectural Principles of the Internet</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>B.</firstname>
+ <surname>Carpenter</surname>
+ <affiliation>
+ <orgname>The Internet Architecture Board</orgname>
+ </affiliation>
+ </author>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>1996</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry xreflabel="Com2004">
+ <abbrev>Com2004</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/so/2004/01/s1028.pdf">How
+ is Open-Source Affecting Software
+ Development?</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Diomidis</firstname>
+ <surname>Spinellis</surname>
+ </author>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Clemens</firstname>
+ <surname>Szyperski</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <title>IEEE Computer</title>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>Jan/Feb 2004</year>
+ </copyright>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>IEEE Computer Society</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>ComGuide</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="&url.articles.committers-guide;">Committer's
+ Guide</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <corpauthor>The FreeBSD Project</corpauthor>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>Cov2005</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://www.coverity.com/news/nf_news_06_27_05_story_9.html">Coverity
+ study on kernel security holes in Linux and FreeBSD</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <corpauthor>Coverity Inc.</corpauthor>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>GoldGab2005</abbrev> <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://dreamsongs.com/IHE/IHE.html">Innovation Happens
+ Elsewhere: Open Source as Business Strategy</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Ron</firstname>
+ <surname>Goldman</surname>
+ </author>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Richard</firstname>
+ <surname>Gabriel</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ <isbn>ISBN 1558608893</isbn>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>Morgan-Kaufmann</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry xreflabel="Hub1994">
+ <!-- XXX Get the date of this article right -->
+ <abbrev>Hub1994</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="&url.articles.contributing;">Contributing
+ to the FreeBSD Project</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Jordan</firstname>
+ <surname>Hubbard</surname>
+ </author>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>1994&mdash;2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>The FreeBSD Project</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>McKu1999</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/usenix99/mckusick.html">Soft
+ Updates: A Technique for Eliminating Most Synchronous Writes
+ in the Fast Filesystem</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Kirk</firstname>
+ <surname>McKusick</surname>
+ </author>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Gregory</firstname>
+ <surname>Ganger</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <confgroup>
+ <conftitle>USENIX Annual Technical Conference</conftitle>
+ </confgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>1999</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>McKu1999-1</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html"
+ >Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix: From AT&amp;T-Owned to
+ Freely Redistributable</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Marshall Kirk</firstname>
+ <surname>McKusick</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <title><ulink
+ url="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/toc.html">Open
+ Sources: Voices from the Open Source
+ Revolution</ulink></title>
+ <isbn>ISBN 1-56592-582-3</isbn>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>O'Reilly Inc.</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>1993</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>Mon2005</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="&url.articles.bsdl-gpl;/article.html">Why you should
+ use a BSD style license for your Open Source
+ Project</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Bruce</firstname>
+ <surname>Montague</surname>
+ </author>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>The FreeBSD Project</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry xreflabel="Nik2005">
+ <abbrev>Nik2005</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="&url.books.dev-model;/book.html">A
+ project model for the FreeBSD Project</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Niklas</firstname>
+ <surname>Saers</surname>
+ </author>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2005</year>
+ </copyright>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>The FreeBSD Project</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry xreflabel="Nor1993">
+ <abbrev>Nor1993</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://www.norvig.com/luv-slides.ps">Tutorial
+ on Good Lisp Programming Style</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Peter</firstname>
+ <surname>Norvig</surname>
+ </author>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Kent</firstname>
+ <surname>Pitman</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>1993</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>Nor2001</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="http://www.norvig.com/21-days.html">Teach
+ Yourself Programming in Ten Years</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Peter</firstname>
+ <surname>Norvig</surname>
+ </author>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2001</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>Ray2004</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink
+ url="http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html">How
+ to ask questions the smart way</ulink></citetitle>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Eric Steven</firstname>
+ <surname>Raymond</surname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2004</year>
+ </copyright>
+ </biblioentry>
+ <biblioentry>
+ <abbrev>RelEngDoc</abbrev>
+ <citetitle><ulink url="&url.articles.releng;">FreeBSD Release
+ Engineering</ulink></citetitle>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Murray</firstname>
+ <surname>Stokely</surname>
+ </author>
+ <copyright>
+ <year>2001</year>
+ </copyright>
+ <publisher>
+ <publishername>The FreeBSD Project</publishername>
+ </publisher>
+ </biblioentry>
+ </bibliography>
+
+</article>
View
14 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml
@@ -1,19 +1,19 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" standalone="no"?>
-
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.2-Based Extension//PTBR" "../../../share/sgml/freebsd42.dtd" [
- <!ENTITY % entities PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PTBR" "../../share/sgml/entities.ent">
+<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.2-Based Extension//EN"
+ "../../../share/sgml/freebsd42.dtd" [
+ <!ENTITY % entities PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PT"
+ "../../share/sgml/entities.ent">
%entities;
]>
<!--
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" standalone="no"?>
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
The FreeBSD Brazilian Portuguese Documentation Project
Original revision: r39544
-->
-<article lang='pt_BR'>
+<article lang='pt_br'>
<articleinfo>
<title>Espelhando o FreeBSD</title>
<authorgroup>
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
</author>
</authorgroup>
- <legalnotice id="TRADEMARKS" role="trademarks">
+ <legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
&tm-attrib.cvsup;
&tm-attrib.general;
@@ -976,7 +976,7 @@ cvspserver stream tcp nowait root /usr/bin/cvs cvs -f -l -R -T /anoncvstmp --all
role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> � composto
atualmente por 2 servidores, um est� localizado a
Dinamarca e o outro nos Estados Unidos. Ele
- <emphasis>N&Atilde;O</emphasis> � um site mestre e
+ <emphasis>NO</emphasis> � um site mestre e
n�o deve nunca ser utilizado como servidor de upstream
para o seu espelhamento. Um grande n�mero de
documentos online conduzem de forma interativa o
View
6 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/book.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" standalone="no"?>
-<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.2-Based Extension//PTBR"
+<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.2-Based Extension//EN"
"../../../share/sgml/freebsd42.dtd" [
-<!ENTITY % entities PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PTBR" "../../share/sgml/entities.ent">
+<!ENTITY % entities PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PT" "../../share/sgml/entities.ent">
%entities;
<!ENTITY % chapters SYSTEM "chapters.ent"> %chapters;
<!ENTITY % not.published "INCLUDE">
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
-->
-<book lang='pt_BR'>
+<book lang='pt_br'>
<bookinfo>
<title>&a.ptbr.p.fdpp; para novos colaboradores</title>
<corpauthor>Projeto de documenta��o do
View
4 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/sgml-primer/chapter.sgml
@@ -524,7 +524,7 @@ setenv SGML_CATALOG_FILES /usr/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/share/sgml/catalog:$SGML_CATA
<para>Um dos componentes do
<filename role="package">textproc/docproj</filename>
� o <command>onsgmls</command>, um <link
- linkend="sgml-primer-validating">interpretador de
+ linkend="xml-primer-validating">interpretador de
valida��o</link>. Normalmente, o
<command>onsgmls</command> l� um documento marcado
de acordo com um DTD SGML e retorna uma c�pia do
@@ -702,7 +702,7 @@ onsgmls:example.sgml:6:8:E: end tag for "HEAD" which is not finished</screen>
<listitem>
<para>O nome do primeiro
- <link linkend="sgml-primer-elements">elemento</link> o
+ <link linkend="xml-primer-elements">elemento</link> o
qual ir� aparecer no documento</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
View
1  pt_BR.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/chapters.ent
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@
<!ENTITY % chap.disks "IGNORE">
<!ENTITY % chap.geom "IGNORE">
<!ENTITY % chap.vinum "IGNORE">
+<!ENTITY % chap.virtualization "IGNORE">
<!ENTITY % chap.x11 "IGNORE">
<!ENTITY % chap.l10n "IGNORE">
<!ENTITY % chap.multimedia "IGNORE">
View
20 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/share/sgml/catalog
@@ -13,36 +13,36 @@
-- $FreeBSD: head/pt_BR.ISO8859-1/share/sgml/catalog 39534 2012-09-14 12:11:19Z gabor $
--
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Entity Set//PT"
"entities.ent"
PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DOCUMENT DocBook Stylesheet//EN"
"freebsd.dsl"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//PT"
"mailing-lists.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Language Specific Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Language Specific Entities//PT"
"l10n.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Newsgroup Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Newsgroup Entities//PT"
"newsgroups.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PT"
"teams.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Translators Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Translators Entities//PT"
"translators.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//PT"
"trademarks.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Specific Word Translations Entities//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Specific Word Translations Entities//PT"
"words.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Books Entity Set//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Books Entity Set//PT"
"books.ent"
-PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Articles Entity Set//PTBR"
+PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook FreeBSD Articles Entity Set//PT"
"articles.ent"
View
14 pt_BR.ISO8859-1/share/sgml/entities.ent
@@ -7,19 +7,19 @@
%man;
<!ENTITY % freebsd PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Miscellaneous FreeBSD Entities//EN">
%freebsd;
-<!ENTITY % translators PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % translators PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PT">
%translators;
-<!ENTITY % words PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Specific Word Translations Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % words PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Specific Word Translations Entities//PT">
%words;
-<!ENTITY % l10n PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Language Specific Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % l10n PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Language Specific Entities//PT">
%l10n;
-<!ENTITY % mailing-lists PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % mailing-lists PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//PT">
%mailing-lists;
-<!ENTITY % newsgroups PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Newsgroup Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % newsgroups PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Newsgroup Entities//PT">
%newsgroups;
-<!ENTITY % teams PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % teams PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//PT">
%teams;
-<!ENTITY % trademarks PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//PTBR">
+<!ENTITY % trademarks PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//PT">
%trademarks;
<!ENTITY % trademarks-en PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Trademark Entities//EN">
%trademarks-en;

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