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// +build linux
package overlay2 // import "github.com/docker/docker/daemon/graphdriver/overlay2"
import (
"context"
"errors"
"fmt"
"io"
"io/ioutil"
"os"
"path"
"path/filepath"
"strconv"
"strings"
"sync"
"github.com/docker/docker/daemon/graphdriver"
"github.com/docker/docker/daemon/graphdriver/overlayutils"
"github.com/docker/docker/daemon/graphdriver/quota"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/archive"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/chrootarchive"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/containerfs"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/directory"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/fsutils"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/idtools"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/locker"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/mount"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/parsers"
"github.com/docker/docker/pkg/system"
units "github.com/docker/go-units"
rsystem "github.com/opencontainers/runc/libcontainer/system"
"github.com/opencontainers/selinux/go-selinux/label"
"github.com/sirupsen/logrus"
"golang.org/x/sys/unix"
)
var (
// untar defines the untar method
untar = chrootarchive.UntarUncompressed
)
// This backend uses the overlay union filesystem for containers
// with diff directories for each layer.
// This version of the overlay driver requires at least kernel
// 4.0.0 in order to support mounting multiple diff directories.
// Each container/image has at least a "diff" directory and "link" file.
// If there is also a "lower" file when there are diff layers
// below as well as "merged" and "work" directories. The "diff" directory
// has the upper layer of the overlay and is used to capture any
// changes to the layer. The "lower" file contains all the lower layer
// mounts separated by ":" and ordered from uppermost to lowermost
// layers. The overlay itself is mounted in the "merged" directory,
// and the "work" dir is needed for overlay to work.
// The "link" file for each layer contains a unique string for the layer.
// Under the "l" directory at the root there will be a symbolic link
// with that unique string pointing the "diff" directory for the layer.
// The symbolic links are used to reference lower layers in the "lower"
// file and on mount. The links are used to shorten the total length
// of a layer reference without requiring changes to the layer identifier
// or root directory. Mounts are always done relative to root and
// referencing the symbolic links in order to ensure the number of
// lower directories can fit in a single page for making the mount
// syscall. A hard upper limit of 128 lower layers is enforced to ensure
// that mounts do not fail due to length.
const (
driverName = "overlay2"
linkDir = "l"
diffDirName = "diff"
workDirName = "work"
mergedDirName = "merged"
lowerFile = "lower"
maxDepth = 128
// idLength represents the number of random characters
// which can be used to create the unique link identifier
// for every layer. If this value is too long then the
// page size limit for the mount command may be exceeded.
// The idLength should be selected such that following equation
// is true (512 is a buffer for label metadata).
// ((idLength + len(linkDir) + 1) * maxDepth) <= (pageSize - 512)
idLength = 26
)
type overlayOptions struct {
overrideKernelCheck bool
quota quota.Quota
}
// Driver contains information about the home directory and the list of active
// mounts that are created using this driver.
type Driver struct {
home string
uidMaps []idtools.IDMap
gidMaps []idtools.IDMap
ctr *graphdriver.RefCounter
quotaCtl *quota.Control
options overlayOptions
naiveDiff graphdriver.DiffDriver
supportsDType bool
locker *locker.Locker
}
var (
logger = logrus.WithField("storage-driver", "overlay2")
backingFs = "<unknown>"
projectQuotaSupported = false
useNaiveDiffLock sync.Once
useNaiveDiffOnly bool
indexOff string
)
func init() {
graphdriver.Register(driverName, Init)
}
// Init returns the native diff driver for overlay filesystem.
// If overlay filesystem is not supported on the host, the error
// graphdriver.ErrNotSupported is returned.
// If an overlay filesystem is not supported over an existing filesystem then
// the error graphdriver.ErrIncompatibleFS is returned.
func Init(home string, options []string, uidMaps, gidMaps []idtools.IDMap) (graphdriver.Driver, error) {
opts, err := parseOptions(options)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
// Perform feature detection on /var/lib/docker/overlay2 if it's an existing directory.
// This covers situations where /var/lib/docker/overlay2 is a mount, and on a different
// filesystem than /var/lib/docker.
// If the path does not exist, fall back to using /var/lib/docker for feature detection.
testdir := home
if _, err := os.Stat(testdir); os.IsNotExist(err) {
testdir = filepath.Dir(testdir)
}
if err := overlayutils.SupportsOverlay(testdir, true); err != nil {
logger.Error(err)
return nil, graphdriver.ErrNotSupported
}
supportsDType, err := fsutils.SupportsDType(testdir)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
if !supportsDType {
if !graphdriver.IsInitialized(home) {
return nil, overlayutils.ErrDTypeNotSupported("overlay2", backingFs)
}
// allow running without d_type only for existing setups (#27443)
logger.Warn(overlayutils.ErrDTypeNotSupported("overlay2", backingFs))
}
rootUID, rootGID, err := idtools.GetRootUIDGID(uidMaps, gidMaps)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
// Create the driver home dir
if err := idtools.MkdirAllAndChown(path.Join(home, linkDir), 0700, idtools.Identity{UID: rootUID, GID: rootGID}); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
d := &Driver{
home: home,
uidMaps: uidMaps,
gidMaps: gidMaps,
ctr: graphdriver.NewRefCounter(graphdriver.NewFsChecker(graphdriver.FsMagicOverlay)),
supportsDType: supportsDType,
locker: locker.New(),
options: *opts,
}
d.naiveDiff = graphdriver.NewNaiveDiffDriver(d, uidMaps, gidMaps)
if backingFs == "xfs" {
// Try to enable project quota support over xfs.
if d.quotaCtl, err = quota.NewControl(home); err == nil {
projectQuotaSupported = true
} else if opts.quota.Size > 0 {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("Storage option overlay2.size not supported. Filesystem does not support Project Quota: %v", err)
}
} else if opts.quota.Size > 0 {
// if xfs is not the backing fs then error out if the storage-opt overlay2.size is used.
return nil, fmt.Errorf("Storage Option overlay2.size only supported for backingFS XFS. Found %v", backingFs)
}
// figure out whether "index=off" option is recognized by the kernel
_, err = os.Stat("/sys/module/overlay/parameters/index")
switch {
case err == nil:
indexOff = "index=off,"
case os.IsNotExist(err):
// old kernel, no index -- do nothing
default:
logger.Warnf("Unable to detect whether overlay kernel module supports index parameter: %s", err)
}
logger.Debugf("backingFs=%s, projectQuotaSupported=%v, indexOff=%q", backingFs, projectQuotaSupported, indexOff)
return d, nil
}
func parseOptions(options []string) (*overlayOptions, error) {
o := &overlayOptions{}
for _, option := range options {
key, val, err := parsers.ParseKeyValueOpt(option)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
key = strings.ToLower(key)
switch key {
case "overlay2.override_kernel_check":
o.overrideKernelCheck, err = strconv.ParseBool(val)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
case "overlay2.size":
size, err := units.RAMInBytes(val)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
o.quota.Size = uint64(size)
default:
return nil, fmt.Errorf("overlay2: unknown option %s", key)
}
}
return o, nil
}
func useNaiveDiff(home string) bool {
useNaiveDiffLock.Do(func() {
if err := doesSupportNativeDiff(home); err != nil {
logger.Warnf("Not using native diff for overlay2, this may cause degraded performance for building images: %v", err)
useNaiveDiffOnly = true
}
})
return useNaiveDiffOnly
}
func (d *Driver) String() string {
return driverName
}
// Status returns current driver information in a two dimensional string array.
// Output contains "Backing Filesystem" used in this implementation.
func (d *Driver) Status() [][2]string {
return [][2]string{
{"Backing Filesystem", backingFs},
{"Supports d_type", strconv.FormatBool(d.supportsDType)},
{"Native Overlay Diff", strconv.FormatBool(!useNaiveDiff(d.home))},
}
}
// GetMetadata returns metadata about the overlay driver such as the LowerDir,
// UpperDir, WorkDir, and MergeDir used to store data.
func (d *Driver) GetMetadata(id string) (map[string]string, error) {
dir := d.dir(id)
if _, err := os.Stat(dir); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
metadata := map[string]string{
"WorkDir": path.Join(dir, workDirName),
"MergedDir": path.Join(dir, mergedDirName),
"UpperDir": path.Join(dir, diffDirName),
}
lowerDirs, err := d.getLowerDirs(id)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
if len(lowerDirs) > 0 {
metadata["LowerDir"] = strings.Join(lowerDirs, ":")
}
return metadata, nil
}
// Cleanup any state created by overlay which should be cleaned when daemon
// is being shutdown. For now, we just have to unmount the bind mounted
// we had created.
func (d *Driver) Cleanup() error {
return mount.RecursiveUnmount(d.home)
}
// CreateReadWrite creates a layer that is writable for use as a container
// file system.
func (d *Driver) CreateReadWrite(id, parent string, opts *graphdriver.CreateOpts) error {
if opts != nil && len(opts.StorageOpt) != 0 && !projectQuotaSupported {
return fmt.Errorf("--storage-opt is supported only for overlay over xfs with 'pquota' mount option")
}
if opts == nil {
opts = &graphdriver.CreateOpts{
StorageOpt: map[string]string{},
}
}
if _, ok := opts.StorageOpt["size"]; !ok {
if opts.StorageOpt == nil {
opts.StorageOpt = map[string]string{}
}
opts.StorageOpt["size"] = strconv.FormatUint(d.options.quota.Size, 10)
}
return d.create(id, parent, opts)
}
// Create is used to create the upper, lower, and merge directories required for overlay fs for a given id.
// The parent filesystem is used to configure these directories for the overlay.
func (d *Driver) Create(id, parent string, opts *graphdriver.CreateOpts) (retErr error) {
if opts != nil && len(opts.StorageOpt) != 0 {
if _, ok := opts.StorageOpt["size"]; ok {
return fmt.Errorf("--storage-opt size is only supported for ReadWrite Layers")
}
}
return d.create(id, parent, opts)
}
func (d *Driver) create(id, parent string, opts *graphdriver.CreateOpts) (retErr error) {
dir := d.dir(id)
rootUID, rootGID, err := idtools.GetRootUIDGID(d.uidMaps, d.gidMaps)
if err != nil {
return err
}
root := idtools.Identity{UID: rootUID, GID: rootGID}
if err := idtools.MkdirAllAndChown(path.Dir(dir), 0700, root); err != nil {
return err
}
if err := idtools.MkdirAndChown(dir, 0700, root); err != nil {
return err
}
defer func() {
// Clean up on failure
if retErr != nil {
os.RemoveAll(dir)
}
}()
if opts != nil && len(opts.StorageOpt) > 0 {
driver := &Driver{}
if err := d.parseStorageOpt(opts.StorageOpt, driver); err != nil {
return err
}
if driver.options.quota.Size > 0 {
// Set container disk quota limit
if err := d.quotaCtl.SetQuota(dir, driver.options.quota); err != nil {
return err
}
}
}
if err := idtools.MkdirAndChown(path.Join(dir, diffDirName), 0755, root); err != nil {
return err
}
lid := generateID(idLength)
if err := os.Symlink(path.Join("..", id, diffDirName), path.Join(d.home, linkDir, lid)); err != nil {
return err
}
// Write link id to link file
if err := ioutil.WriteFile(path.Join(dir, "link"), []byte(lid), 0644); err != nil {
return err
}
// if no parent directory, done
if parent == "" {
return nil
}
if err := idtools.MkdirAndChown(path.Join(dir, workDirName), 0700, root); err != nil {
return err
}
if err := ioutil.WriteFile(path.Join(d.dir(parent), "committed"), []byte{}, 0600); err != nil {
return err
}
lower, err := d.getLower(parent)
if err != nil {
return err
}
if lower != "" {
if err := ioutil.WriteFile(path.Join(dir, lowerFile), []byte(lower), 0666); err != nil {
return err
}
}
return nil
}
// Parse overlay storage options
func (d *Driver) parseStorageOpt(storageOpt map[string]string, driver *Driver) error {
// Read size to set the disk project quota per container
for key, val := range storageOpt {
key := strings.ToLower(key)
switch key {
case "size":
size, err := units.RAMInBytes(val)
if err != nil {
return err
}
driver.options.quota.Size = uint64(size)
default:
return fmt.Errorf("Unknown option %s", key)
}
}
return nil
}
func (d *Driver) getLower(parent string) (string, error) {
parentDir := d.dir(parent)
// Ensure parent exists
if _, err := os.Lstat(parentDir); err != nil {
return "", err
}
// Read Parent link fileA
parentLink, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(parentDir, "link"))
if err != nil {
return "", err
}
lowers := []string{path.Join(linkDir, string(parentLink))}
parentLower, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(parentDir, lowerFile))
if err == nil {
parentLowers := strings.Split(string(parentLower), ":")
lowers = append(lowers, parentLowers...)
}
if len(lowers) > maxDepth {
return "", errors.New("max depth exceeded")
}
return strings.Join(lowers, ":"), nil
}
func (d *Driver) dir(id string) string {
return path.Join(d.home, id)
}
func (d *Driver) getLowerDirs(id string) ([]string, error) {
var lowersArray []string
lowers, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(d.dir(id), lowerFile))
if err == nil {
for _, s := range strings.Split(string(lowers), ":") {
lp, err := os.Readlink(path.Join(d.home, s))
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
lowersArray = append(lowersArray, path.Clean(path.Join(d.home, linkDir, lp)))
}
} else if !os.IsNotExist(err) {
return nil, err
}
return lowersArray, nil
}
// Remove cleans the directories that are created for this id.
func (d *Driver) Remove(id string) error {
if id == "" {
return fmt.Errorf("refusing to remove the directories: id is empty")
}
d.locker.Lock(id)
defer d.locker.Unlock(id)
dir := d.dir(id)
lid, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(dir, "link"))
if err == nil {
if len(lid) == 0 {
logger.Errorf("refusing to remove empty link for layer %v", id)
} else if err := os.RemoveAll(path.Join(d.home, linkDir, string(lid))); err != nil {
logger.Debugf("Failed to remove link: %v", err)
}
}
if err := system.EnsureRemoveAll(dir); err != nil && !os.IsNotExist(err) {
return err
}
return nil
}
// Get creates and mounts the required file system for the given id and returns the mount path.
func (d *Driver) Get(id, mountLabel string) (_ containerfs.ContainerFS, retErr error) {
d.locker.Lock(id)
defer d.locker.Unlock(id)
dir := d.dir(id)
if _, err := os.Stat(dir); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
diffDir := path.Join(dir, diffDirName)
lowers, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(dir, lowerFile))
if err != nil {
// If no lower, just return diff directory
if os.IsNotExist(err) {
return containerfs.NewLocalContainerFS(diffDir), nil
}
return nil, err
}
mergedDir := path.Join(dir, mergedDirName)
if count := d.ctr.Increment(mergedDir); count > 1 {
return containerfs.NewLocalContainerFS(mergedDir), nil
}
defer func() {
if retErr != nil {
if c := d.ctr.Decrement(mergedDir); c <= 0 {
if mntErr := unix.Unmount(mergedDir, 0); mntErr != nil {
logger.Errorf("error unmounting %v: %v", mergedDir, mntErr)
}
// Cleanup the created merged directory; see the comment in Put's rmdir
if rmErr := unix.Rmdir(mergedDir); rmErr != nil && !os.IsNotExist(rmErr) {
logger.Debugf("Failed to remove %s: %v: %v", id, rmErr, err)
}
}
}
}()
workDir := path.Join(dir, workDirName)
splitLowers := strings.Split(string(lowers), ":")
absLowers := make([]string, len(splitLowers))
for i, s := range splitLowers {
absLowers[i] = path.Join(d.home, s)
}
var readonly bool
if _, err := os.Stat(path.Join(dir, "committed")); err == nil {
readonly = true
} else if !os.IsNotExist(err) {
return nil, err
}
var opts string
if readonly {
opts = indexOff + "lowerdir=" + diffDir + ":" + strings.Join(absLowers, ":")
} else {
opts = indexOff + "lowerdir=" + strings.Join(absLowers, ":") + ",upperdir=" + diffDir + ",workdir=" + workDir
}
mountData := label.FormatMountLabel(opts, mountLabel)
mount := unix.Mount
mountTarget := mergedDir
rootUID, rootGID, err := idtools.GetRootUIDGID(d.uidMaps, d.gidMaps)
if err != nil {
return nil, err
}
if err := idtools.MkdirAndChown(mergedDir, 0700, idtools.Identity{UID: rootUID, GID: rootGID}); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
pageSize := unix.Getpagesize()
// Use relative paths and mountFrom when the mount data has exceeded
// the page size. The mount syscall fails if the mount data cannot
// fit within a page and relative links make the mount data much
// smaller at the expense of requiring a fork exec to chroot.
if len(mountData) > pageSize {
if readonly {
opts = indexOff + "lowerdir=" + path.Join(id, diffDirName) + ":" + string(lowers)
} else {
opts = indexOff + "lowerdir=" + string(lowers) + ",upperdir=" + path.Join(id, diffDirName) + ",workdir=" + path.Join(id, workDirName)
}
mountData = label.FormatMountLabel(opts, mountLabel)
if len(mountData) > pageSize {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("cannot mount layer, mount label too large %d", len(mountData))
}
mount = func(source string, target string, mType string, flags uintptr, label string) error {
return mountFrom(d.home, source, target, mType, flags, label)
}
mountTarget = path.Join(id, mergedDirName)
}
if err := mount("overlay", mountTarget, "overlay", 0, mountData); err != nil {
return nil, fmt.Errorf("error creating overlay mount to %s: %v", mergedDir, err)
}
if !readonly {
// chown "workdir/work" to the remapped root UID/GID. Overlay fs inside a
// user namespace requires this to move a directory from lower to upper.
if err := os.Chown(path.Join(workDir, workDirName), rootUID, rootGID); err != nil {
return nil, err
}
}
return containerfs.NewLocalContainerFS(mergedDir), nil
}
// Put unmounts the mount path created for the give id.
// It also removes the 'merged' directory to force the kernel to unmount the
// overlay mount in other namespaces.
func (d *Driver) Put(id string) error {
d.locker.Lock(id)
defer d.locker.Unlock(id)
dir := d.dir(id)
_, err := ioutil.ReadFile(path.Join(dir, lowerFile))
if err != nil {
// If no lower, no mount happened and just return directly
if os.IsNotExist(err) {
return nil
}
return err
}
mountpoint := path.Join(dir, mergedDirName)
if count := d.ctr.Decrement(mountpoint); count > 0 {
return nil
}
if err := unix.Unmount(mountpoint, unix.MNT_DETACH); err != nil {
logger.Debugf("Failed to unmount %s overlay: %s - %v", id, mountpoint, err)
}
// Remove the mountpoint here. Removing the mountpoint (in newer kernels)
// will cause all other instances of this mount in other mount namespaces
// to be unmounted. This is necessary to avoid cases where an overlay mount
// that is present in another namespace will cause subsequent mounts
// operations to fail with ebusy. We ignore any errors here because this may
// fail on older kernels which don't have
// torvalds/linux@8ed936b5671bfb33d89bc60bdcc7cf0470ba52fe applied.
if err := unix.Rmdir(mountpoint); err != nil && !os.IsNotExist(err) {
logger.Debugf("Failed to remove %s overlay: %v", id, err)
}
return nil
}
// Exists checks to see if the id is already mounted.
func (d *Driver) Exists(id string) bool {
_, err := os.Stat(d.dir(id))
return err == nil
}
// isParent determines whether the given parent is the direct parent of the
// given layer id
func (d *Driver) isParent(id, parent string) bool {
lowers, err := d.getLowerDirs(id)
if err != nil {
return false
}
if parent == "" && len(lowers) > 0 {
return false
}
parentDir := d.dir(parent)
var ld string
if len(lowers) > 0 {
ld = filepath.Dir(lowers[0])
}
if ld == "" && parent == "" {
return true
}
return ld == parentDir
}
// ApplyDiff applies the new layer into a root
func (d *Driver) ApplyDiff(id string, parent string, diff io.Reader) (size int64, err error) {
if !d.isParent(id, parent) {
return d.naiveDiff.ApplyDiff(id, parent, diff)
}
applyDir := d.getDiffPath(id)
logger.Debugf("Applying tar in %s", applyDir)
// Overlay doesn't need the parent id to apply the diff
if err := untar(diff, applyDir, &archive.TarOptions{
UIDMaps: d.uidMaps,
GIDMaps: d.gidMaps,
WhiteoutFormat: archive.OverlayWhiteoutFormat,
InUserNS: rsystem.RunningInUserNS(),
}); err != nil {
return 0, err
}
return directory.Size(context.TODO(), applyDir)
}
func (d *Driver) getDiffPath(id string) string {
dir := d.dir(id)
return path.Join(dir, diffDirName)
}
// DiffSize calculates the changes between the specified id
// and its parent and returns the size in bytes of the changes
// relative to its base filesystem directory.
func (d *Driver) DiffSize(id, parent string) (size int64, err error) {
if useNaiveDiff(d.home) || !d.isParent(id, parent) {
return d.naiveDiff.DiffSize(id, parent)
}
return directory.Size(context.TODO(), d.getDiffPath(id))
}
// Diff produces an archive of the changes between the specified
// layer and its parent layer which may be "".
func (d *Driver) Diff(id, parent string) (io.ReadCloser, error) {
if useNaiveDiff(d.home) || !d.isParent(id, parent) {
return d.naiveDiff.Diff(id, parent)
}
diffPath := d.getDiffPath(id)
logger.Debugf("Tar with options on %s", diffPath)
return archive.TarWithOptions(diffPath, &archive.TarOptions{
Compression: archive.Uncompressed,
UIDMaps: d.uidMaps,
GIDMaps: d.gidMaps,
WhiteoutFormat: archive.OverlayWhiteoutFormat,
})
}
// Changes produces a list of changes between the specified layer and its
// parent layer. If parent is "", then all changes will be ADD changes.
func (d *Driver) Changes(id, parent string) ([]archive.Change, error) {
return d.naiveDiff.Changes(id, parent)
}
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