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A concerted effort to augment and enhance Ruby MRI documentation
Ruby C HTML Yacc Makefile Emacs Lisp Other
Branch: trunk
#47 Compare This branch is 193 commits behind ruby:trunk.

* object.c: [DOC] Improve grammar for Module#===

  Patch by @SkyBirdSoar in documenting-ruby/ruby#52:

git-svn-id: svn+ssh:// b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
latest commit f47473acd1
@zzak zzak authored
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benchmark new benchmarks for hashing dsyms and fixnums
bin * bin/erb: $SAFE=3 is obsolete.
bootstraptest * bootstraptest/test_method.rb: remove a test because $SAFE=2 was
ccan ccan/list/list.h: sync with ccan upstream
coverage fix a typo [ci skip]
cygwin stub.o: under win32
defs PIC lex.c
doc contributing.rdoc: double quotes [ci skip]
enc * enc/make_encmake.rb: the list of encoding extension libraries must
ext * ext/openssl/lib/openssl/ssl.rb (module OpenSSL): move
gems * gems/bundled_gems: update latest version of bundled power-assert.
include internal.h: moved RClass
lib * lib/net/http/response.rb (Net::HTTPResponse::Inflater#finish):
man man: updated
misc Import ruby-electric.el version 2.2.3 from upstream
missing missing/setproctitle.c: Avoid invalidating argv[1], argv[2], etc. unt…
nacl Fix PNaCl configure/link errors.
sample * sample/exyacc.rb: Fix some typos.
spec * spec/default.mspec: use default configuration file name.
template fix conflict of version.i
test proc.c: fix for uncallable method
tool compressed mantypes
win32 win32/file.c: use allocv buffer and API
.document * .document: removed needless entries.
.editorconfig .editorconfig: new
.gdbinit refix r51329 and show thread information
.gitignore fix conflict of version.i * added for ruby-style.
.travis.yml Update libssl before Travis build
BSDL * BSDL: update copyright notice for 2013. [DOC] Please see _the_ official issue tracker... [ci skip]
COPYING * COPYING: change Ruby's License from a dual license with GPLv2
COPYING.ja Change encoding from EUC-JP to UTF-8. [Feature #5128]
ChangeLog * object.c: [DOC] Improve grammar for Module#===
GPL * GPL: update text of GPLv2. [ruby-core:44488] [Bug #6328]
KNOWNBUGS.rb * test/ruby/test_method.rb (test_unlinked_method_entry_in_method_obje…
LEGAL * LEGAL: added license infomation of ccan files. PIC lex.c
NEWS variable.c: Module#deprecate_constant
README.EXT README.EXT: add redirect [ruby-core:68631]
README.EXT.ja README.EXT.ja: add redirect [ruby-core:68631] fix markup miss. [ci skip] * fix a typo pointed out by raoulvdberge. [ci skip] [DOC]
addr2line.c * addr2line.c (fill_lines): get base addrs in fill_lines to use it
addr2line.h * addr2line.c (fill_lines): loop reverse order not to overwrite
array.c remove needless volatile
bignum.c internal.h: roomof
class.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq). PHONY should be phony [ci skip]
compar.c compar.c: variable name [ci skip]
compile.c * vm_core.h: size should be unsigned.
complex.c ruby/missing.h: M_PI fallback definition RUBY_TYPE_ATTRIBUTE
constant.h variable.c: Module#deprecate_constant
cont.c cont.c: CreateFiberEx fallback
debug.c * debug.c (ruby_debug_print_id): use rb_id2name() for fprintf().
dir.c dir.c: get attributes by fd
dln.c dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
dln.h dln.c: extra arguments
dln_find.c dln_find.c: define S_ISREG
dmydln.c * encoding.c (rb_enc_codepoint_len): Use UNREACHABLE to avoid "control
dmyenc.c load.c: tweak the return value
dmyext.c dmyenc.c: separate
encoding.c encoding.c: drop dummy encoding flag
enum.c * Add test case for empty array and first method with args.
enumerator.c * internal.h: use T_IMEMO to represent `struct MEMO' value.
error.c error.c: remove singleton method
eval.c ruby_atomic.h: atomic VALUE operations
eval_error.c eval.c: check tag value
eval_intern.h compile.c: use ruby_tag_type
eval_jump.c eval.c: use the given thread
file.c Add tests for `File.extname`
gc.c gc.c: move tmp buffer functions
gc.h gc.h: evaluate the macro argument only once
gem_prelude.rb * ruby.c (process_options): revert r30549.
golf_prelude.rb * golf_prelude.rb: syntax formatting for whitespace [Fixes GH-425]
goruby.c goruby.c: suppress warning
hash.c * hash.c: [DOC] Improve description of symbol key syntax
ia64.s * removed trailing spaces.
inits.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
insns.def insns.def: redundant call
internal.h internal.h: fix LIKELY
io.c * io.c (rb_io_extract_modeenc): add option parameter `flags'
iseq.c iseq.c: fix type
iseq.h * vm_core.h: size should be unsigned.
lex.c.blt PIC lex.c
load.c load.c: use rb_load_internal0
loadpath.c * loadpath.c (RUBY_REVISION): Defined to suppress revision.h
localeinit.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
main.c * include/ruby/debug.h: introdudced.
marshal.c variable.c: avoid compatibility table with generic ivars
math.c ruby/missing.h: M_PI fallback definition
method.h * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
miniinit.c miniinit.c: minimum built-in encodings in miniruby
node.c gc.c: move tmp buffer functions
node.h * internal.h, node.h: move a definition of `struct rb_global_entry'
numeric.c fix doc for Numeric#coerce [ci skip]
object.c * object.c: [DOC] Improve grammar for Module#===
pack.c * pack.c (pack_{un,}pack): new template character `j` and `J`, pointer
parse.y parse.y: shrink parser_params
prelude.rb * prelude.rb: [DOC] Update Thread::exclusive docs by @stevenharman.
probes.d change lingering dtrace probe documentation from function- to method-
probes_helper.h probes_helper.h (RUBY_DTRACE_HOOK): correct type for _id
proc.c proc.c: fix for uncallable method
process.c revert r31760 and r31761
random.c random.c: get rid of blocking
range.c range.c: move String specific code
rational.c * remove trailing spaces.
re.c re.c: fix for wide character encodings
regcomp.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.h regenc.h: shrink PosixBracketEntryType
regerror.c * regcomp.c: Merge Onigmo 5.14.1 25a8a69fc05ae3b56a09.
regexec.c uninitialized variable
regint.h * Avoid undefined behaviors found by gcc -fsanitize=undefined.
regparse.c regparse.c: remove unused variable
regparse.h * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regsyntax.c * Merge Onigmo-5.13.1. [ruby-dev:45057] [Feature #5820]
ruby.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
ruby_atomic.h ruby_atomic.h: atomic VALUE operations
safe.c * safe.c: removed needless doc related $SAFE=2
signal.c revert r31760 and r31761
siphash.c UNALIGNED_WORD_ACCESS on ppc64
siphash.h * siphash.h: check configure macros before include newer headers.
sparc.c * sparc.c: Use __asm__ instead of asm for gcc.
sprintf.c sprintf.c: rb_inspect returns a string
st.c st.c: constify st_table* in private functions
strftime.c * strftime.c (rb_strftime_with_timespec): Test yday range.
string.c node.c: NODE_ALLOCA for ALLOCV
struct.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
symbol.c symbol.c: fix dynamic symbol hash value
symbol.h symbol.h: memoize hashval for RSymbol
thread.c thread.c: fix message
thread_pthread.c * process.c (redirect_dup2): when the new FD of dup2() coflicts
thread_pthread.h thread_pthread: prefer rb_nativethread* types/functions
thread_win32.c * process.c (redirect_dup2): when the new FD of dup2() coflicts
thread_win32.h * ext/openssl/depend: remove dependency from internal headers.
time.c * time.c (time_getlocaltime): [DOC] Add examples of valid utc_offset
timev.h, win32/Makefile.sub: PACKED_STRUCT with VC
transcode.c transcode.c: GC guards
transcode_data.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
util.c util.c: fix off-by-one error
variable.c variable.c: wrap long lines
version.c scan version.c
version.h * 2015-08-08
vm.c * vm_core.h: size should be unsigned.
vm_args.c * vm_core.h: size should be unsigned.
vm_backtrace.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_core.h * vm_core.h: size should be unsigned.
vm_debug.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
vm_dump.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_eval.c vm_eval.c: set method_missing_reason
vm_exec.c * vm_core.h: constify rb_iseq_constant_body::iseq_encoded and
vm_exec.h * vm_exec.h (VM_DEBUG_STACKOVERFLOW): added.
vm_insnhelper.c vm_insnhelper.c: suppress a warning
vm_insnhelper.h * method.h: split rb_method_definition_t::flag to several flags.
vm_method.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_opts.h fix minor code comment typos
vm_trace.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vsnprintf.c sprintf.c: ruby specific functions

What's Ruby

Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (as in Perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

Features of Ruby

  • Simple Syntax
  • Normal Object-oriented Features (e.g. class, method calls)
  • Advanced Object-oriented Features (e.g. Mix-in, Singleton-method)
  • Operator Overloading
  • Exception Handling
  • Iterators and Closures
  • Garbage Collection
  • Dynamic Loading of Object Files (on some architectures)
  • Highly Portable (works on many Unix-like/POSIX compatible platforms as well as Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS, etc.) cf.

How to get Ruby

For a complete list of ways to install Ruby, including using third-party tools like rvm, see:

The Ruby distribution files can be found on the following FTP site:

The trunk of the Ruby source tree can be checked out with the following command:

$ svn co ruby

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git clone git://

There are some other branches under development. Try the following command to see the list of branches:

$ svn ls

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git ls-remote git://

Ruby home page

The URL of the Ruby home page is:

Mailing list

There is a mailing list to talk about Ruby. To subscribe this list, please send the following phrase:


in the mail body (not subject) to the address

How to compile and install

This is what you need to do to compile and install Ruby:

  1. If you want to use Microsoft Visual C++ to compile ruby, read win32/README.win32 instead of this document.

  2. If ./configure does not exist or is older than, run autoconf to (re)generate configure.

  3. Run ./configure, which will generate config.h and Makefile.

    Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your environment. Specify optflags=.. and warnflags=.. as necessary to override them.

  4. Edit defines.h if you need. Usually this step will not be needed.

  5. Remove comment mark(#) before the module names from ext/Setup (or add module names if not present), if you want to link modules statically.

    If you don't want to compile non static extension modules (probably on architectures which do not allow dynamic loading), remove comment mark from the line "#option nodynamic" in ext/Setup.

    Usually this step will not be needed.

  6. Run make.

  7. Optionally, run 'make check' to check whether the compiled Ruby interpreter works well. If you see the message "check succeeded", your ruby works as it should (hopefully).

  8. Run 'make install'

    This command will create following directories and install files onto them.

    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/bin
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/gems/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/man/man1
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/ri/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/system

    If Ruby's API version is 'x.y.z', the ${MAJOR} is 'x', the ${MINOR} is 'y', and the ${TEENY} is 'z'.

    NOTE: teeny of the API version may be different from one of Ruby's program version

    You may have to be a super user to install ruby.

If you fail to compile ruby, please send the detailed error report with the error log and machine/OS type, to help others.

Some extension libraries may not get compiled because of lack of necessary external libraries and/or headers, then you will need to run 'make distclean-ext' to remove old configuration after installing them in such case.


See the file COPYING.


Questions about the Ruby language can be asked on the Ruby-Talk mailing list ( or on websites like (

Bug reports should be filed at Read HowToReport for more information.


See the file

The Author

Ruby was originally designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (Matz) in 1995.

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