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A concerted effort to augment and enhance Ruby MRI documentation
Ruby C HTML Yacc Makefile Emacs Lisp Other
#47 Compare This branch is 782 commits behind ruby:trunk.
Latest commit 3dabe30 svn * 2015-09-23
git-svn-id: svn+ssh:// b2dd03c8-39d4-4d8f-98ff-823fe69b080e
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benchmark new benchmarks for hashing dsyms and fixnums
bin * bin/erb: $SAFE=3 is obsolete.
bootstraptest * bootstraptest/test_method.rb: remove a test because $SAFE=2 was
ccan ccan/list/list.h: suppress unused argument warnings
coverage fix a typo [ci skip]
cygwin win32.c: fake lchown
defs no docs if test only
doc [DOC] Remove `\0` since it's aprt of octal notation
enc enc: fundamental encindex
ext * ext/openssl/*: Remove svn commit id macros to make sync easier
gems gems/bundled_gems: Upgrade the did_you_mean gem to 1.0.0.beta2
include ruby.h: RUBY_FL_PROMOTED
lib * lib/net/ftp.rb (parse_mlsx_entry): parse pathnames including
man man: updated
misc Import ruby-electric.el version 2.2.3 from upstream
missing missing/setproctitle.c: Avoid invalidating argv[1], argv[2], etc. unt…
nacl Fix PNaCl configure/link errors.
sample * sample/exyacc.rb: Fix some typos.
spec * spec/default.mspec: use default configuration file name.
template fake.rb: extmk mode
test * test/drb/test_drb.rb: Run Rinda/DRb tests on localhost. [Fix GH-1027]
tool * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
win32 win32.c: fallback to WCHAR-version in MSVCRT
.document * .document: removed needless entries.
.editorconfig .editorconfig: new
.gdbinit refix r51329 and show thread information
.gitignore fix conflict of version.i * added for ruby-style.
.travis.yml * .travis.yml: retry.
BSDL * BSDL: update copyright notice for 2013. [DOC] Please see _the_ official issue tracker... [ci skip]
COPYING * COPYING: change Ruby's License from a dual license with GPLv2
COPYING.ja Change encoding from EUC-JP to UTF-8. [Feature #5128]
ChangeLog * ext/openssl/*: Remove svn commit id macros to make sync easier
GPL * GPL: update text of GPLv2. [ruby-core:44488] [Bug #6328]
KNOWNBUGS.rb * test/ruby/test_method.rb (test_unlinked_method_entry_in_method_obje…
LEGAL LEGAL: adjust style PIC lex.c
NEWS file.c: File.mkfifo
README.EXT README.EXT: add redirect [ruby-core:68631]
README.EXT.ja README.EXT.ja: add redirect [ruby-core:68631] fix markup miss. [ci skip] * improve markdown rendering for readable.
addr2line.c * addr2line.c (fill_lines): get base addrs in fill_lines to use it
addr2line.h * addr2line.c (fill_lines): loop reverse order not to overwrite
array.c array.c: [DOC] correct Array#sort rdoc [ci skip]
bignum.c internal.h: roomof
class.c * class.c (move_refined_method): should insert a write barrier no prefixes
compar.c compar.c: variable name [ci skip]
compile.c * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
complex.c ruby/missing.h: M_PI fallback definition file.c: File.mkfifo
constant.h variable.c: Module#deprecate_constant
cont.c cont.c: append to continuations doc [ci skip]
debug.c ruby.h: add prefix
dir.c * dir.c (glob_helper): check pathtype once again by lstat(2) if
dln.c dln.c: fix EXTERNAL_PREFIX
dln.h dln.c: extra arguments
dln_find.c dln_find.c: define S_ISREG
dmydln.c * encoding.c (rb_enc_codepoint_len): Use UNREACHABLE to avoid "control
dmyenc.c load.c: tweak the return value
dmyext.c dmyenc.c: separate
encindex.h * encindex.h: fix typo of last #endif comment.
encoding.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
enum.c * enum.c: added doc for Enumerable#zip
enumerator.c * internal.h: use T_IMEMO to represent `struct MEMO' value.
error.c error.c: remove singleton method
eval.c improve handling of timer thread shutdown
eval_error.c eval.c: check tag value
eval_intern.h compile.c: use ruby_tag_type
eval_jump.c eval.c: use the given thread
file.c file.c: File.mkfifo
gc.c gc.c: define objspace functions always
gc.h gc.h: evaluate the macro argument only once
gem_prelude.rb * ruby.c (usage, enable_option, disable_option, process_options): new
golf_prelude.rb * golf_prelude.rb: syntax formatting for whitespace [Fixes GH-425]
goruby.c goruby.c: suppress warning
hash.c hash.c: [DOC] orders do not matter [ci skip]
ia64.s * removed trailing spaces.
id_table.c id_table.c: fix types
id_table.h id_table.h: include guard
inits.c * internal.h: Include ruby.h and ruby/encoding.h to be
insns.def * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
internal.h encindex.h: ENCINDEX
io.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
iseq.c * iseq.c (rb_iseq_free): free rb_iseq_t::body::cc_entries.
iseq.h * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
lex.c.blt PIC lex.c
load.c load.c (features_index_add): avoid repeat calculation
loadpath.c * loadpath.c (RUBY_REVISION): Defined to suppress revision.h
localeinit.c localeinit.c: encindex.h
main.c * include/ruby/debug.h: introdudced.
marshal.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
math.c object.c: rb_num_to_dbl
method.h iseq.h: rb_iseq_t
miniinit.c encoding.c: find encoding index
node.c gc.c: move tmp buffer functions
node.h rb_parser_compile_*: remove volatile arg
numeric.c * numeric.c (Init_Numeric): Fix document for Float::MIN and
object.c object.c: rb_num_to_dbl
pack.c * pack.c (pack_{un,}pack): new template character `j` and `J`, pointer
parse.y parse.y: simplify ripper_id2sym
prelude.rb * prelude.rb: [DOC] Update Thread::exclusive docs by @stevenharman.
probes.d change lingering dtrace probe documentation from function- to method-
probes_helper.h probes_helper.h (RUBY_DTRACE_HOOK): correct type for _id
proc.c vm_method.c: reuse method entry
process.c process.c: do not inherit saved fds
random.c random.c: get rid of blocking
range.c range.c: call range_include directly if possible
rational.c rational.c: preserve encoding in exception
re.c encindex.h: ENCINDEX
regcomp.c * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regenc.c oniguruma.h: constify
regenc.h oniguruma.h: constify
regerror.c * regcomp.c: Merge Onigmo 5.14.1 25a8a69fc05ae3b56a09.
regexec.c uninitialized variable
regint.h * Avoid undefined behaviors found by gcc -fsanitize=undefined.
regparse.c regparse.c: remove unused variable
regparse.h * reg*.c: Merge Onigmo 5.15.0 38a870960aa7370051a3544
regsyntax.c * Merge Onigmo-5.13.1. [ruby-dev:45057] [Feature #5820]
ruby.c * ruby.c (usage, enable_option, disable_option, process_options): new
ruby_atomic.h ruby_atomic.h: fix typo
safe.c * safe.c: removed needless doc related $SAFE=2
signal.c revert r31760 and r31761
siphash.c UNALIGNED_WORD_ACCESS on ppc64
siphash.h * siphash.h: check configure macros before include newer headers.
sparc.c * sparc.c: Use __asm__ instead of asm for gcc.
sprintf.c sprintf.c: rb_inspect returns a string
st.c st.c: constify st_table* in private functions
strftime.c * strftime.c (rb_strftime_with_timespec): Test yday range.
string.c string.c: separate resetting code range
struct.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
symbol.c symbol.c: suppress warnings
symbol.h * ext/objspace/objspace.c: add a new method ObjectSpace.count_symbols.
thread.c thread.c: suppress warnings only if GCC6+
thread_pthread.c thread_pthread.c: async_bug_fd
thread_pthread.h thread_pthread: prefer rb_nativethread* types/functions
thread_sync.c thread_sync.c: fix typos
thread_win32.c improve handling of timer thread shutdown
thread_win32.h * ext/openssl/depend: remove dependency from internal headers.
time.c * time.c (time_getlocaltime): [DOC] Add examples of valid utc_offset
timev.h, win32/Makefile.sub: PACKED_STRUCT with VC
transcode.c transcode.c: GC guards
transcode_data.h transcode_data.h: missing cast
util.c util.c: BSD qsort_r
variable.c variable.c: fail if frozen
version.c scan version.c
version.h * 2015-09-23
vm.c * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_args.c * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_backtrace.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_core.h * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_debug.h defines.h: RUBY_SYMBOL_EXPORT_{BEGIN,END}
vm_dump.c * make rb_iseq_t T_IMEMO object (type is imemo_iseq).
vm_eval.c * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_exec.c * vm_core.h: constify rb_iseq_constant_body::iseq_encoded and
vm_exec.h * vm_exec.h (VM_DEBUG_STACKOVERFLOW): added.
vm_insnhelper.c * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_insnhelper.h * vm_core.h: split rb_call_info_t into several structs.
vm_method.c vm_eval.c: cache results
vm_opts.h * vm_opts.h, iseq.c, iseq.h: add compile option to force frozen
vm_trace.c * include/ruby/ruby.h, cont.c, vm_trace.c: add a new event
vsnprintf.c sprintf.c: ruby specific functions

What's Ruby

Ruby is the interpreted scripting language for quick and easy object-oriented programming. It has many features to process text files and to do system management tasks (as in Perl). It is simple, straight-forward, and extensible.

Features of Ruby

  • Simple Syntax
  • Normal Object-oriented Features (e.g. class, method calls)
  • Advanced Object-oriented Features (e.g. Mix-in, Singleton-method)
  • Operator Overloading
  • Exception Handling
  • Iterators and Closures
  • Garbage Collection
  • Dynamic Loading of Object Files (on some architectures)
  • Highly Portable (works on many Unix-like/POSIX compatible platforms as well as Windows, Mac OS X, BeOS, etc.) cf.

How to get Ruby

For a complete list of ways to install Ruby, including using third-party tools like rvm, see:

The Ruby distribution files can be found on the following FTP site:

The trunk of the Ruby source tree can be checked out with the following command:

$ svn co ruby

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git clone git://

There are some other branches under development. Try the following command to see the list of branches:

$ svn ls

Or if you are using git then use the following command:

$ git ls-remote git://

Ruby home page

The URL of the Ruby home page is:

Mailing list

There is a mailing list to talk about Ruby. To subscribe this list, please send the following phrase:


in the mail body (not subject) to the address

How to compile and install

This is what you need to do to compile and install Ruby:

  1. If you want to use Microsoft Visual C++ to compile ruby, read win32/README.win32 instead of this document.

  2. If ./configure does not exist or is older than, run autoconf to (re)generate configure.

  3. Run ./configure, which will generate config.h and Makefile.

    Some C compiler flags may be added by default depending on your environment. Specify optflags=.. and warnflags=.. as necessary to override them.

  4. Edit defines.h if you need. Usually this step will not be needed.

  5. Remove comment mark(#) before the module names from ext/Setup (or add module names if not present), if you want to link modules statically.

    If you don't want to compile non static extension modules (probably on architectures which do not allow dynamic loading), remove comment mark from the line "#option nodynamic" in ext/Setup.

    Usually this step will not be needed.

  6. Run make.

  7. Optionally, run 'make check' to check whether the compiled Ruby interpreter works well. If you see the message "check succeeded", your ruby works as it should (hopefully).

  8. Run 'make install'

    This command will create following directories and install files onto them.

    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/bin
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/include/ruby-${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/site_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/vendor_ruby/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/${PLATFORM}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/lib/ruby/gems/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/man/man1
    • ${DESTDIR}${prefix}/share/ri/${MAJOR}.${MINOR}.${TEENY}/system

    If Ruby's API version is 'x.y.z', the ${MAJOR} is 'x', the ${MINOR} is 'y', and the ${TEENY} is 'z'.

    NOTE: teeny of the API version may be different from one of Ruby's program version

    You may have to be a super user to install ruby.

If you fail to compile ruby, please send the detailed error report with the error log and machine/OS type, to help others.

Some extension libraries may not get compiled because of lack of necessary external libraries and/or headers, then you will need to run 'make distclean-ext' to remove old configuration after installing them in such case.


See the file COPYING.


Questions about the Ruby language can be asked on the Ruby-Talk mailing list ( or on websites like (

Bug reports should be filed at Read HowToReport for more information.


See the file

The Author

Ruby was originally designed and developed by Yukihiro Matsumoto (Matz) in 1995.

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