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utf8::all - turn on Unicode - all of it
version 0.022
use utf8::all; # Turn on UTF-8, all of it.
open my $in, '<', 'contains-utf8'; # UTF-8 already turned on here
print length 'føø bār'; # 7 UTF-8 characters
my $utf8_arg = shift @ARGV; # @ARGV is UTF-8 too (only for main)
The use utf8 pragma tells the Perl parser to allow UTF-8 in the program
text in the current lexical scope. This also means that you can now use
literal Unicode characters as part of strings, variable names, and
regular expressions.
utf8::all goes further:
* charnames are imported so \N{...} sequences can be used to compile
Unicode characters based on names.
* On Perl v5.11.0 or higher, the use feature 'unicode_strings' is
* use feature fc and use feature unicode_eval are enabled on Perl
5.16.0 and higher.
* Filehandles are opened with UTF-8 encoding turned on by default
(including STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR). Meaning that they automatically
convert UTF-8 octets to characters and vice versa. If you don't want
UTF-8 for a particular filehandle, you'll have to set binmode
* @ARGV gets converted from UTF-8 octets to Unicode characters (when
utf8::all is used from the main package). This is similar to the
behaviour of the -CA perl command-line switch (see perlrun).
* readdir, readlink, readpipe (including the qx// and backtick
operators), and glob (including the <> operator) now all work with
and return Unicode characters instead of (UTF-8) octets.
Lexical Scope
The pragma is lexically-scoped, so you can do the following if you had
some reason to:
use utf8::all;
open my $out, '>', 'outfile';
my $utf8_str = 'føø bār';
print length $utf8_str, "\n"; # 7
print $out $utf8_str; # out as utf8
open my $in, '<', 'outfile'; # in as raw
my $text = do { local $/; <$in>};
print length $text, "\n"; # 10, not 7!
Instead of lexical scoping, you can also use no utf8::all to turn off
the effects.
Note that the effect on @ARGV and the STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR file
handles is always global!
UTF-8 Errors
utf8::all will handle invalid code points (i.e., utf-8 that does not
map to a valid unicode "character"), as a fatal error.
For glob, readdir, and readlink, one can change this behaviour by
setting the attribute "$utf8::all::UTF8_CHECK".
By default utf8::all marks decoding errors as fatal (default value for
this setting is Encode::FB_CROAK). If you want, you can change this by
setting $utf8::all::UTF8_CHECK. The value Encode::FB_WARN reports the
encoding errors as warnings, and Encode::FB_DEFAULT will completely
ignore them. Please see Encode for details. Note: Encode::LEAVE_SRC is
always enforced.
Important: Only controls the handling of decoding errors in glob,
readdir, and readlink.
If you use autodie, which is a great idea, you need to use at least
version 2.12, released on June 26, 2012
<>. Otherwise,
autodie obliterates the IO layers set by the open pragma. See RT #54777
<> and GH #7
Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website
When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch
to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.
The filesystems of Dos, Windows, and OS/2 do not (fully) support UTF-8.
The readlink and readdir functions and glob operators will therefore
not be replaced on these systems.
* File::Find::utf8 for fully utf-8 aware File::Find functions.
* Cwd::utf8 for fully utf-8 aware Cwd functions.
* Michael Schwern <>
* Mike Doherty <>
* Hayo Baan <>
This software is copyright (c) 2009 by Michael Schwern
<>; he originated it.
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.