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dokku postgres Build Status IRC Network

Official postgres plugin for dokku. Currently defaults to installing postgres 11.6.

Requirements

  • dokku 0.12.x+
  • docker 1.8.x

Installation

# on 0.12.x+
sudo dokku plugin:install https://github.com/dokku/dokku-postgres.git postgres

Commands

postgres:app-links <app>                           # list all postgres service links for a given app
postgres:backup <service> <bucket-name> [--use-iam] # creates a backup of the postgres service to an existing s3 bucket
postgres:backup-auth <service> <aws-access-key-id> <aws-secret-access-key> <aws-default-region> <aws-signature-version> <endpoint-url> # sets up authentication for backups on the postgres service
postgres:backup-deauth <service>                   # removes backup authentication for the postgres service
postgres:backup-schedule <service> <schedule> <bucket-name> [--use-iam] # schedules a backup of the postgres service
postgres:backup-schedule-cat <service>             # cat the contents of the configured backup cronfile for the service
postgres:backup-set-encryption <service> <passphrase> # sets encryption for all future backups of postgres service
postgres:backup-unschedule <service>               # unschedules the backup of the postgres service
postgres:backup-unset-encryption <service>         # unsets encryption for future backups of the postgres service
postgres:clone <service> <new-service> [--clone-flags...] # create container <new-name> then copy data from <name> into <new-name>
postgres:connect <service>                         # connect to the service via the postgres connection tool
postgres:create <service> [--create-flags...]      # create a postgres service
postgres:destroy <service> [-f|--force]            # delete the postgres service/data/container if there are no links left
postgres:enter <service>                           # enter or run a command in a running postgres service container
postgres:exists <service>                          # check if the postgres service exists
postgres:export <service>                          # export a dump of the postgres service database
postgres:expose <service> <ports...>               # expose a postgres service on custom port if provided (random port otherwise)
postgres:import <service>                          # import a dump into the postgres service database
postgres:info <service> [--single-info-flag]       # print the service information
postgres:link <service> <app> [--link-flags...]    # link the postgres service to the app
postgres:linked <service> <app>                    # check if the postgres service is linked to an app
postgres:links <service>                           # list all apps linked to the postgres service
postgres:list                                      # list all postgres services
postgres:logs <service> [-t|--tail]                # print the most recent log(s) for this service
postgres:promote <service> <app>                   # promote service <service> as DATABASE_URL in <app>
postgres:restart <service>                         # graceful shutdown and restart of the postgres service container
postgres:start <service>                           # start a previously stopped postgres service
postgres:stop <service>                            # stop a running postgres service
postgres:unexpose <service>                        # unexpose a previously exposed postgres service
postgres:unlink <service> <app>                    # unlink the postgres service from the app
postgres:upgrade <service> [--upgrade-flags...]    # upgrade service <service> to the specified versions

Usage

Help for any commands can be displayed by specifying the command as an argument to postgres:help. Please consult the postgres:help command for any undocumented commands.

Basic Usage

create a postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:create <service> [--create-flags...]

flags:

  • -C|--custom-env "USER=alpha;HOST=beta": semi-colon delimited environment variables to start the service with
  • -i|--image IMAGE: the image name to start the service with
  • -I|--image-version IMAGE_VERSION: the image version to start the service with
  • -p|--password PASSWORD: override the user-level service password
  • -r|--root-password PASSWORD: override the root-level service password

Create a postgres service named lolipop:

dokku postgres:create lolipop

You can also specify the image and image version to use for the service. It must be compatible with the postgres image.

export DATABASE_IMAGE="postgres"
export DATABASE_IMAGE_VERSION="${PLUGIN_IMAGE_VERSION}"
dokku postgres:create lolipop

You can also specify custom environment variables to start the postgres service in semi-colon separated form.

export DATABASE_CUSTOM_ENV="USER=alpha;HOST=beta"
dokku postgres:create lolipop

print the service information

# usage
dokku postgres:info <service> [--single-info-flag]

flags:

  • --config-dir: show the service configuration directory
  • --data-dir: show the service data directory
  • --dsn: show the service DSN
  • --exposed-ports: show service exposed ports
  • --id: show the service container id
  • --internal-ip: show the service internal ip
  • --links: show the service app links
  • --service-root: show the service root directory
  • --status: show the service running status
  • --version: show the service image version

Get connection information as follows:

dokku postgres:info lolipop

You can also retrieve a specific piece of service info via flags:

dokku postgres:info lolipop --config-dir
dokku postgres:info lolipop --data-dir
dokku postgres:info lolipop --dsn
dokku postgres:info lolipop --exposed-ports
dokku postgres:info lolipop --id
dokku postgres:info lolipop --internal-ip
dokku postgres:info lolipop --links
dokku postgres:info lolipop --service-root
dokku postgres:info lolipop --status
dokku postgres:info lolipop --version

list all postgres services

# usage
dokku postgres:list 

List all services:

dokku postgres:list

print the most recent log(s) for this service

# usage
dokku postgres:logs <service> [-t|--tail]

flags:

  • -t|--tail: do not stop when end of the logs are reached and wait for additional output

You can tail logs for a particular service:

dokku postgres:logs lolipop

By default, logs will not be tailed, but you can do this with the --tail flag:

dokku postgres:logs lolipop --tail

link the postgres service to the app

# usage
dokku postgres:link <service> <app> [--link-flags...]

flags:

  • -a|--alias "BLUE_DATABASE": an alternative alias to use for linking to an app via environment variable
  • -q|--querystring "pool=5": ampersand delimited querystring arguments to append to the service link

A postgres service can be linked to a container. This will use native docker links via the docker-options plugin. Here we link it to our 'playground' app.

NOTE: this will restart your app

dokku postgres:link lolipop playground

The following environment variables will be set automatically by docker (not on the app itself, so they won’t be listed when calling dokku config):

DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_NAME=/lolipop/DATABASE
DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_PORT=tcp://172.17.0.1:5432
DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_PORT_5432_TCP=tcp://172.17.0.1:5432
DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_PORT_5432_TCP_PROTO=tcp
DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_PORT_5432_TCP_PORT=5432
DOKKU_DATABASE_LOLIPOP_PORT_5432_TCP_ADDR=172.17.0.1

The following will be set on the linked application by default:

DATABASE_URL=postgres://lolipop:SOME_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-lolipop:5432/lolipop

The host exposed here only works internally in docker containers. If you want your container to be reachable from outside, you should use the 'expose' subcommand. Another service can be linked to your app:

dokku postgres:link other_service playground

It is possible to change the protocol for DATABASE_URL by setting the environment variable POSTGRES_DATABASE_SCHEME on the app. Doing so will after linking will cause the plugin to think the service is not linked, and we advise you to unlink before proceeding.

dokku config:set playground POSTGRES_DATABASE_SCHEME=postgres2
dokku postgres:link lolipop playground

This will cause DATABASE_URL to be set as:

postgres2://lolipop:SOME_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-lolipop:5432/lolipop

unlink the postgres service from the app

# usage
dokku postgres:unlink <service> <app>

You can unlink a postgres service:

NOTE: this will restart your app and unset related environment variables

dokku postgres:unlink lolipop playground

Service Lifecycle

The lifecycle of each service can be managed through the following commands:

connect to the service via the postgres connection tool

# usage
dokku postgres:connect <service>

Connect to the service via the postgres connection tool:

dokku postgres:connect lolipop

enter or run a command in a running postgres service container

# usage
dokku postgres:enter <service>

A bash prompt can be opened against a running service. Filesystem changes will not be saved to disk.

dokku postgres:enter lolipop

You may also run a command directly against the service. Filesystem changes will not be saved to disk.

dokku postgres:enter lolipop touch /tmp/test

expose a postgres service on custom port if provided (random port otherwise)

# usage
dokku postgres:expose <service> <ports...>

Expose the service on the service's normal ports, allowing access to it from the public interface (0.0.0.0):

dokku postgres:expose lolipop 5432

unexpose a previously exposed postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:unexpose <service>

Unexpose the service, removing access to it from the public interface (0.0.0.0):

dokku postgres:unexpose lolipop

promote service as DATABASE_URL in

# usage
dokku postgres:promote <service> <app>

If you have a postgres service linked to an app and try to link another postgres service another link environment variable will be generated automatically:

DOKKU_DATABASE_BLUE_URL=postgres://other_service:ANOTHER_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-other-service:5432/other_service

You can promote the new service to be the primary one:

NOTE: this will restart your app

dokku postgres:promote other_service playground

This will replace DATABASE_URL with the url from other_service and generate another environment variable to hold the previous value if necessary. You could end up with the following for example:

DATABASE_URL=postgres://other_service:ANOTHER_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-other-service:5432/other_service
DOKKU_DATABASE_BLUE_URL=postgres://other_service:ANOTHER_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-other-service:5432/other_service
DOKKU_DATABASE_SILVER_URL=postgres://lolipop:SOME_PASSWORD@dokku-postgres-lolipop:5432/lolipop

start a previously stopped postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:start <service>

Start the service:

dokku postgres:start lolipop

stop a running postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:stop <service>

Stop the service and the running container:

dokku postgres:stop lolipop

graceful shutdown and restart of the postgres service container

# usage
dokku postgres:restart <service>

Restart the service:

dokku postgres:restart lolipop

upgrade service to the specified versions

# usage
dokku postgres:upgrade <service> [--upgrade-flags...]

flags:

  • -C|--custom-env "USER=alpha;HOST=beta": semi-colon delimited environment variables to start the service with
  • -i|--image IMAGE: the image name to start the service with
  • -I|--image-version IMAGE_VERSION: the image version to start the service with
  • -R|--restart-apps "true": whether to force an app restart

You can upgrade an existing service to a new image or image-version:

dokku postgres:upgrade lolipop

Service Automation

Service scripting can be executed using the following commands:

list all postgres service links for a given app

# usage
dokku postgres:app-links <app>

List all postgres services that are linked to the 'playground' app.

dokku postgres:app-links playground

create container then copy data from into

# usage
dokku postgres:clone <service> <new-service> [--clone-flags...]

flags:

  • -C|--custom-env "USER=alpha;HOST=beta": semi-colon delimited environment variables to start the service with
  • -i|--image IMAGE: the image name to start the service with
  • -I|--image-version IMAGE_VERSION: the image version to start the service with
  • -p|--password PASSWORD: override the user-level service password
  • -r|--root-password PASSWORD: override the root-level service password

You can clone an existing service to a new one:

dokku postgres:clone lolipop lolipop-2

check if the postgres service exists

# usage
dokku postgres:exists <service>

Here we check if the lolipop postgres service exists.

dokku postgres:exists lolipop

check if the postgres service is linked to an app

# usage
dokku postgres:linked <service> <app>

Here we check if the lolipop postgres service is linked to the 'playground' app.

dokku postgres:linked lolipop playground

list all apps linked to the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:links <service>

List all apps linked to the 'lolipop' postgres service.

dokku postgres:links lolipop

Data Management

The underlying service data can be imported and exported with the following commands:

import a dump into the postgres service database

# usage
dokku postgres:import <service>

Import a datastore dump:

dokku postgres:import lolipop < database.dump

export a dump of the postgres service database

# usage
dokku postgres:export <service>

By default, datastore output is exported to stdout:

dokku postgres:export lolipop

You can redirect this output to a file:

dokku postgres:export lolipop > lolipop.dump

Backups

Datastore backups are supported via AWS S3 and S3 compatible services like minio.

You may skip the backup-auth step if your dokku install is running within EC2 and has access to the bucket via an IAM profile. In that case, use the --use-iam option with the backup command.

Backups can be performed using the backup commands:

sets up authentication for backups on the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-auth <service> <aws-access-key-id> <aws-secret-access-key> <aws-default-region> <aws-signature-version> <endpoint-url>

Setup s3 backup authentication:

dokku postgres:backup-auth lolipop AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY

Setup s3 backup authentication with different region:

dokku postgres:backup-auth lolipop AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY AWS_REGION

Setup s3 backup authentication with different signature version and endpoint:

dokku postgres:backup-auth lolipop AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY AWS_REGION AWS_SIGNATURE_VERSION ENDPOINT_URL

More specific example for minio auth:

dokku postgres:backup-auth lolipop MINIO_ACCESS_KEY_ID MINIO_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY us-east-1 s3v4 https://YOURMINIOSERVICE

removes backup authentication for the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-deauth <service>

Remove s3 authentication:

dokku postgres:backup-deauth lolipop

creates a backup of the postgres service to an existing s3 bucket

# usage
dokku postgres:backup <service> <bucket-name> [--use-iam]

flags:

  • -u|--use-iam: use the IAM profile associated with the current server

Backup the 'lolipop' service to the 'my-s3-bucket' bucket on ``AWS:

dokku postgres:backup lolipop my-s3-bucket --use-iam

sets encryption for all future backups of postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-set-encryption <service> <passphrase>

Set the GPG-compatible passphrase for encrypting backups for backups:

dokku postgres:backup-set-encryption lolipop

unsets encryption for future backups of the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-unset-encryption <service>

Unset the GPG encryption passphrase for backups:

dokku postgres:backup-unset-encryption lolipop

schedules a backup of the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-schedule <service> <schedule> <bucket-name> [--use-iam]

flags:

  • -u|--use-iam: use the IAM profile associated with the current server

Schedule a backup:

'schedule' is a crontab expression, eg. "0 3 * * *" for each day at 3am

dokku postgres:backup-schedule lolipop "0 3 * * *" my-s3-bucket

Schedule a backup and authenticate via iam:

dokku postgres:backup-schedule lolipop "0 3 * * *" my-s3-bucket --use-iam

cat the contents of the configured backup cronfile for the service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-schedule-cat <service>

Cat the contents of the configured backup cronfile for the service:

dokku postgres:backup-schedule-cat lolipop

unschedules the backup of the postgres service

# usage
dokku postgres:backup-unschedule <service>

Remove the scheduled backup from cron:

dokku postgres:backup-unschedule lolipop

Disabling docker pull calls

If you wish to disable the docker pull calls that the plugin triggers, you may set the POSTGRES_DISABLE_PULL environment variable to true. Once disabled, you will need to pull the service image you wish to deploy as shown in the stderr output.

Please ensure the proper images are in place when docker pull is disabled.

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