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Chai Assertions for Working with Promises

Chai as Promised extends Chai with a fluent language for asserting facts about promises.

Instead of manually wiring up your expectations to a promise's fulfilled and rejected handlers:

    function (result) {
    function (err) {

you can write code that expresses what you really mean:


or if you have a testing framework that follows the UncommonJS specification for handling promises, simply

return doSomethingAsync().should.eventually.equal("foo");

How to Use

should/expect Interface

The most powerful extension provided by Chai as Promised is the eventually property. With it, you can transform any existing Chai assertion into one that acts on a promise:

(2 + 2).should.equal(4);

// becomes
return promiseFor(2 + 2).should.eventually.equal(4);

expect({ foo: "bar" })"foo");

// becomes
return expect(promiseFor({ foo: "bar" }))"foo");

There are also a few promise-specific extensions, grouped here as synonymic blocks (with the usual expect equivalents):


return promise.should.eventually.eql("foo");
return promise.should.become("foo");



// Note: other variants of Chai's existing `throw` assertion work too.

assert Interface

As with the should/expect interface, Chai as Promised provides an eventually extender to chai.assert, allowing any existing Chai assertion to be used on a promise:

assert.equal(2 + 2, 4, "This had better be true");

// becomes
return assert.eventually.equal(promiseFor(2 + 2), 4, "This had better be true, eventually");

And there are, of course, promise-specific extensions:

return assert.isFulfilled(promise, "optional message");

return assert.eventually.deepEqual(promise, "foo", "optional message");
return assert.becomes(promise, "foo", "optional message");

return assert.eventually.notDeepEqual(promise, "foo", "optional message");
return assert.doesNotBecome(promise, "foo", "optional message");

return assert.isRejected(promise, "optional message");
return assert.isBroken(promise, "optional message");

return assert.isRejected(promise, Error, "optional message");
return assert.isBroken(promise, Error, "optional message");

return assert.isRejected(promise, /error message matcher/, "optional message");
return assert.isBroken(promise, /error message matcher/, "optional message");

Progress Callbacks

Chai as Promised does not have any intrinsic support for testing promise progress callbacks. The properties you would want to test are probably much better suited to a library like Sinon.JS, perhaps in conjunction with Sinon–Chai:

var progressSpy = sinon.spy();

return promise.then(null, null, progressSpy).then(function () {

Working with Non-Promise–Friendly Test Runners

As mentioned, many test runners (*cough* mocha *cough*) don't support the nice return style shown above. Instead, they take a callback indicating when the asynchronous test run is over. Chai as Promised adapts to this situation with the notify method, like so:

it("should be fulfilled", function (done) {;

it("should be rejected", function (done) {;

In these examples, if the conditions are not met, the test runner will receive an error of the form "expected promise to be fulfilled but it was rejected with [Error: error message]", or "expected promise to be rejected but it was fulfilled."

There's another form of notify which is useful in certain situations, like doing assertions after a promise is complete. For example:

it("should change the state", function (done) {
    otherState.should.equal("before"); () {

Notice how .notify(done) is hanging directly off of .should, instead of appearing after a promise assertion. This indicates to Chai as Promised that it should pass fulfillment or rejection directly through to the testing framework. Thus, the above code will fail with a Chai as Promised error ("expected promise to be fulfilled…") if promise is rejected, but will fail with a simple Chai error (expected "before" to equal "after") if otherState does not change.

Another example of where this can be useful is when performing assertions on multiple promises:

it("should all be well", function (done) {
        promiseA.should.become("happy"),"fun times"),, "only joyful types are allowed")

This will pass any failures of the individual promise assertions up to the test framework, instead of wrapping them in an "expected promise to be fulfilled…" message as would happen if you did Q.all([…])

Installation and Usage


Do an npm install chai-as-promised to get up and running. Then:

var chai = require("chai");
var chaiAsPromised = require("chai-as-promised");


You can of course put this code in a common test fixture file; for an example using Mocha, see the Chai as Promised tests themselves.


Chai as Promised supports being used as an AMD module, registering itself anonymously (just like Chai). So, assuming you have configured your loader to map the Chai and Chai as Promised files to the respective module IDs "chai" and "chai-as-promised", you can use them as follows:

define(function (require, exports, module) {
    var chai = require("chai");
    var chaiAsPromised = require("chai-as-promised");


<script> tag

If you include Chai as Promised directly with a <script> tag, after the one for Chai itself, then it will automatically plug in to Chai and be ready for use:

<script src="chai.js"></script>
<script src="chai-as-promised.js"></script>
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