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// Licensed to the .NET Foundation under one or more agreements.
// The .NET Foundation licenses this file to you under the MIT license.
// See the LICENSE file in the project root for more information.
#nullable enable
using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
using Internal.Runtime.CompilerServices;
namespace System.Runtime.InteropServices
{
/// <summary>
/// Provides a collection of methods for interoperating with <see cref="Memory{T}"/>, <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/>,
/// <see cref="Span{T}"/>, and <see cref="ReadOnlySpan{T}"/>.
/// </summary>
public static partial class MemoryMarshal
{
/// <summary>
/// Casts a Span of one primitive type <typeparamref name="T"/> to Span of bytes.
/// That type may not contain pointers or references. This is checked at runtime in order to preserve type safety.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="span">The source slice, of type <typeparamref name="T"/>.</param>
/// <exception cref="System.ArgumentException">
/// Thrown when <typeparamref name="T"/> contains pointers.
/// </exception>
/// <exception cref="System.OverflowException">
/// Thrown if the Length property of the new Span would exceed int.MaxValue.
/// </exception>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static Span<byte> AsBytes<T>(Span<T> span)
where T : struct
{
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<T>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(T));
return new Span<byte>(
ref Unsafe.As<T, byte>(ref GetReference(span)),
checked(span.Length * Unsafe.SizeOf<T>()));
}
/// <summary>
/// Casts a ReadOnlySpan of one primitive type <typeparamref name="T"/> to ReadOnlySpan of bytes.
/// That type may not contain pointers or references. This is checked at runtime in order to preserve type safety.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="span">The source slice, of type <typeparamref name="T"/>.</param>
/// <exception cref="System.ArgumentException">
/// Thrown when <typeparamref name="T"/> contains pointers.
/// </exception>
/// <exception cref="System.OverflowException">
/// Thrown if the Length property of the new Span would exceed int.MaxValue.
/// </exception>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static ReadOnlySpan<byte> AsBytes<T>(ReadOnlySpan<T> span)
where T : struct
{
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<T>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(T));
return new ReadOnlySpan<byte>(
ref Unsafe.As<T, byte>(ref GetReference(span)),
checked(span.Length * Unsafe.SizeOf<T>()));
}
/// <summary>Creates a <see cref="Memory{T}"/> from a <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/>.</summary>
/// <param name="memory">The <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/>.</param>
/// <returns>A <see cref="Memory{T}"/> representing the same memory as the <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/>, but writable.</returns>
/// <remarks>
/// <see cref="AsMemory{T}(ReadOnlyMemory{T})"/> must be used with extreme caution. <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/> is used
/// to represent immutable data and other memory that is not meant to be written to; <see cref="Memory{T}"/> instances created
/// by <see cref="AsMemory{T}(ReadOnlyMemory{T})"/> should not be written to. The method exists to enable variables typed
/// as <see cref="Memory{T}"/> but only used for reading to store a <see cref="ReadOnlyMemory{T}"/>.
/// </remarks>
public static Memory<T> AsMemory<T>(ReadOnlyMemory<T> memory) =>
Unsafe.As<ReadOnlyMemory<T>, Memory<T>>(ref memory);
/// <summary>
/// Returns a reference to the 0th element of the Span. If the Span is empty, returns a reference to the location where the 0th element
/// would have been stored. Such a reference may or may not be null. It can be used for pinning but must never be dereferenced.
/// </summary>
public static ref T GetReference<T>(Span<T> span) => ref span._pointer.Value;
/// <summary>
/// Returns a reference to the 0th element of the ReadOnlySpan. If the ReadOnlySpan is empty, returns a reference to the location where the 0th element
/// would have been stored. Such a reference may or may not be null. It can be used for pinning but must never be dereferenced.
/// </summary>
public static ref T GetReference<T>(ReadOnlySpan<T> span) => ref span._pointer.Value;
/// <summary>
/// Returns a reference to the 0th element of the Span. If the Span is empty, returns a reference to fake non-null pointer. Such a reference can be used
/// for pinning but must never be dereferenced. This is useful for interop with methods that do not accept null pointers for zero-sized buffers.
/// </summary>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
internal static unsafe ref T GetNonNullPinnableReference<T>(Span<T> span) => ref (span.Length != 0) ? ref span._pointer.Value : ref Unsafe.AsRef<T>((void*)1);
/// <summary>
/// Returns a reference to the 0th element of the ReadOnlySpan. If the ReadOnlySpan is empty, returns a reference to fake non-null pointer. Such a reference
/// can be used for pinning but must never be dereferenced. This is useful for interop with methods that do not accept null pointers for zero-sized buffers.
/// </summary>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
internal static unsafe ref T GetNonNullPinnableReference<T>(ReadOnlySpan<T> span) => ref (span.Length != 0) ? ref span._pointer.Value : ref Unsafe.AsRef<T>((void*)1);
/// <summary>
/// Casts a Span of one primitive type <typeparamref name="TFrom"/> to another primitive type <typeparamref name="TTo"/>.
/// These types may not contain pointers or references. This is checked at runtime in order to preserve type safety.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks>
/// Supported only for platforms that support misaligned memory access or when the memory block is aligned by other means.
/// </remarks>
/// <param name="span">The source slice, of type <typeparamref name="TFrom"/>.</param>
/// <exception cref="System.ArgumentException">
/// Thrown when <typeparamref name="TFrom"/> or <typeparamref name="TTo"/> contains pointers.
/// </exception>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static Span<TTo> Cast<TFrom, TTo>(Span<TFrom> span)
where TFrom : struct
where TTo : struct
{
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<TFrom>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(TFrom));
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<TTo>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(TTo));
// Use unsigned integers - unsigned division by constant (especially by power of 2)
// and checked casts are faster and smaller.
uint fromSize = (uint)Unsafe.SizeOf<TFrom>();
uint toSize = (uint)Unsafe.SizeOf<TTo>();
uint fromLength = (uint)span.Length;
int toLength;
if (fromSize == toSize)
{
// Special case for same size types - `(ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize`
// should be optimized to just `length` but the JIT doesn't do that today.
toLength = (int)fromLength;
}
else if (fromSize == 1)
{
// Special case for byte sized TFrom - `(ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize`
// becomes `(ulong)fromLength / (ulong)toSize` but the JIT can't narrow it down to `int`
// and can't eliminate the checked cast. This also avoids a 32 bit specific issue,
// the JIT can't eliminate long multiply by 1.
toLength = (int)(fromLength / toSize);
}
else
{
// Ensure that casts are done in such a way that the JIT is able to "see"
// the uint->ulong casts and the multiply together so that on 32 bit targets
// 32x32to64 multiplication is used.
ulong toLengthUInt64 = (ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize;
toLength = checked((int)toLengthUInt64);
}
return new Span<TTo>(
ref Unsafe.As<TFrom, TTo>(ref span._pointer.Value),
toLength);
}
/// <summary>
/// Casts a ReadOnlySpan of one primitive type <typeparamref name="TFrom"/> to another primitive type <typeparamref name="TTo"/>.
/// These types may not contain pointers or references. This is checked at runtime in order to preserve type safety.
/// </summary>
/// <remarks>
/// Supported only for platforms that support misaligned memory access or when the memory block is aligned by other means.
/// </remarks>
/// <param name="span">The source slice, of type <typeparamref name="TFrom"/>.</param>
/// <exception cref="System.ArgumentException">
/// Thrown when <typeparamref name="TFrom"/> or <typeparamref name="TTo"/> contains pointers.
/// </exception>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static ReadOnlySpan<TTo> Cast<TFrom, TTo>(ReadOnlySpan<TFrom> span)
where TFrom : struct
where TTo : struct
{
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<TFrom>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(TFrom));
if (RuntimeHelpers.IsReferenceOrContainsReferences<TTo>())
ThrowHelper.ThrowInvalidTypeWithPointersNotSupported(typeof(TTo));
// Use unsigned integers - unsigned division by constant (especially by power of 2)
// and checked casts are faster and smaller.
uint fromSize = (uint)Unsafe.SizeOf<TFrom>();
uint toSize = (uint)Unsafe.SizeOf<TTo>();
uint fromLength = (uint)span.Length;
int toLength;
if (fromSize == toSize)
{
// Special case for same size types - `(ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize`
// should be optimized to just `length` but the JIT doesn't do that today.
toLength = (int)fromLength;
}
else if (fromSize == 1)
{
// Special case for byte sized TFrom - `(ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize`
// becomes `(ulong)fromLength / (ulong)toSize` but the JIT can't narrow it down to `int`
// and can't eliminate the checked cast. This also avoids a 32 bit specific issue,
// the JIT can't eliminate long multiply by 1.
toLength = (int)(fromLength / toSize);
}
else
{
// Ensure that casts are done in such a way that the JIT is able to "see"
// the uint->ulong casts and the multiply together so that on 32 bit targets
// 32x32to64 multiplication is used.
ulong toLengthUInt64 = (ulong)fromLength * (ulong)fromSize / (ulong)toSize;
toLength = checked((int)toLengthUInt64);
}
return new ReadOnlySpan<TTo>(
ref Unsafe.As<TFrom, TTo>(ref MemoryMarshal.GetReference(span)),
toLength);
}
/// <summary>
/// Create a new span over a portion of a regular managed object. This can be useful
/// if part of a managed object represents a "fixed array." This is dangerous because the
/// <paramref name="length"/> is not checked.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="reference">A reference to data.</param>
/// <param name="length">The number of <typeparamref name="T"/> elements the memory contains.</param>
/// <returns>The lifetime of the returned span will not be validated for safety by span-aware languages.</returns>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static Span<T> CreateSpan<T>(ref T reference, int length) => new Span<T>(ref reference, length);
/// <summary>
/// Create a new read-only span over a portion of a regular managed object. This can be useful
/// if part of a managed object represents a "fixed array." This is dangerous because the
/// <paramref name="length"/> is not checked.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="reference">A reference to data.</param>
/// <param name="length">The number of <typeparamref name="T"/> elements the memory contains.</param>
/// <returns>The lifetime of the returned span will not be validated for safety by span-aware languages.</returns>
[MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.AggressiveInlining)]
public static ReadOnlySpan<T> CreateReadOnlySpan<T>(ref T reference, int length) => new ReadOnlySpan<T>(ref reference, length);
}
}
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