Skip to content
Permalink
Branch: master
Find file Copy path
Find file Copy path
1 contributor

Users who have contributed to this file

228 lines (188 sloc) 8.07 KB

PN532 - RFID and NFC reader

PN532 is a RFID and NFC reader. It does supports various standards: IsoIec14443TypeA, IsoIec14443TypeB, Iso18092. This implementation should support as well PN533 which is a full ASB serial only implementation and have few more registers and functions but looks retro compatible with this implentation.

Documentation

Official documentation can be fond here: https://www.nxp.com/docs/en/user-guide/141520.pdf

USage

You first need to create the class thru I2C, SPI or Serial.

// Embedded serial port on Raspberry Pi
string device = "/dev/ttyS0";
// or like this on Windows:
// string device = "COM7";
pn532 = new Pn532(device);

To act as a crad reader, the PN532 has to be in listening mode. 2 options are available, either thru using the ListPassiveTarget either the AutoPoll functions.

Example with polling a simple passive 14443 type A card like a Mifare:

byte[] retData = null;
while ((!Console.KeyAvailable))
{
    retData = pn532.ListPassiveTarget(MaxTarget.One, TargetBaudRate.B106kbpsTypeA);
    if (retData != null)
        break;
    // Give time to PN532 to process
    Thread.Sleep(200);
}

if (retData == null)
    return;

// You need to remove the first element at it's the number of tags read
// In, this case we will assume we are reading only 1 tag at a time
var decrypted = pn532.TryDecode106kbpsTypeA(retData.AsSpan().Slice(1));

Example pooling a 14443 type B card like a credit card:

byte[] retData = null;
while ((!Console.KeyAvailable))
{
    retData = pn532.AutoPoll(5, 300, new PollingType[] { PollingType.Passive106kbpsISO144443_4B });
    if (retData != null)
    {
        if (retData.Length >= 3)
            break;
    }

    // Give time to PN532 to process
    Thread.Sleep(200);
}

if (retData == null)
    return;

// Check how many tags and the type
Console.WriteLine($"Num tags: {retData[0]}, Type: {(PollingType)retData[1]}");
// See documentation page 145
// You need to remove the first element at it's the number of tags read
// In, this case we will assume we are reading only 1 tag at a time
// The second element is the type of the card. In our case, because we are using a Credit Card, we already know it's a Type B card
// The thrid element is the size of the data
var decrypted = pn532.TryDecodeData106kbpsTypeB(retData.AsSpan().Slice(3));

Reading or writing to cards

PN532 implement a ReadWrite function that allows to use a high level Mifare card class. This implementation abstract the reader which is used.

Once detected and selected like in the previous example, this fully dump the content of a classical Mifare 1K card:

if (decrypted != null)
{
    Console.WriteLine($"Tg: {decrypted.TargetNumber}, ATQA: {decrypted.Atqa} SAK: {decrypted.Sak}, NFCID: {BitConverter.ToString(decrypted.NfcId)}");
    if (decrypted.Ats != null)
    Console.WriteLine($", ATS: {BitConverter.ToString(decrypted.Ats)}");
    
    MifareCard mifareCard = new MifareCard(pn532, decrypted.TargetNumber) { BlockNumber = 0, Command = MifareCardCommand.AuthenticationA };
    mifareCard.SetCapacity(decrypted.Atqa, decrypted.Sak);
    mifareCard.SerialNumber = decrypted.NfcId;
    mifareCard.KeyA = new byte[6] { 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 };
    mifareCard.KeyB = new byte[6] { 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF };/
    for (byte block = 0; block < 64; block++)
    {
        mifareCard.BlockNumber = block;
        mifareCard.Command = MifareCardCommand.AuthenticationB;
        var ret = mifareCard.RunMifiCardCommand();
        if (ret < 0)
        {
            // Try another one
            mifareCard.Command = MifareCardCommand.AuthenticationA;
            ret = mifareCard.RunMifiCardCommand();
        }

        if (ret >= 0)
        {
            mifareCard.BlockNumber = block;
            mifareCard.Command = MifareCardCommand.Read16Bytes;
            ret = mifareCard.RunMifiCardCommand();
            if (ret >= 0)
                Console.WriteLine($"Bloc: {block}, Data: {BitConverter.ToString(mifareCard.Data)}");
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Error reading bloc: {block}, Data: {BitConverter.ToString(mifareCard.Data)}");
            }

            if (block % 4 == 3)
            {
                // Check what are the permissions
                for (byte j = 3; j > 0; j--)
                {
                    var access = mifareCard.BlockAccess((byte)(block - j), mifareCard.Data);
                    Console.WriteLine($"Bloc: {block - j}, Access: {access}");
                }
                var sector = mifareCard.SectorTailerAccess(block, mifareCard.Data);
                Console.WriteLine($"Bloc: {block}, Access: {sector}");
            }
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"Autentication error");
        }
    }

PN532 as a target

It's possible to change the PN532 mode to be seen as a target byt another reader. A phone with NFC for example. The bellow example shows how to transform the PN532 into a Credit Card:

static void AsTarget(Pn532 pn532)
{
    byte[] retData = null;
    TargetModeInitialized modeInitialized = null;
    while ((!Console.KeyAvailable))
    {
        (modeInitialized, retData) = pn532.InitAsTarget(
            TargetModeInitialization.PiccOnly, 
            new TargetMifareParameters() { Atqa = new byte[] { 0x08, 0x00 }, Sak = 0x60 },
            new TargetFeliCaParameters() { NfcId2 = new byte[] { 0x01, 0xFE, 0xA2, 0xA3, 0xA4, 0xA5, 0xA6, 0xA7 }, Pad = new byte[] { 0xC0, 0xC1, 0xC2, 0xC3, 0xC4, 0xC5, 0xC6, 0xC7 } },
            new TargetPiccParameters() { NfcId3 = new byte[] { 0xAA, 0x99, 0x88, 0x77, 0x66, 0x55, 0x44, 0x33, 0x22, 0x11 }, GeneralTarget = new byte[0], HistoricalTarget = new byte[0] });
        if (modeInitialized != null)
            break;

        // Give time to PN532 to process
        Thread.Sleep(200);
    }
    if (modeInitialized == null)
        return;

    Console.WriteLine($"PN532 as a target: ISDep: {modeInitialized.IsDep}, IsPicc {modeInitialized.IsISO14443_4Picc}, {modeInitialized.TargetBaudRate}, {modeInitialized.TargetFramingType}");
    Console.WriteLine($"Initiator: {BitConverter.ToString(retData)}");
    // 25-D4-00-E8-11-6A-0A-69-1C-46-5D-2D-7C-00-00-00-32-46-66-6D-01-01-12-02-02-07-FF-03-02-00-13-04-01-64-07-01-03
    // 11-D4-00-01-FE-A2-A3-A4-A5-A6-A7-00-00-00-00-00-30            
    // E0-80

    Span<byte> read = stackalloc byte[512];
    int ret = -1;
    while (ret<0)
        ret = pn532.ReadDataAsTarget(read);

    // For example: 00-00-A4-04-00-0E-32-50-41-59-2E-53-59-53-2E-44-44-46-30-31-00
    Console.WriteLine($"Status: {read[0]}, Data: {BitConverter.ToString(read.Slice(1).ToArray())}");            
}

Note that this is just the first phase showing how to initialize the process, get the first data and read data. In this specific case, the emulation have to understand the commands sent by the reader and emulate properly a card.

It is possible to emulate any Type A, Type B and Felica cards.

Current implementation

Communication support:

  • HSU serial port: fully supported
  • I2C: supported
  • SPI: experimental, using a specific chip select pin as well as using LSB with reverse bytes function rather than built in function. This is due to current limitation in the SPI implementations
  • Hardware reset pin

Miscellaneous commands:

  • Diagnose. Note: partial implementation, basics tests implemented only
  • GetFirmwareVersion
  • GetGeneralStatus
  • ReadRegister
  • WriteRegister
  • ReadGPIO
  • WriteGPIO
  • SetSerialBaudRate
  • SetParameters
  • SAMConfiguration
  • PowerDown

RF communication commands:

  • RFConfiguration
  • RFRegulationTest

PN532 as an initiator (reader) commands:

  • InJumpForDEP
  • InJumpForPSL
  • InListPassiveTarget
  • InATR
  • InPSL
  • InDataExchange
  • InCommunicateThru
  • InDeselect
  • InRelease
  • InSelect
  • InAutoPoll

PN532 as a Target (acting like a card)

  • TgInitAsTarget
  • TgSetGeneralBytes
  • TgGetData
  • TgSetData
  • TgSetMetaData
  • TgGetInitiatorCommand
  • TgResponseToInitiator
  • TgGetTargetStatus
You can’t perform that action at this time.