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Riffle: using stream ciphers as random number generators for Python 3

This is a collection of C and Python code that wraps various stream ciphers as modules conforming to Python's random module API. Most of the wrapped ciphers are from the eSTREAM project, which was a attempt to find and standardise a set of good fast stream ciphers.

Not all of the eSTREAM ciphers are well labeled from a software licensing point of view, though most have hints that free use was intended (see Copyright and Licenses below). The eSTREAM ciphers without clear free licenses are not included in this repository, but the build system contains code to automatically download and compile them.

The implementations used were chosen for portability over speed. Riffle has only been tested on x86_64 Linux.

Building the software

To compile python modules:

$ make

You will need the Python3 headers (called "python3-dev" or "python3-devel" by most Linux package managers).

To also compile generators that have unclear or unfree licenses (see below), or that work badly or slowly:

$ make everything

That will download various generators from the eSTREAM site, unless you have got them already. If you hate getting asked y/N questions, use

$ ECRYPT_NO_QUESTIONS=no-questions make everything

To make executable binaries that output streams of random bytes (look in ./bin, use --help):

$ make emitters

To compile the generators in GSL wrappers (completely useless, because GSL won't know they're there), check you have GSL headers and:

$ make gsl

Configuring integer to float conversion

By default, most generators will use bit fiddling techniques to convert 52 bit integers into the significand of a (double) number between 1 and 2, then subtract one. This results in 2** 52 evenly spaced numbers -- effectively the same as a 52 bit fixed point representation. This technique is borrowed from dSFMT.

If you compile thus:

$ cflags='-DDOUBLE_COERCION=2' make

the floating point number will be made by dividing a 64bit number by 2 ** 64 - 1. This results in rather more possible numbers, with greater precision approaching zero. For numbers over 0.5 there are 53 bits of resolution; between 0.5 and 0.25, 54 bits; between 0.25 and 0.125, 55 bits, and so on until the full 64 bits are reached around 0.0004.

In the ccan/isaac directory, Tim Terriberry demonstrates how to extract full resolution for numbers very close to zero, by extracting further random integers if there are not enough significant bits. I haven't used that because I don't care about precision in tiny numbers.

Because the default conversion uses 52 bits at a time, 12 bits from each 64 bit integer are discarded. Rather than just being thrown out, these bits can be collected up: out of 5 64 integers, you can get 6 52 bit floats. Thus with slow underlying generators you approach a 6/5 speed up; with quick generators, like hc128, there is a smaller gain.

This can be turned off by compiling with:

$ cflags='-DRESCUE_BITS=0' make

Copyright and Licenses

This is a little complicated, with different files having different licenses. The short answer is all the code is safe to use in a GPLv3 project, and much of it is more liberally licensed. The GPL code (except sha1.*, which can also be MPL) is not used in Python modules, so they are generally compatible with the license of Python itself.

According to (reproduced as text at licenses/phase3-ip-statements.txt), most eSTREAM candidates are "free for any use". Additionally, a table in (reproduced as licenses/ip-table.txt) indicates that the reference code ("submitted material") for all the ciphers used, except Rabbit, is free. However, because very few of the ciphers are accompanied by definite statements about the licenses of their reference implementations, they are not distributed with this package. See see Building the software above for details of how to include them.

Files not otherwise specified are copyright Douglas Bagnall and have a BSD-MIT license, except for the ones that only work with GPL code, which are themselves GPL.

Here is a summary:

ccan/compiler/*             [Rusty Russell; GPLv3+]
ccan/configurator.c         [Rusty Russell; BSD-MIT]
ccan/ilog/*                 [Timothy B. Terriberry; LGPLv2+]
ccan/isaac/*                [Bob Jenkins, Tim Terriberry; Public Domain]
ccan/opt/*                  [Rusty Russell; GPLv3+]
ccan/typesafe_cb/*          [Rusty Russell; LGPLv2+]
dSFMT-src-2.1/*             [Mutsuo Saito, Makoto Matsumoto, Hiroshima
                             University, Andrea C G Mennucci; 3 clause BSD]
sha1.c, sha1.h              [Paul Kocher; MPLv1.1+ or GPLv2+]
mt19937module.c             [Makoto Matsumoto, Takuji Nishimura, Raymond
                             Hettinger; 3 clause BSD]
hc128_opt32.h               [Hongjun Wu; UNKNOWN license]
salsa20_12/*                [D. J. Bernstein; Public Domain]
salsa20_8/*                 [D. J. Bernstein; Public Domain]
chacha8/*                   [D. J. Bernstein; Public Domain]
include/*                   [eSTREAM project; UNKNOWN]
sosemanuk-clean/*           [Thomas Pornin; MIT-ish]
sosemanuk2/*                [Thomas Pornin; MIT-ish]
ffcsrh/*                    [FCSR project; "no restriction"]
phelix/*                    [Doug Whiting; Public domain]

The following directories are not distributed with this software, either because they have indistinct or non-free licenses, they are somewhat broken as ciphers, or their performance is uninteresting. However, they will all be downloaded, patched and compiled if you run make everything, and you can make just one with, for example, make

tpy6/*                      [Eli Biham, Jennifer Seberry; UNKNOWN
                             ("no royalty")]
trivium/*                   [Christophe De Cannière; UNKNOWN]
grain/*                     [Martin Hell, et. al.; free-ish]
grain128/*                  [Martin Hell, et. al.; free-ish]
hc_128/*                    [Hongjun Wu; UNKNOWN license]
rabbit/*                    [Cryptico A/S; "solely for non-commercial
                             purposes", possibly changed since]
snow2/*                     [Patrik Ekdahl, Thomas Johansson; UNKNOWN]
abc3                        [Vladimir Anashin, Andrey Bogdanov, Ilya
                             Kizhvatov; unclear (BSD-ish)]

Notes about various generators

For information about these generators and stream ciphers in general, see:

abc3 is version three of Anashin, Bogdanov, and Kizhvatov's ABC cipher. It is allegedly cryptographically weak, and appears to have statistical problems too. It has a BSD-ish license that refers to the "cipher" rather than the software implementation itself.

chacha8 is a decendant of Salsa20 family and, like them, has been put in the public domain by its author D.J. Benstein. By altering a symlink in the chacha8 directory, you can choose between the "ref" and "regs" implementations. "regs" is default, and slightly faster. Bernstein also offers several optimised, non-portable, versions.

dSFMT521, dSFMT1279, dSFMT2203, dSFMT19937, and dSFMT216091 are variations of Mutsuo Saito and Makoto Matsumoto's double generating, SIMD oriented, successor to MT19937. The number refers to the period (and state size) of the generator, with dSFMT521 having a period of 2 ** 521 - 1, and so on. The versions used has been patched by Andrea C G Mennucci to save and restore state, though this is not yet exposed to Python. It is also possible to make generators of sizes 4253, 11213, 44497, 86243, and 132049, using make dsfmt for them all, or (for example) make for one. The longer periods are slightly quicker in benchmarks, but are probably slower in real world situations due to cache churn.

dummyc always generates 0.5, as a speed benchmark.

dummy is a Python module that always returns 0.5. Despite doing no work, it is slower than most real generators.

dummy2 is another Python module that returns 0.5, but unlike dummy, it uses unnatural techniques to try to reach C speed. It ends up being twice as slow as dummyc, and twice as quick as dummy.

ffcsrh is the F-FCSR-H stream cipher. It was included in the final eSTREAM portfolio, only to be thrown out a few months later after a critical weakness was discovered. This probably does not affect its statistical utility, though the cipher is designed for hardware, and its software performance is not compelling. It has a very liberal license which explicitly mentions the reference implementation.

grain and grain128 are hardware oriented ciphers with a liberal license that seems to be referring to the implementation as well as the algorithm. It contains this clause: "You may include the Grain cipher in a licensed or patented product but the Grain cipher must then be excluded from the license or patent in question". Their software performance is middling.

hc_128 and hc128 use two different implementations of Hongjun Wu's HC-128 cipher (hc_128 is from eSTREAM and hc128 is from Wu's site). They are both very fast and the cipher is unbroken. The eSTREAM IP statement says the cipher is "not patented and are royalty free. Anyone can use HC-128 and HC-256 free of charge". I can find no clear license for the reference software.

isaac and isaac64 are Bob Jenkins' fast cryptographic random number generators, as adapted/rewritten (I don't know which) by Tim Terriberry and included in the CCAN project. Both Jenkins' and Terriberry's versions have been offered to the public domain. Isaac64 is very fast on my i5 reference machine.

lcg is a classic (bad) linear congruential generator, with the formula x = 1103515245 * x_previous + 12345 % (2^31). Apparently it serves as rand() in some libc's (though not glibc, which looks only slightly better).

mt19937 is an exact copy of Python 3.1's _randommodule.c, with trivial changes to accommodate the change of name. The module file is called, but in Python you just write import mt19937; somehow Python knows how to find it.

phelix dropped out of eSTREAM due to moderate weaknesses which might not affect its role as a random number generator. It is an authenticating cipher, meaning it calculates a sort of checksum as it encrypts and decrypts for sender and receiver to compare. Thus it does more work than other stream ciphers, and this work is of little use for generating random numbers. Nevertheless, it is not the slowest.

rabbit is in the final eSTREAM portfolio. During much of its eSTREAM career the algorithm was shackled to some patent, but in 2008 the authors decided to release it "into the public domain". The eSTREAM reference implementation still carries a restrictive comment, though, perhaps because the code was finalised before it was freed. The code, according to the same comment, "may be used solely for non-commercial purposes", but it is possible that has changed too.

salsa20_8 and salsa20_12 are by D. J. Bernstein, who has declared them to be public domain. The code variant used here is called "regs" in eSTREAM. There are several optimised versions that are faster on their particular platforms, but none of them are portable. The only real difference between the two is the number of salsa rounds they use (8 or 12, as you might expect). Salsa20/8 seems to be regarded as cutting things fine for cryptographic work; it should be fine as a statistical random number generator.

snow2, by Patrik Ekdahl and Thomas Johansson, was not an eSTREAM candidate, but was wrapped up in the eSTREAM API to serve as a benchmark. It proved difficult to beat, with seemingly very few ciphers matching it for speed and security. The algorithm is free but the code doesn't have an explicit license.

sosemanuk-clean and sosemanuk2 are based on SOSEMANUK reference code written by Thomas Pornin and possibly others, who describe the license as "as close to Public Domain as any software license can be under French law". Sosemanuk-clean uses the native SOSEMANUK API, while sosemanuk2 uses the ecrypt API.

tpy6 is one of many descendants of the eSTREAM candidate Py. Py has been broken, but Tpy6 has not. Tpy6 is quite quick. Its contains the following comment: "The designers/authors of Py (pronounced Roo) keep their rights on the design and the name. However, no royalty will be necessary for use of Py, nor for using the submitted code."

trivium is in eSTREAM's final selection of hardware-oriented ciphers, but it is also reasonably quick in software. It has a smaller key than most others (80 bit), which doesn't matter for statistical purposes. The cipher is "free available for any use", but it is unclear whether that applies to the reference code.

urandom is a Python wrapper for the Python library's random.SystemRandom class, which in turn wraps /dev/urandom. It is 2 or 3 hundred times slower than most others.

xxtea encodes a buffer using the XXTEA cipher, then normalises the buffer to a series of floating point numbers. For the next round, it encodes the normalised buffer. Whether or not this is a sound procedure, it is not particularly fast. The XXTEA implementation was adapted from Wikipedia, which is turn derived from David Wheeler and Roger Needham's public domain original.

Python API

The Python module code is based on Python's standard _random module (the secret C module behind the public random module), and uses the Random class API as documented:

Class Random can also be subclassed if you want to use a different basic generator of your own devising: in that case, override the random(), seed(), getstate(), and setstate() methods. Optionally, a new generator can supply a getrandbits() method -- this allows randrange() to produce selections over an arbitrarily large range.


./ can perform a few simple tests. Look at ./ --help for options. By default it tests a selection of generators for speed, but it takes quite a few options.

./ tests internal routines for coercing integers into floating point numbers. If everything is working well, it won't say much. Don't trust it excessively: there is a certain circularity in the way it works.

After make emitters, the bin/*-emitter files can be used to test generators using, say, dieharder. To do that, install dieharder, then:

$ dieharder -g -1

and look for stdin_input_raw (200 for me, but it changes). Then:

$ bin/sosemanuk-emitter | dieharder -g 200 -a

will take an age doing a large number of tests. There will be a number of false alarms: dieharder raises the alarm when something happens that has a probability of less than 5%, but it does more than 20 tests, so some warnings are to be expected. To retest a failing test with a different seed:

$ bin/sosemanuk-emitter -s 42 | dieharder -g 200 -r 2

You can also use the emitters to test the raw speed of the generators, without Python and number conversion overhead. For example:

$ time bin/salsa20_8-emitter -b 500M > /dev/null

will tell you how long it takes to send 500 random Megabytes to /dev/null.

Test results

This is an extract of ./ output, showing how long it takes to generate 10000000 numbers on an i5-540 (best of 5 runs):

dummyc         0.238  *********
lcg            0.247  **********
dSFMT          0.249  **********
isaac64        0.300  ************
hc_128         0.304  ************
abc3           0.320  *************
tpy6           0.339  **************
hc128          0.341  **************
snow2          0.342  **************
chacha8        0.343  **************
salsa20_8      0.344  **************
trivium        0.353  **************
random         0.369  ***************
mt19937        0.373  ***************
rabbit         0.374  ***************
salsa20_12     0.381  ***************
sosemanuk2     0.382  ***************
sosemanuk      0.391  ****************
dummy2         0.422  *****************
phelix         0.486  ********************
grain128       0.487  ********************
xxtea          0.648  **************************
isaac          0.672  ***************************
dummy          0.876  ************************************
ffcsrh         1.077  ********************************************
grain          1.213  **************************************************

urandom        92.02  **************************************************[...]*

These are the Python times: you can deduce from the dummyc result that the Python overhead dwarfs the time taken by most generators.

I haven't done extensive tests of generator quality, but it does seem that:

  • abc3 is crazy.
  • dummy, dummyc, and dummy2 always return 0.5, as expected.
  • lcg is weak, as expected.
  • the others are at least superficially good.

The name

Wikipedia: "a riffle is a short, relatively shallow and coarse-bedded length of stream over which the stream flows at lower velocity and higher turbulence".

Adding new generators

To add new synchronous ciphers from the eSTREAM collection, read the instructions at the top of ecrypt_generic.c. There is a chance that all you need to do is add a line to the Makefile.


The most complicating thing is probably that, due to the essential similarity of each Python random module, there is a lot of repetition. Then to ameliorate that, there is quite a bit of Makefile and pre-processor trickery that pulls each module together from various files.

To do

  • More ciphers (AES, panama, cryptmt).
  • Non-cipher generators. WELL, for example.
  • Testing.


Experimental Python wrappers using stream ciphers (and more) as random number generators.






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