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/*
SparkFun Inventor's Kit
Example sketch 14
SHIFT REGISTER
Use a shift register to turn three pins into eight (or more!)
outputs
An integrated circuit ("IC"), or "chip", is a self-contained
circuit built into a small plastic package. (If you look closely
at your Arduino board you'll see a number of ICs.) There are
thousands of different types of ICs available that you can use
to perform many useful functions.
The 74HC595 shift register in your kit is an IC that has eight
digital outputs. To use these outputs, we'll use a new interface
called SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface). It's like the TX and
RX you're used to, but has an additional "clock" line that
controls the speed of the data transfer. Many parts use SPI
for communications, so the Arduino offers simple commands called
shiftIn() and shiftOut() to access these parts.
This IC lets you use three digital pins on your Arduino to
control eight digital outputs on the chip. And if you need
even more outputs, you can daisy-chain multiple shift registers
together, allowing an almost unlimited number of outputs from
the same three Arduino pins! See the shift register datasheet
for details:
http://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/IC/SN74HC595.pdf
Hardware connections:
Shift register:
Plug in the chip so it bridges the center "canyon"
on the breadboard.
The shift register has 16 pins. They are numbered
counterclockwise starting at the pin 1 mark (notch
in the end of the chip). See the datasheet above
for a diagram.
74HC595 pin LED pin Arduino pin
1 (QB) LED 2 +
2 (QC) LED 3 +
3 (QD) LED 4 +
4 (QE) LED 5 +
5 (QF) LED 6 +
6 (QG) LED 7 +
7 (QH) LED 8 +
8 (GND) GND
9 (QH*)
10 (SRCLR*) 5V
11 (SRCLK) Digital 3
12 (RCLK) Digital 4
13 (OE*) GND
14 (SER) Digital 2
15 (QA) LED 1 +
16 (VCC) 5V
LEDs:
After making the above connections to the positive (longer)
legs of the LEDs, connect the negative side (short lead) of
each LED to a 330 Ohm resistor, and connect the other side
of each resistor to GND.
This sketch was written by SparkFun Electronics,
with lots of help from the Arduino community.
This code is completely free for any use.
Visit http://learn.sparkfun.com/products/2 for SIK information.
Visit http://www.arduino.cc to learn about the Arduino.
Version 2.0 6/2012 MDG
*/
// include the library code: for Adafruit RGB LCD
#include <Wire.h>
#include <Adafruit_RGBLCDShield.h>
//#include <utility/Adafruit_MCP23017.h>
// The shield uses the I2C SCL and SDA pins. On classic Arduinos
// this is Analog 4 and 5 so you can't use those for analogRead() anymore
// However, you can connect other I2C sensors to the I2C bus and share
// the I2C bus.
Adafruit_RGBLCDShield lcd = Adafruit_RGBLCDShield();
// These #defines make it easy to set the backlight color
#define RED 0x1
#define YELLOW 0x3
#define GREEN 0x2
#define TEAL 0x6
#define BLUE 0x4
#define VIOLET 0x5
#define WHITE 0x7
#define MAX_MENU_ITEMS 6
char* Menu[]={"1 After Another", "1 at a time", "Ping Pong",
"Random LED", "Marquee","Binary Count"};
// Pin definitions:
// The 74HC595 uses a type of serial connection called SPI
// (Serial Peripheral Interface) that requires three pins:
int datapin = 2;
int clockpin = 3;
int latchpin = 4;
// We'll also declare a global variable for the data we're
// sending to the shift register:
byte data = 0;
void setup()
{
Serial.begin(9600);
// Set the three SPI pins to be outputs:
pinMode(datapin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(clockpin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(latchpin, OUTPUT);
// set up the LCD's number of columns and rows:
lcd.begin(16, 2);
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print("Use up/dn buttons");
}
int menuIndex = 0;
int activePattern = 0;
void loop()
{
uint8_t buttons = lcd.readButtons();
if (buttons)
{
lcd.clear();
lcd.setCursor(0, 0);
lcd.print("Use up/dn buttons");
if (buttons & BUTTON_UP)
{
if(menuIndex > 0)
{
menuIndex -= 1;
}
else
{
menuIndex = MAX_MENU_ITEMS-1;
}
}
if (buttons & BUTTON_DOWN)
{
if(menuIndex < MAX_MENU_ITEMS-1)
{
menuIndex += 1;
}
else
{
menuIndex = 0;
}
}
/*
if (buttons & BUTTON_LEFT)
{
lcd.print("LEFT ");
lcd.setBacklight(GREEN);
}
if (buttons & BUTTON_RIGHT)
{
lcd.print("RIGHT ");
lcd.setBacklight(TEAL);
}
*/
if (buttons & BUTTON_SELECT) //if select then assign the selected
{ //menu item
activePattern = menuIndex;
}
}
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(Menu[menuIndex]);
// We're going to use the same functions we played with back
// in circuit 04, "Multiple LEDs", we've just replaced
// digitalWrite() with a new function called shiftWrite()
// (see below). We also have a new function that demonstrates
// binary counting.
// To try the different functions below, uncomment the one
// you want to run, and comment out the remaining ones to
// disable them from running.
if (activePattern == 0)
{
oneAfterAnother();
}
else if (activePattern == 1)
{
oneOnAtATime(); // Scroll down the line
}
else if (activePattern == 2)
{
pingPong(); // Like above, but back and forth
}
else if (activePattern == 3)
{
randomLED(); // Blink random LEDs
}
else if (activePattern == 4)
{
marquee();
}
else
{
binaryCount();
}
}
void shiftWrite(int desiredPin, boolean desiredState)
// This function lets you make the shift register outputs
// HIGH or LOW in exactly the same way that you use digitalWrite().
// Like digitalWrite(), this function takes two parameters:
// "desiredPin" is the shift register output pin
// you want to affect (0-7)
// "desiredState" is whether you want that output
// to be HIGH or LOW
// Inside the Arduino, numbers are stored as arrays of "bits",
// each of which is a single 1 or 0 value. Because a "byte" type
// is also eight bits, we'll use a byte (which we named "data"
// at the top of this sketch) to send data to the shift register.
// If a bit in the byte is "1", the output will be HIGH. If the bit
// is "0", the output will be LOW.
// To turn the individual bits in "data" on and off, we'll use
// a new Arduino commands called bitWrite(), which can make
// individual bits in a number 1 or 0.
{
unsigned long start, finished, elapsed;
start = micros();
// First we'll alter the global variable "data", changing the
// desired bit to 1 or 0:
bitWrite(data, desiredPin, desiredState);
// Now we'll actually send that data to the shift register.
// The shiftOut() function does all the hard work of
// manipulating the data and clock pins to move the data
// into the shift register:
shiftOut(datapin, clockpin, MSBFIRST, data);
// Once the data is in the shift register, we still need to
// make it appear at the outputs. We'll toggle the state of
// the latchPin, which will signal the shift register to "latch"
// the data to the outputs. (Latch activates on the high-to
// -low transition).
digitalWrite(latchpin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(latchpin, LOW);
finished = micros();
elapsed = finished - start;
Serial.print(" Shiftout took: ");
Serial.print(elapsed);
Serial.println(" microseconds");
}
/*
oneAfterAnother()
This function will light one LED, delay for delayTime, then light
the next LED, and repeat until all the LEDs are on. It will then
turn them off in the reverse order.
*/
void oneAfterAnother()
{
int index;
int delayTime = 100; // Time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// Make this smaller for faster switching
// Turn all the LEDs on:
// This for() loop will step index from 0 to 7
// (putting "++" after a variable means add one to it)
// and will then use digitalWrite() to turn that LED on.
for(index = 0; index <= 7; index++)
{
shiftWrite(index, HIGH);
delay(delayTime);
}
// Turn all the LEDs off:
// This for() loop will step index from 7 to 0
// (putting "--" after a variable means subtract one from it)
// and will then use digitalWrite() to turn that LED off.
for(index = 7; index >= 0; index--)
{
shiftWrite(index, LOW);
delay(delayTime);
}
}
/*
oneOnAtATime()
This function will step through the LEDs, lighting one at at time.
*/
void oneOnAtATime()
{
int index;
int delayTime = 100; // Time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// Make this smaller for faster switching
// step through the LEDs, from 0 to 7
for(index = 0; index <= 7; index++)
{
shiftWrite(index, HIGH); // turn LED on
delay(delayTime); // pause to slow down the sequence
shiftWrite(index, LOW); // turn LED off
}
}
/*
pingPong()
This function will step through the LEDs, lighting one at at time,
in both directions.
*/
void pingPong()
{
int index;
int delayTime = 100; // time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// make this smaller for faster switching
// step through the LEDs, from 0 to 7
for(index = 0; index <= 7; index++)
{
shiftWrite(index, HIGH); // turn LED on
delay(delayTime); // pause to slow down the sequence
shiftWrite(index, LOW); // turn LED off
}
// step through the LEDs, from 7 to 0
for(index = 7; index >= 0; index--)
{
shiftWrite(index, HIGH); // turn LED on
delay(delayTime); // pause to slow down the sequence
shiftWrite(index, LOW); // turn LED off
}
}
/*
randomLED()
This function will turn on random LEDs. Can you modify it so it
also lights them for random times?
*/
void randomLED()
{
int index;
int delayTime = 100; // time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// make this smaller for faster switching
// The random() function will return a semi-random number each
// time it is called. See http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Random
// for tips on how to make random() more random.
index = random(8); // pick a random number between 0 and 7
shiftWrite(index, HIGH); // turn LED on
delay(delayTime); // pause to slow down the sequence
shiftWrite(index, LOW); // turn LED off
}
/*
marquee()
This function will mimic "chase lights" like those around signs.
*/
void marquee()
{
int index;
int delayTime = 200; // Time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// Make this smaller for faster switching
// Step through the first four LEDs
// (We'll light up one in the lower 4 and one in the upper 4)
for(index = 0; index <= 3; index++)
{
shiftWrite(index, HIGH); // Turn a LED on
shiftWrite(index + 4, HIGH); // Skip four, and turn that LED on
delay(delayTime); // Pause to slow down the sequence
shiftWrite(index, LOW); // Turn both LEDs off
shiftWrite(index + 4, LOW);
}
}
/*
binaryCount()
Numbers are stored internally in the Arduino as arrays of "bits",
each of which is a 1 or 0. Just like the base-10 numbers we use
every day, The position of the bit affects the magnitude of its
contribution to the total number:
Bit position Contribution
0 1
1 2
2 4
3 8
4 16
5 32
6 64
7 128
To build any number from 0 to 255 from the above 8 bits, just
select the contributions you need to make. The bits will then be
1 if you use that contribution, and 0 if you don't.
This function will increment the "data" variable from 0 to 255
and repeat. When we send this value to the shift register and LEDs,
you can see the on-off pattern of the eight bits that make up the
byte. See http://www.arduino.cc/playground/Code/BitMath for more
information on binary numbers.
*/
void binaryCount()
{
int delayTime = 1000; // time (milliseconds) to pause between LEDs
// make this smaller for faster switching
// Send the data byte to the shift register:
shiftOut(datapin, clockpin, MSBFIRST, data);
// Toggle the latch pin to make the data appear at the outputs:
digitalWrite(latchpin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(latchpin, LOW);
// Add one to data, and repeat!
// (Because a byte type can only store numbers from 0 to 255,
// if we add more than that, it will "roll around" back to 0
// and start over).
data++;
// Delay so you can see what's going on:
delay(delayTime);
}