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This project contains some benchmarks on Spring Boot startup time. The findings here have shown us how to make several optimizations in Spring Boot 2.1, 2.2 and Spring 5.1, 5.2, so those are highlighted. The optimizations and quite a few of the focused benchmarks concentrate on memory allocations and garbage collection pressure, which are hard to measure, but quite easy to run into problems with on startup.

There is a more extensive but older set of benchmarks elsewhere that you also might find interesting.

TL;DR How do I make my app go faster?

You are mostly going to have to drop features, so not all of these suggestions will be possible for all apps. Some are not so painful, and actually pretty natural in a container, e.g. if you are building a docker image it’s better to unpack the jar and put application classes in a different filesystem layer anyway.

  • Classpath exclusions from Spring Boot web starters:

    • Hibernate Validator

    • Jackson (but Spring Boot actuators depend on it). Use Gson if you need JSON rendering (only works with MVC out of the box).

    • Logback: use slf4j-jdk14 instead

  • Use the spring-context-indexer. It’s not going to add much, but Spring Boot autoconfiguration is indexed, and every little helps.

  • Before Boot 2.2, don’t use actuators if you can afford not to.

  • Use Spring Boot 2.1 and Spring 5.1 when they are available.

  • Fix the location of the Spring Boot config file(s) with spring.config.location (command line argument or System property etc.). Example for testing in IDE: spring.config.location=file:./src/main/resources/

  • Before Boot 2.2, switch off JMX if you don’t need it with spring.jmx.enabled=false

  • Make bean definitions lazy by default. In Spring Boot use spring.main.lazy-initialization=true. Spring Boot 2.1 also has

  • Unpack the fat jar and run with an explicit classpath.

  • Run the JVM with -noverify. Also consider -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1 (that will slow down the JIT later at the expense of the saved startup time).

A more extreme choice is to re-write all your application configuration using functional bean definitions. This includes all the Spring Boot autoconfiguration you are using, most of which can be re-used, but it’s still manual work to identify which classes to use and register all the bean definitions. If you try this approach you might see a further 10% improvement in startup time (or more if you don’t use the lazy flags but that’s not related top the functional beans). Look at the BuncApplication to see how to start Spring Boot without the @Configuration class processor.

Excluding netty-transport-native-epoll also boosts the functional bean apps by about 30ms (but not noticeably the non-functional ones), so maybe a few percent.

Summary of Results

Here is a graph that summarizes the results, in terms of how the startup time of the sample app (a single HTTP endpoint using Netty) behaves when we apply various changes:


The blue bars show successive improvements in the vanilla "demo" sample (a fully-leaded Spring Boot application). Once all the tweaks are applied we can see approximately a 200ms improvement (>15%).

  • The "Demo (baseline)" bar is the first benchmark we measured. It measures the time to start the app in a fresh class loader, but in a warm JVM, so it’s a little bit quicker in absolute terms than a cold start (by maybe 10%).

  • The "Components" bar is what happens if you use the spring.components index (just by adding spring-context-indexer to the classpath). It’s a tiny app so we don’t expect a huge effect, but it is measurable.

  • "Lazy" is what happens if you make all bean definitions lazy by default. Some Spring Boot autoconfiguration is not used at runtime, so you can save a bit of time by not using it.

  • "Tweaks" is the result of applying a few changes to Spring Framework and Spring Boot (which are pretty similar to what you will probably find in Spring Boot 2.1 and Spring 5.1). It also includes the JMX and config file location adjustments.

The red bars are the same app but converted to functional bean registration. "Bunc" uses Spring Boot and "Func" does not (so it loses the benefit of config file parsing and other stuff that Spring Boot does on startup). They represent approximately 2x improvement over the baseline.

The yellow bar is the same app but started from a completely warm JVM and the same classloader repeatedly. This is approximately 6.5 times faster than the baseline (200ms start time). It’s a useful yardstick of what the JVM can do if you allow it to optimize itself. Who knows, maybe one day the optimizations could be cached and re-loaded quickly enough for this to be a cold start. Some features of the modern JVM (JEP 310 for example) are moving in this direction, but unfortunately are nowhere near achieving the same level of improvement.

Early Improvements in Spring Boot 2.1

Spring Boot 2.1 is not even in the milestone as this work is being done, but we have managed to push a few changes into Spring Boot and Spring Framework 5.1. Here’s a quick summary of the startup times:


The "Freemarker" and "Tomcat" samples are from the Spring Boot project. The "Demo" and "Bunc" samples are the ones from this project.

This is the effect on heap memory usage (plotting startup time vs max heap memory):


Note that it is quite possible to run a simple Netty app in 10-12MB heap with Spring Boot 2.1 (but not with 2.0).

Most if not all the improvements here some from the AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory changes (see below for details). The change is also readily visible in flame graphs from a profiler (see below for details):


Spring Boot 2.0

Spring Boot 2.1

The red/brown GC flame on the right is noticeably smaller in Spring Boot 2.1. This is a sign of less GC pressure caused by the bean factory change.

Detailed Notes and Numerical Results

Laptop results:

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.305 ± 0.162   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.257 ± 0.094   s/op
  • "demo" creates a new class loader per application context (so all the Spring metadata has to be read again because caches get cleared).

  • "shared" means the same class loader for all contexts. In principal this is as fast as we can ever go (things will always be a bit slower because classes have to be loaded).

Without spring.components:

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.331 ± 0.145   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.290 ± 0.072   s/op

The error bars are large, but there may be a small difference that is worth keeping, even from such a minor change.

With LazyInitBeanFactoryPostProcessor (quite a useful boost):

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.197 ± 0.188   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.226 ± 0.067   s/op

See also the Micro Apps repo, where you will find the same sample apps but not the benchmarks. This makes them easier to just run in an ad-hoc way, if you want to just mess around. It is also where we are teaching Spring to play with GraalVM.

Desktop Results


Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  0.768 ± 0.110   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.159 ± 0.048   s/op

and with LazyInitBeanFactoryPostProcessor:

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  0.696 ± 0.068   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.131 ± 0.024   s/op

GC Data

Run the app with -verbose:gc -XX:+PrintGCDetails -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps to see GC pauses. E.g.

1.595: [Full GC (System.gc()) [PSYoungGen: 2080K->0K(23552K)] [ParOldGen: 11028K->11106K(55296K)] 13109K->11106K(78848K), [Metaspace: 23083K->23083K(1071104K)], 0.0511875 secs] [Times: user=0.15 sys=0.00, real=0.05 secs]

Total time 200ms.

Flame Graphs

On linux, prepare your system to accept the necessary system calls:

$ echo 1 | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/perf_event_paranoid

Otherwise you will see a lot of perf_event_open failed: Permission denied when you run the profiler.

Download the profiler and run the app with these arguments:

-agentpath:<path-to>/async-profiler/build/,svg,file=/tmp/flame.svg,event=cpu,interval=100000 -Ddemo.close=true -Xmx128m -noverify -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1

HINT: You can click on the flames to zoom in on the stack above where you click.

HINT: You might also need framebuf=10000000 (or similar) if you bust the buffer limit in the flame graph generation (shows up as a big red flat flame).


Vanilla demo app

Same but with the LazyInitBeanFactoryPostProcessor

Notice the different (thinner) profile for the right hand "rump" containing ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.

There is a MicroApplication (no @Configuration and no Spring Boot) that starts up very quickly. Here’s a flame graph:


Note that there is very little time spent on garbage collection, and of course nothing from ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.

if you are using Spring Tool Suite be sure to shut down the invasive JVM agent attach feature (Window >> Preferences >> Spring >> Boot Language Server Extension and/or Window >> Preferences >> Language Servers >> Spring Language Servers >> Spring Boot Language Servers uncheck all boxes) before you generate flame graphs from Java application launchers. Otherwise you get noise from Eclipse trying to connect to your app and inspect it.


  • Up to now the strategy has been "use ASM and cache like crazy, run everything dynamically". What about precomputing all that stuff?

  • @ComponentScanspring.components and it seems to make very little difference (but every little helps).

  • What about @Import? A large fraction of configuration class processing is taken up with @Import.

  • BeanInfoFactory isn’t a big footprint on the flame graphs, but it’s not minute either.

  • ConfigurationClassPostProcessor does a lot of imports and metadata reading. It always shows up in the flame graphs.

  • CGLib: might not be slow at all actually, but it comes in for some stick generally. Worth a look.

  • Webflux is the other big hog in the simple demo application, after @Configuration (Netty itself is relatively fast). Maybe that can be streamlined as well?

Sifting through some flame graphs and other hints and data points, we came to the conclusion that there are maybe 3 areas that are worth some more research:

  • ConfigurationClassPostProcessor is definitely up there and you can quite easily change the MetadataReaderFactory it uses (Spring Boot already boosts performance that way). We tried to serialize the metadata, but the existing implementation is not serializable and cannot easily be made so. There are some concerns about the fragility of the annotation metadata implementations that are in use already (one is ASM based and the other needs classes to be loaded). We need the ASM-generated data for ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.

  • CGLib is a bit slow, compared to vanilla reflective access. So replacing the proxies in @Configuration processing might be a good idea. Phil had some code that did this but he thought it didn’t make enough difference to continue (see here).

  • Bean creation is expensive still. BeanWrapper and BeanInfo are right in the centre of that. There is a BeanInfo implementation in this project (from Phil again) but it doesn’t have any measurable effect. Something else might work. The place to start looking is AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory where the doCreateBean() method could be replaced.

  • Also Spring Boot condition messages create strings and concatenate them even if they might never be used. this shows up a GC churn.

  • AnnotationTypeFilter looks like another potential optimization. It’s >1% of startup time in the fastest app, and all it needs to know is "Does @Component have @Inherited?" it seems.

  • MimeTypeUtils has a SecureRandom and it is used by WebFlux to initialize a codec, which is pretty fundamental, but takes 1.4% of startup time in the fastest app. Setting doesn’t help.

  • DispatcherHandler eagerly initializes a bunch of stuff (handler mappings etc.) which is the biggest part of the WebFlux startup flame. It doesn’t seem to help much to make it lazy though - the flame goes away but startup time is not improved.

  • ConfigFileApplicationListener (5.5%) and LoggingApplicationListener (2.2%) are two big differences between the non-Boot and Boot samples.

Hacking AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory

See SPR-16918. This little hack:

//            PropertyDescriptor[] filteredPds = filterPropertyDescriptorsForDependencyCheck(
//                    bw, mbd.allowCaching);
            PropertyDescriptor[] filteredPds = new PropertyDescriptor[0];

makes things really zippy:

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.234 ± 0.195   s/op
MainBenchmark.boot        ss   10  1.145 ± 0.192   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.227 ± 0.070   s/op

With that change and some other minor tweaks (see below), you can run the vanilla DemoApplication in 8m of heap (it starts a bit slowly but runs fine). With 12m heap you see a lot more GC logged, but it isn’t much slower. Flame graph:


Functional Bean Registration

Getting rid of as much @Configuration as possible would give us a way to measure the effect of any inefficiencies in that area more precisely. There is a Spring Boot issue that talks about supporting functional bean registration for user beans (Boot#8115), but that doesn’t cover the autoconfigs. There are some benchmarks here that show how fast an app with functional bean registration can be, but the conclusion there was that the improvement was more to do with fewer features. Time to do some more tests.

Here are some results from latest Spring Boot 2.2 snapshots:

Benchmark             Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo      ss   10  0.899 ± 0.168   s/op
MainBenchmark.boot      ss   10  0.750 ± 0.190   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual    ss   10  0.873 ± 0.184   s/op      ss   10  0.741 ± 0.134   s/op
MainBenchmark.cunc      ss   10  0.598 ± 0.146   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc      ss   10  0.547 ± 0.092   s/op
MainBenchmark.func      ss   10  0.628 ± 0.098   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared    ss   10  0.166 ± 0.048   s/op

Older results for Spring Boot 2.1 (comments below refer to these):

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.156 ± 0.203   s/op
MainBenchmark.boot        ss   10  1.115 ± 0.210   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual      ss   10  1.068 ± 0.185   s/op        ss   10  0.778 ± 0.202   s/op
MainBenchmark.cunc        ss   10  0.720 ± 0.127   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc        ss   10  0.683 ± 0.147   s/op
MainBenchmark.func        ss   10  0.573 ± 0.149   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.219 ± 0.070   s/op
  • "demo" is the canonical DemoApplication with @SpringBootApplication.

  • "boot" uses SpringApplication but not @EnableAutoConfiguration. It is a bit quicker (40ms or 4%). The flame graph for this one has much less GC activity.

  • "manual" is the same but gets rid of SpringApplication. Another 50ms improvement.

  • "cunc" registers all beans in the application directly, by class or using the functional bean registration API. It uses SpringApplication (so all of Boot except autoconfig, basically) and ConfigurationClassPostProcessor (which has nothing to do but still costs 50ms or so).

  • "bunc" is "cunc" but switches off the ConfigurationClassPostProcessor.

  • "func" is "bunc" but forgoing the benefits of Spring Boot. Results are pretty good (first sample under 1000ms).

  • "auto" is a hybrid - it uses functional bean registrations generated using reflection from existing autoconfiguration. It is fully automated (unlike "func" and "bunc") and uses all the features of Spring Boot. You can try this yourself by using the library spring-boot-auto-reflect.

Some of the @Configuration beans are hard to use without registering them as beans (e.g. WebFluxAutoConfiguration.EnableWebFluxConfiguration). If you do register a @Configuration manually (not using @Import or @ComponentScan) there is still some post processing and reflective calling of @Bean methods etc., but the CGLib proxy is skipped (might have side effects, so probably not a good idea in general).

Here are some flame graphs from the functional bean samples:





Note that ConfigurationClassPostProcessor is not used at all. If it was it would still account for 6% of the startup time because it inspects every bean in the context, even though there we know there are no @Configuration classes. To achieve this extra optimization the user has to ensure that the application context is not one of the annotation register implementations (e.g. ReactiveWebServerApplicationContext instead of AnnotationConfigReactiveWebServerApplicationContext) but also that it does register an AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.

The biggest flame on the "func" app graph was @ConfigurationProperties processing (9%), but most of that was initializing the conversion service, which is done in a background thread in a Boot app. The timing shown above puts it in a background thread (saving about 50ms).

We suspect that the difference between "demo" (vanilla) and "boot" is condition processing, and that string manipulation can be removed or optimized in Boot to reduce or eliminate that. Attempting to collect evidence for this has so far failed. E.g. using this branch of Spring Boot didn’t have much impact on any but the "boot" sample (it should have improved the "demo" sample as much or more).

The biggest flame in the "boot" graph that isn’t in the "manual" one is from BackgroundPreinitializer. That’s in a background thread, so it isn’t obviously going to slow down the startup, but if it causes extra GC pressure, in particular that could be bad. See spring-boot#1423. It makes quite a big difference (about 60ms). The data above already include this improvement.

You can start the FuncApplication in 12m heap without degrading it. It runs in 8m but a bit slower, much slower in 6m, and fails to start in 4m. GC is down to 3% of startup time in the "func" sample, and 8% in "demo" (the fully-leaded DemoApplication).

With the LazyInitBeanFactoryPostProcessor:

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.bunc        ss   10  0.653 ± 0.154   s/op
MainBenchmark.func        ss   10  0.523 ± 0.132   s/op

In all 17 beans are not created in "bunc" on startup, compared to when

the lazy processor is not registered:


Some of those might be needed if a JSON request was ever processed (it won’t be in this app). Some will never be needed (e.g. RestTemplateBuilder).


ConfigurationClassPostProcessor does a lot of delving into unannotated classes looking for @Bean annotations. We could make that optional and provide a way for users (or Spring Boot) to switch it off. We could also short circuit the annotation processing in the case that there is a spring.components index because we know then which classes have @Configuration.

We created a custom ConfigurationClassPostProcessor that only processes classes that are present in spring.components. It doesn’t make much difference in a vanilla Spring Boot app. But if you use it in an app that doesn’t have any @Configuration it doesn’t cost anything (unlike the vanilla CCPP). Spring Boot jars have spring.components so this optimization doesn’t affect the functionality. Details:

	public void enhanceConfigurationClasses(ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory) {
		CandidateComponentsIndex index = CandidateComponentsIndexLoader.loadIndex(null);
		Set<String> components = index.getCandidateTypes("", Component.class.getName());
		for (String beanName : beanFactory.getBeanDefinitionNames()) {
			BeanDefinition beanDef = beanFactory.getBeanDefinition(beanName);
			if (!components.contains(beanDef.getBeanClassName())) {

The small apps in this benchmark do not benefit from this customization, and might even be slightly slower because they need to read the index.


See Boot#13436.

ConfigFileApplicationListener creates a "description" of each resource that it attempts to load. In a tight loop 40% of sampled time goes to just creating the description (and 12% even when there is a single config location). It turns out to be extremely inefficient because of the use of String.format and ResourceUtils.toURI (both are expensive). The description is only logged by default if the file is found, so it isn’t even used most of the time. I would recommend just using the "location" instead which is always available and always fairly descriptive of the resource, and costs nothing to compute.

The other main source of inefficiency is ClassPathResource.exists() (25% sampled time). To fix that would be more involved - we’d probably have to index the jars at build time or something. Might be worth it. There’s a workaround for users, though - if you know the locations of the config files in the file system, you can skip searching the classpath by specifying spring.config.location explicitly.

Result of optimizing ConfigFileApplicationListener description, and setting spring.config.location explicitly (N.B. "func" is not affected, which is expected):

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.boot        ss   10  1.074 ± 0.200   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc        ss   10  0.631 ± 0.139   s/op
MainBenchmark.func        ss   10  0.571 ± 0.147   s/op
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.128 ± 0.209   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual      ss   10  1.014 ± 0.141   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.209 ± 0.067   s/op

Also, the ApplicationConversionService shows up in the flame graph of "bunc" via ConfigFileApplicationListener, which uses it indirectly through a Binder. The Binder in that listener in total accounts for 1.5% of the startup time in "bunc", which seems excessive. Adding the shared ApplicationConversionService initialization to the BackgroundPreinitializer didn’t help.


See Boot#13437.

CloudFoundryVcapEnvironmentPostProcessor only needs to parse JSON if it finds that the app is running in Cloud Foundry. But it always instantiates a JSON parser in the class init, which is potentially wasteful (2% of startup time in a really basic webflux app using functional bean registration instead of autoconfig).


Apparently an app starts up quicker (20ms or so) if there are no logging.level bindings.


There’s a lot of cacheing already in AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster, but it still shows up as a blip on the flame graphs (roughly 3% of BuncApplication). Every ApplicationListener is queried to compute its event type for every event that is processed (if it is not already a GenericApplicationListener, which most are not). The computation of the generic type is what fills the flame graph. GenericApplicationListenerAdapter and/or AbstractApplicationEventMulticaster could probably be optimized to improve this.

Spring Boot exacerbates this by having 2 ApplicationEventMulticasters (one in EventPublishingRunListener and one in the actual ApplicationContext).

Some of the Boot listeners could be implemented as SmartApplicationListener to avoid the cost of looking up the generic type information.

It might also help to use a different callback (e.g. SpringApplicationRunListener or ApplicationContextInitializer) instead of ApplicationListener. E.g. LiquibaseServiceLocatorApplicationListener is queried multiple times in a vanilla Boot app, only to do nothing because Liquibase is not present.


See Boot#13565.

Spring Boot uses Binder.bind() at a very early stage in quite a lot of places. SpringApplication itself, LoggingApplicationListener, ConfigFileApplicationListener and AnsiOutputApplicationListener all get used early and their combined use of Binder adds up to more than 5% of the startup time in BuncApplication. If Binder could be replaced with a simple call to Environment.getProperty() it would be much faster - we tried this with ConfigFileApplicationListener with positive results, but that caused test failures in Spring Boot, so the binder is doing something clever that is necessary in at least some corner cases.

Benchmark for extracting a String[] from an Environment property:

Benchmark                Mode  Cnt       Score       Error  Units
BinderBenchmark.binder  thrpt    5    1942.687 ±   333.568  ops/s  thrpt    5  286815.982 ± 36887.052  ops/s     thrpt    5   16381.371 ±  3743.830  ops/s
BinderBenchmark.wrapped thrpt    5   15568.784 ±   580.370  ops/s

The "direct" sample uses Environment.getProperty(), and the "binder sample uses Binder.bind(). The "map" benchmark uses a MapConfigurationPropertySource instead of the full Environment (I noticed this pattern in XADataSourceAutoConfiguration). It’s only 10x faster, but that’s a step in the right direction. Maybe that’s a hint about how to improve it, especially for the early bindings. It’s almost as fast if you just wrap the Environment in a ConfigurationPropertySource that simply mirrors Environment.getProperty() (the "wrapped" benchmark).

UPDATE: In snapshots after 2.1.0.M4 some big changes can be seen:

Benchmark                 Mode  Cnt       Score       Error  Units
BinderBenchmark.binder   thrpt    5    6035.631 ±   929.405  ops/s   thrpt    5  778681.617 ± 12206.544  ops/s      thrpt    5  182403.289 ±  2743.654  ops/s
BinderBenchmark.wrapped  thrpt    5  122462.052 ±  3120.594  ops/s

It’s at the point where Binder is only showing up in startup in the LoggingApplicationListener (2.5% of startup time). Binding to a Map is still slow, even if there are no entries to bind.


See SPR-17169.

Spring core ClassUtils is always an annoying blip on the flame graphs. It pops up because it indirectly calls java.lang.invoke.MethodHandleNatives.linkCallSite() which is expensive it seems, or at least when called in a static initializer. You can avoid the cost completely if you switch from iterating over a map using a lambda to explicit old-style iteration:

		for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, Class<?>> entry : primitiveWrapperTypeMap.entrySet()) {
			Class<?> key = entry.getKey();
			Class<?> value = entry.getValue();
			primitiveTypeToWrapperMap.put(value, key);

instead of

		primitiveWrapperTypeMap.forEach((key, value) -> {
			primitiveTypeToWrapperMap.put(value, key);

Unfortunately, as the comments in that issue above show, the only effect is to push the problem around - there is no measureable improvement in startup time.

JVM Command Line

The benchmarks so far do not tweak the JVM command line, and we know from other benchmarks that you can spped things up on startup quite a lot doing that.

With all the problems above worked around in some way (e.g. replacing Spring Boot listeners and Spring Framework bean factory), here’s the result with

$ java -noverify -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1 -jar target/benchmarks.jar MainBenchmark
Benchmark             Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units      ss   10  0.515 ± 0.043   s/op
MainBenchmark.boot      ss   10  0.616 ± 0.046   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc      ss   10  0.388 ± 0.036   s/op
MainBenchmark.demo      ss   10  0.688 ± 0.048   s/op
MainBenchmark.func      ss   10  0.331 ± 0.027   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual    ss   10  0.579 ± 0.036   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared    ss   10  0.114 ± 0.035   s/op


Using Tomcat instead of Netty is an interesting experiment. Here’s the result (from the "tomcat" branch):

Benchmark             Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.boot      ss   10  0.698 ± 0.062   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc      ss   10  0.432 ± 0.037   s/op
MainBenchmark.demo      ss   10  0.706 ± 0.049   s/op
MainBenchmark.func      ss   10  0.389 ± 0.028   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual    ss   10  0.641 ± 0.027   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared    ss   10  0.130 ± 0.040   s/op

Compare the latest results from master (50ms faster):

Benchmark             Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.boot      ss   10  0.632 ± 0.052   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc      ss   10  0.380 ± 0.023   s/op
MainBenchmark.demo      ss   10  0.663 ± 0.055   s/op
MainBenchmark.func      ss   10  0.338 ± 0.032   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual    ss   10  0.601 ± 0.044   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared    ss   10  0.132 ± 0.035   s/op

From the flame graphs, it looks like lot of the difference comes from additional GC pressure. We can also try with MVC (results from "mvc" branch):

Benchmark             Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.boot      ss   10  0.827 ± 0.075   s/op
MainBenchmark.bunc      ss   10  0.465 ± 0.042   s/op
MainBenchmark.demo      ss   10  0.874 ± 0.091   s/op
MainBenchmark.func      ss   10  0.414 ± 0.038   s/op
MainBenchmark.manual    ss   10  0.775 ± 0.058   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared    ss   10  0.162 ± 0.042   s/op

N.B. this doesn’t compile on the command line. You have to use the IDE to compile and then mvn install to build the jar.

The MVC apps are slower than the reactive ones, by a quite a bit. They load more classes and have more beans. The GC pressure is also still a problem. Both Jetty and Undertow perform pretty much identically to Tomcat.

Flight Recorder

Start your app with the Oracle JDK and some special flags

-XX:+UnlockCommercialFeatures -XX:+FlightRecorder -XX:StartFlightRecording=delay=0s,duration=120s,name=recording,filename=/tmp/recording.jfr,settings=profile

and it will record data in a form that can be read by jmc (from the JDK distro). You can open it up and see useful graphical presentations like this:


The sampling isn’t as accurate as async profiler, so you get variable results for short startups. If you can run the process in a tight loop, so the thing you are trying to probe lasts a bit longer, then that will help. We have been able to find GC pressure sources and squish them this way (e.g. the AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory optimizations came from this approach).

Serializable Class Metadata

Using Kryo we were able to cache and re-load configuration class metadata using a custom MetadataReaderFactory. The results are so far inconclusive. The cost of serialization is close to the cost of the ASM processing, so nothing is gained.

Benchmark               Mode  Cnt  Score   Error  Units
MainBenchmark.demo        ss   10  1.294 ± 0.095   s/op
MainBenchmark.shared      ss   10  0.264 ± 0.075   s/op

Flame graphs with alloc=cpu, with the cache:


Notice the large fraction of the samples in GCTaskThread::run (19.47% of the total startup time).

The cached flamegraph doesn’t look very different from the vanilla one. The metadata in the cache probably contains all the warts of the dynamically computed one, in terms of memory usage. It still has all those ASM Type instances for example, so maybe we need a more efficient representation of AnnotationMetadata and ClassMetadata to take advantage of this kind of strategy.

Raw benchmarks for different metadata reading strategies:

Benchmark                     Mode  Cnt   Score    Error  Units
MetadataBenchmark.caching    thrpt   10  29.240 ± 13.408  ops/s
MetadataBenchmark.kryo       thrpt   10  65.272 ± 24.374  ops/s
MetadataBenchmark.reference  thrpt   10  48.779 ± 23.635  ops/s
MetadataBenchmark.simple     thrpt   10  27.544 ± 13.063  ops/s

The error bars are large but the averages are consistent between runs. It’s still warming up the JIT as it runs and it’s not clear we actually want it to be warm (it will never be warm on a cold start). Key:

  • "caching": used by Spring by default (and for @ComponentScan also in Spring Boot)

  • "kryo": is the special cache of serialized metadata

  • "reference": used by Spring Boot for ConfigurationClassPostProcessor, efficient reference-based cache of the ASM data

  • "simple" is the raw ASM reader.

Bean Creation Benchmarks

Create a Bean and inject a Foo into it:

Benchmark                       Mode  Cnt           Score           Error  Units
BeanCreationBenchmark.bare     thrpt    5  2863559599.756 ± 283985900.459  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.cglib    thrpt    5      516603.359 ±      6503.198  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.proxy    thrpt    5      565993.698 ±     53195.230  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.reflect  thrpt    5     9968507.609 ±    133542.774  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.simple   thrpt    5     4066914.320 ±    589505.416  ops/s


  • "bare": just uses new MyBean(foo)

  • "cglib": creates a CGLib proxy of MyBean and calls setFoo(foo)

  • "proxy": same but for a JDK proxy

  • "reflect": calls the constructor reflectively

  • "simple": uses DefaultListableBeanFactory.createBean() to create a MyBean instance


  • Proxies are slow - almost 20 times slower than vanilla reflection. CGLib isn’t much different than JDK proxies (it used to be much slower).

  • The BeanFactory is more than twice as slow as manually using reflection to create the bean. The difference might be in the use of BeanInfo, which always shows up on flame graphs.

  • Reflection is 300 times slower than pure compiled bytecode.

A factor of 2 is almost not worth chasing at this level. A factor of 20 probably is. Ditto 300. So we should try to avoid proxies as much as possible, and reflection. These results are probably independent of the GC issues experienced by the full Spring Boot application startup.

More extensive benchmarks:

Benchmark                       Mode  Cnt          Score         Error  Units
BeanCreationBenchmark.proce    thrpt    5       1063.410 ±    1091.844  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.unpro    thrpt    5      47377.737 ±    8479.910  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.funcs    thrpt    5      35373.613 ±    5215.308  ops/s
BeanCreationBenchmark.simple   thrpt    5     564198.322 ±   28753.021  ops/s
  • "proce" is a 3-bean @Configuration processed with a GenericApplicationContext

  • "unpro" is the same thing but without the ConfigurationClassPostProcessor (so just a bean with the same type as the @Configuration)

  • "funcs" is the same 3 beans but using the functional bean regsitration style (so no ConfigurationClassPostProcessor)

  • "simple" is the same 3 beans but registered or created directly with a DefaultListableBeanFactory

The "proce" sample is quite variable on startup time (hence the error bars). The most interesting contrast is probably between "proce" and "funcs" since these are fully-leaded Spring applications, albeit very simple - "funcs" is 35 times faster(!).


This project contains a hacked version of AnnotationElementUtils which uses reflection to extract annotation data from classes and methods, instead of using the official public methods in Class and Method. The public methods create a lot of garbage collection pressure because they create copies of the annotation arrays every time they are called.

Another source of GC pressure comes from sun.reflect.annotation in the JDK. If you replace AnnotationInvocationHandler with a version that does not call Method.getParameterTypes() on every method call, and caches the first element of the array when it does call it, you can reduce the GC on startup by a further large margin. (To do this you have to manipulate the boot classpath in the java command line.)




Java 10 Features

Java 10 is slower than Java 8 in general (so far at least), but it has some features that might be useful to improve startup time.

One is Class Data Sharing:

$ CP=target/benchmarks.jar
$ java -Xshare:off -XX:+UseAppCDS -XX:DumpLoadedClassList=target/hello.lst -Ddemo.close=true -cp $CP com.example.func.FuncApplication
$ java -Xshare:dump -XX:+UseAppCDS -XX:SharedClassListFile=target/hello.lst -XX:SharedArchiveFile=target/hello.jsa -cp $CP com.example.func.FuncApplication
$ java -noverify -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1 -Xshare:on -XX:+UseAppCDS -XX:SharedArchiveFile=target/hello.jsa -cp $CP com.example.func.FuncApplication
INFO: Netty started on port(s): 8080
Benchmark app started
Started HttpServer: 396ms

Compared with about 600ms without the CDS (with Java 8 and no CDS it is 500ms).

The other is Ahead of Time Compilation:

$ java -XX:DumpLoadedClassList=target/app.classlist -cp $CP com.example.func.FuncApplication
$ jaotc --output target/ -J-cp -J$CP `cat target/app.classlist | sed -e 's,/,.,g'`
$ java -noverify -XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1 -XX:AOTLibrary=target/ -cp $CP com.example.func.FuncApplication
Benchmark app started
Started HttpServer: 476ms

So better than 600ms, but not much faster than Java 8. One reason it isn’t a huge effect is that only the JDK classes are compiled (you still need commercial features to compile application classes).


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