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(Please submit PRs if you spot mistakes or would like to add a substantive comment, or chitty-chat on the twitter thread)

On Currying in F# - 10/02/2020

Over the weekend I was asked by Andy Gocke about the history/choices of the inclusion of currying and partial application in the F# design. Am happy to discuss, here's a quick note.

First, from the historical perspective most of this comes in via F# <-- OCaml <-- Edinburgh ML. For raw core FP code (let, let let) the technical details are mostly the same as OCaml. There are a lot of extra details about how the mechanism works w.r.t. object programming, subsumption and quotations but we can skip those for now. I've added a note on and the compiled form of curried and tupled functions values and declarations at the end of this note.

At the time F# 1.0 was designed (2002-2005) the strongly-typed starting points we had were Java, C# 1.x, OCaml, Standard ML and Haskell. There was no real integration of OO and FP available – not even Scala – just prototypes like Pizza/GJ – and C# 1.x didn’t even have viable function values. As always an evolutionary approach was necessary, so I started with C# 1.x (leading to C# 2.0 and generics), and OCaml (leading to F# 1.0). Once OCaml was a starting point currying and partial application are both “in”.

I do comprehend Andy's desire to see currying and partial application lose their hallowed status amongst strongly-typed FP aficionados. The basic criticism that it biases the last argument is valid. There is also a valid criticism that it creates instability and irregularity in basic coding patterns, e.g. some team members using tupled arguments and some using curried arguments, even when basically all code is first order. You can see this play out in F# code in practice, and I find myself flipping between these when there are many parameters involved.

One problem with the “it biases the last parameter” argument is that a similar criticism can be made for object programming notation (“it biases the first parameter”) and yet that proves perfectly effective in practice. Further once you have syntactic mechanisms for the first and last parameters you’ve covered most call-sites, and there’s a process of diminishing returns. This helps explain why currying is so persistently present in Haskell, OCaml, Elm, PureScript and so on – like object programming notation it’s highly compact for a bunch of coding patterns and once it’s in your toolbox you kind of get used to it. And once things like this get entrenched the rights and wrongs of the design principles don’t necessarily dominate – people just get used to particular notation.

That said, I think you could in theory remove currying and partial application from F# and replace it by a design which does away with partial application altogether, characterised by something like { _ + 1 }


    x |> { _ + x }

Where all callsites are always saturated up and there is no partial application at all.

A language like this would still look and feel much like modern F# code. That wouldn’t have been true for F# 0.x, but over time F# coding has developed its own stable style very distinct from OCaml etc. and the above would fit too badly if it weren’t a breaking change. So this is in theory a reasonable, stable starting point for hybrid OO/FP languages and I wouldn’t be too surprised if it gradually becomes quite standard amongst languages somehow.

The technical problems with any mechanism like this are mostly with nesting and evaluation order (like cut/cute proposal for Scheme). People float suggestions like this for F# but nothing has quite stuck. I think if there were another pair of parentheses available to us in ASCII we’d burn them on this.

Anyway, in the F# component design guidelines we recommend against the use of currying in any object API design, trying to push it to be for implementation code only and a few functional programming idioms. We also remove functions like “curry” and “uncurry” from the standard library. IIRC in Expert F# chapter 20 I also wrote a fair bit about this, suggesting that currying only be used in limited circumstances when there is a bias amongst the arguments for which is likely to be “known” (unvarying) at callsites. The onus is on the author of the function to predict this, but if it’s only being used in implementation code then that’s ok.

Here's what I wrote in Expert F# 4.0:

Recommendation: Understand when currying is useful in functional programming APIs.

Currying is the name used when functions take arguments in the “iterated” form, that is, when the functions can be partially applied. For example, the following function is curried:

let f x y z = x + y + z 

This is not:

let f (x,y,z) = x + y + z 

Here are some of our guidelines for when to use currying and when not to use it:

  • Use currying freely for rapid prototyping and scripting. Saving keystrokes can be very useful in these situations.

  • Use currying when partial application of the function is highly likely to give a useful residual function (see Chapter 3).

  • Use currying when partial application of the function is necessary to permit useful precomputation (see Chapter 8). [ NOTE: however, the partial-application-for-precomputation design pattern should rarely be used in F# coding, if ever ]

  • Avoid using currying in vanilla .NET APIs or APIs to be used from other .NET languages.

When using currying, place arguments in order from the least varying to the most varying. This will make partial application of the function more useful and lead to more compact code. For example, is curried with the function argument first because a typical program usually applies to a handful of known function values but many different concrete list values. Likewise, you saw in Chapters 8 and 9 how recursive functions can be used to traverse tree structures. These traversals often carry an environment. The environment changes relatively rarely—only when you traverse the subtrees of structures that bind variables. For this reason, the environment is the first argument.

When using currying, consider the importance of the pipelining operator; for example, place function arguments first and object arguments last.

F# also uses currying for let-bound binary operators and combinators:

let divmod n m = ... 

let map f x = ... 

let fold f z x = ... 

However, see Chapters 6 and 8 for how to define operators as static members in types, which are not curried.

As an aside it's noticeable that both currying and implicit/pervasive laziness are the FP techniques which are not moving from the Hindley-Milner into the Algol languages.

Appendix: Function values, interop and the core "semantic" (de-sugared) forms of F# expressions

For the core semantic de-sugared F# representation of expressions, things are effectively “System F + interop to .NET + interop to F# module/OO declarations”. You can see the details in both F# quotations and the F# TAST expression form. Some details:

Function values

  • A curried local f0: int -> int -> int has type FSharpFunc<int,FSharpFunc<int,int>>.

    • The arity of a local f0 is not known statically (except perhaps in an optimization phase)

    • Expression f0 becomes load f0

    • Expression f0 e1 becomes f0.Invoke(e1)

    • Expression f0 e1 e2 becomes f0.InvokeFast(e1, e2) (actually a static method FSharpFunc::InvokeFast(f0,e1,e2) but that's by the by)

    • NOTE: This follows OCaml in evaluating e1 and e2 before making the call. Thus there is a distinction between (f0 e1) e2 and f0 e1 e2. THe former becomes (f0.Invoke(e1)).Invoke(e2) in the absence of any optimization information about f0.

    • NOTE: f0.InvokeFast(e1,e2) does a hidden type test to check if it supports OptimizedClosures.FSharpFunc<_,_,_> (a two-curried-argument entry point), likewise 3, 4 etc. At the closure-creation points when allocating (fun x y -> ...), creating an instance of OptimizedClosures.FSharpFunc<_,_,_> for two-argument curried entry points (fun x y -> …) that have no side effect between the two arguments. This means allocation-free calls to two-argument curried functions at the cost of a type test. Looping code can make this explicit and lift out this check manually.

  • A tupled local f1: int * int -> int has static compiled type FSharpFunc<Tuple<int,int>,int>.

    • The arity of a local f1 is not known statically (except perhaps in an optimization phase)
    • Expression f1 becomes load f1
    • Expression f1 e1 becomes (load f1).Invoke(e1)
    • Expression f1 (e1, e2) becomes (load f1).Invoke(Tuple(e1, e2))
    • There is no allocation-free call to such a function unless optimization learns something about f1

Function declarations in a module

  • The compiled form of a curried function declaration in a module let f2 x y = x + y is public static int CompileNameOfF2(int x, int y) { .. }

    • The arity of f2 is known statically to be [1;1]
    • Expression f2 becomes fun v1 v2 -> CompileNameOfF2(v1,v2)
    • Expression f2 e1 becomes let v1 = e1 in (fun v2 -> CompileNameOfF2(v1,v2)
    • Expression f2 e1 e2 becomes CompileNameOfF2(e1,e2)
  • The compiled form of a tupled function declaration in a module let f3 (x, y) = x + y is also public static int CompileNameOfF3(int x, int y) { .. }

    • The arity of f3 is known statically to be [2]
    • Expression f3 becomes fun v1 v2 -> CompileNameOfF3(v1,v2)
    • Expression f3 e1 becomes let (v1, v2) = e1 in CompileNameOfF3(v1,v2)
    • Expression f3 (e1, e2) becomes CompileNameOfF3(e1,e2)

I'll skip function declarations in classes but suffice to say they typically become instance methods.

.NET interop calls

  • Assume .NET compiled form static int C::StaticMethod(int x, int y)=

    • The arity of C.StaticMethod is known at all callsites
    • Expression C.StaticMethod becomes fun p -> let (v1, v2) = p in C::StaticMethod(v1,v2), i.e. first-class uses of .NET methods are considered to take a single tupled argument.
    • Expression C.StaticMethod(e1) is actually disallowed but if it were allowed it would become let (v1,v2) = e1 in C::StaticMethod(v1, v2)
    • Expression C.StaticMethod(e1,e2) becomes C::StaticMethod(e1, e2)

Overall the “module/OO/interop” parts of F# are about approximating the “illusion of uniformity” over the sea of non-uniform declaration-level constructs (classes, modules, functions, methods, properties, .NET interop, type providers, “void”, generics, …) and lifting these into a uniform expression level.

Lots more could be said but that's the basics.

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