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.TH NS 1 "25 July 1997"
.de HD
.sp 1.5
.B
..
.SH NAME
ns \- network simulator (version 2)
.SH SYNOPSIS
.na
.B ns
[
.I file
[
.I arg arg ...
]
]
.ad
.SH DESCRIPTION
.I ns
is an event-driven network simulator.
An extensible simulation engine
is implemented in C++
that uses MIT's Object Tool Command Language, OTcl
(an object oriented version of Tcl)
as the command and configuration interface.
A previous version of the simulator
i.e. ns version 1 used
the Tool Command Language, Tcl
as the configuration language.
The current version still supports
simulation scripts written in Tcl
meant for the ns version 1 simulator.
.LP
This manual page documents some of the interfaces
for ns. For much more complete documentation, please
see "ns Notes and Documentation" [13], available in the distribution
and on the web.
.LP
The simulator is invoked via the
.I ns
interpreter, an extension of the vanilla
.I otclsh
command shell.
A simulation is defined by a OTcl script.
The scripts use the Simulator Class
as the principal interface
to the simulation engine.
Using the methods defined in this class,
a network topology is defined,
traffic sources and sinks are configured,
the simulation is invoked,
and the statistics are collected.
By building upon a fully functional language, arbitrary actions
can be programmed into the configuration.
.LP
The first step in the simulation
is to acquire
an instance of the Simulator class.
Instances of objects in classes
are created and destroyed in ns using the
.I new
and
.I delete
methods.
For example,
an instance of the Simulator object is
created by the following command:
.nf
e.g. set ns [new Simulator]
.fi
A network topology is realized
using three primitive building blocks:
nodes, links, and agents.
The Simulator class has methods to create/
configure each of these building blocks.
Nodes are created with the
.I node
Simulator method
that automatically assigns
an unique address to each node.
Links are created between nodes
to form a network topology with the
.I simplex-link
and
.I duplex-link
methods that set up
unidirectional and bidirectional links respectively.
Agents are the objects that
actively drive the simulation.
.I Agents
can be thought of as the
processes and/or transport entities that
run on
.I nodes
that may be end hosts or routers.
Traffic sources
and sinks, dynamic routing modules
and the various protocol modules
are all examples of agents.
Agents are created by
instantiating objects
in the subclass of class Agent i.e.,
.I Agent/type
where type specifies
the nature of the agent.
For example, a TCP agent
is created using the command:
.br
.nf
set tcp [new Agent/TCP]
.fi
.LP
Once the agents are created,
they are
attached to nodes
with the
.I attach-agent
Simulator method.
Each agent is automatically assigned a port number unique across
all agents on a given node (analogous to a tcp or udp port).
Some types of agents may
have sources attached to them
while others may generate their own data.
For example,
you can attach ``ftp'' and ``telnet'' sources
to ``tcp'' agents
but ``constant bit-rate'' agents generate their own data.
Applications are attached to agents
using the
.I attach-app
method.
.LP
Each object has
some configuration parameters associated with it
that can be modified.
Configuration parameters are
instance variables of the object.
These parameters are initialized
during startup to default values
that can simply be read from the
instance variables of the object.
For example,
.I $tcp set window_
returns the default window size for the tcp object.
The default values for that object
can be explicitly overridden by simple assignment
either before a simulation begins,
or dynamically, while the simulation is in progress.
For example the window-size for a particular TCP session
can be changed in the
following manner.
.br
.nf
$tcp set window_ 25
.fi
The default values for the
configuration parameters
of all the class objects
subsequently created
can also be changed by simple assignment.
For example, we can say
.br
.nf
Agent/TCP set window_ 30
.fi
to make all future tcp agent creations default to a window size of 30.
.LP
Events are scheduled in ns
using the
.I at
Simulator method
that allows OTcl procedures to be invoked
at arbitrary points in simulation time.
These OTcl callbacks provide a flexible simulation
mechanism -- they can be used to start or stop
sources, dump statistics, instantiate link failures,
reconfigure the network topology etc.
The simulation is started via the
.I run
method and continues until there are no more
events to be processed.
At this time,
the original invocation of the
.I run
command returns
and the Tcl script can exit or invoke another
simulation run after possible reconfiguration.
Alternatively, the simulation can be prematurely halted
by invoking the
.I stop
command or by exiting the script with Tcl's standard
.I exit
command.
.LP
Packets are forwarded along the shortest path route from
a source to a destination, where the distance metric is
the sum of costs of the links traversed from
the source to the destination.
The cost of a link is 1 by default;
the distance metric is
simply the hop count
in this case.
The cost of a link can be changed with the
.I cost
Simulator method.
A static topology model
is used as the default in ns
in which
the states of nodes/links
do not change during the course of a simulation.
Network Dynamics could be specified
using methods described in NETWORK DYNAMICS METHODS section.
Also static unicast routing is the default
in which the routes are pre-computed over the
entire topology once prior to
starting the simulation.
Methods to enable and configure
dynamic unicast and multicast routing
are described in the
UNICAST ROUTING METHODS and
MULTICAST ROUTING METHODS sections respectively.
.SH "NS COMMANDS"
This section describes the basic commands
to create the building blocks
of the simulation
(i.e. the node, link and agent objects)
and to run the simulation.
.LP
The first step in running a simulation
as stated before
is to acquire an instance of the
Simulator class that has
methods to configure and run the simulation.
Throughout this section
the object variable name $ns
is used to imply a
Simulator object.
.IP "\fB$ns node\fP"
Create a new node object and return a handle to it.
.IP "\fB$ns all-nodes-list\fP"
Returns a list of all the node objects defined in the simulation.
.IP "\fB$ns simplex-link\fI node1 node2 bw delay type\fP"
Create a new unidirectional link between
.I node1
and
.I node2
with bandwidth
.I bw
in bits per second
and link propagation delay
.I delay
in seconds.
.I node1
and
.I node2
must have already been created with the
.I node
method.
.I bw
and
.I delay
default to
1.5 Mbits/sec and 100 ms respectively.
The defaults can be changed by modifying
the relevant configuration parameters of the
DelayLink Object (see DELAYLINK OBJECTS section).
.I node1
and
.I node2
must have already been created with the
.I node
method.
The queuing discipline of the link is specified by
.I type,
which may be
.B DropTail,
.B FQ,
.B SFQ,
.B DRR,
.B RED,
.B CBQ,
or
.B CBQ/WRR.
A DropTail link is a simple FIFO queue which drops the last packet
in the queue when the queue overflows.
A FQ link is for Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A SFQ link is for Stochastic Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A DRR link is for deficit round robin scheduling (for details see [9]).
A RED link is a random-early drop queue (for details see [2]).
A CBQ link is for class-based queuing using a packet-by-packet round-robin
scheduler (for details see [3]).
A CBQ/WRR link is for class-based queuing with a weighted round robin scheduler.
If multicast routing is used
links with interface labels are required.
Such links are created by
setting Simulator NumberInterfaces_ variable to 1.
All the subsequently created links will have interface labels.
To disable creation of interfaces simply reset NumberInterfaces_ to 0
(this is the default).
.IP "\fB$ns duplex-link\fI node1 node2 bw delay type\fP"
Create a new bidirectional link between
.I node1
and
.I node2
with bandwidth
.I bw
in bits per second
and link propagation delay
.I delay
in seconds.
.I node1
and
.I node2
must have already been created with the
.I node
method.
.I bw
and
.I delay
default to
1.5 Mbits/sec and 100 ms respectively.
The defaults can be changed by modifying
the relevant configuration parameters of the
DelayLink Object (see DELAYLINK OBJECTS section).
The queuing discipline of the link is specified by
.I type,
which may be
.B DropTail,
.B FQ
.B SFQ,
.B DRR,
.B RED,
.B CBQ,
or
.B CBQ/WRR.
A DropTail link is a simple FIFO queue which drops the last packet
in the queue when the queue overflows.
A FQ link is for Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A SFQ link is for Stochastic Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A DRR link is for deficit round robin scheduling (for details see [9]).
A RED link is a random-early drop queue (for details see [2]).
A CBQ link is for class-based queuing using a packet-by-packet round-robin
scheduler (for details see [3]).
A CBQ/WRR link is for class-based queuing with a weighted round robin scheduler.
If multicast routing is used
links with interface labels are required.
Such links are created by
setting Simulator NumberInterfaces_ variable to 1.
All the subsequently created links will have interface labels.
To disable creation of interfaces simply reset NumberInterfaces_ to 0
(this is the default).
.IP "\fB$ns link\fI node1 node2\fP"
Returns a reference to the link connecting nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2.
This is useful for
setting link configuration parameters
and to invoke tracing methods (see LINK OBJECTS section).
.IP "\fB$ns queue-limit\fI node1 node2 queue-limit\fP"
Set the maximum number of packets
that can be queued on the link
in the direction from
.I node1
to
.I node2
to
.I queue-limit.
The link between node1 and node2
should have already been created.
.IP "\fB$ns delay\fI node1 node2 time-interval\fP"
Set the latency of the link
in the direction from
.I node1
to
.I node2
to
.I time-interval
seconds.
The link between node1 and node2
should have already been created.
.IP "\fB$ns cost \fI node1 node2 cost-val\fP"
Assign the cost
.I cost-val
to the link between nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2.
The costs assigned to links
are used in unicast route computations.
All the links default
to a cost of 1.
.IP "\fB$ns multi-link\fI node-list bw delay type\fP"
Connects the nodes specified in
.I node-list
by a mesh of duplex links
(to simulate a broadcast LAN)
with bandwidth
.I bw
in bits per second
and link propagation delay
.I delay
in seconds.
.I node-list
is a list of node object handles
that have already been created with the
.I node
method.
.I bw
and
.I delay
default to
1.5 Mbits/sec and 100 ms respectively.
The defaults can be changed by modifying
the relevant configuration parameters of the
DelayLink Object (see DELAYLINK OBJECTS section).
The queuing discipline of the link is specified by
.I type,
which may be
.B DropTail,
.B FQ
.B SFQ,
.B DRR,
.B RED,
.B CBQ,
or
.B CBQ/WRR.
A DropTail link is a simple FIFO queue which drops the last packet
in the queue when the queue overflows.
A FQ link is for Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A SFQ link is for Stochastic Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A DRR link is for deficit round robin scheduling (for details see [9]).
A RED link is a random-early drop queue (for details see [2]).
A CBQ link is for class-based queuing using a packet-by-packet round-robin
scheduler (for details see [3]).
A CBQ/WRR link is for class-based queuing with a weighted round robin scheduler.
.IP "\fB$ns multi-link-of-interfaces\fI node-list bw delay type\fP"
Connects the nodes specified in
.I node-list
by a mesh of duplex links with interfaces
(to simulate a broadcast LAN)
with bandwidth
.I bw
in bits per second
and link propagation delay
.I delay
in seconds.
.I node-list
is a list of node object handles
that have already been created with the
.I node
method.
.I bw
and
.I delay
default to
1.5 Mbits/sec and 100 ms respectively.
The defaults can be changed by modifying
the relevant configuration parameters of the
DelayLink Object (see DELAYLINK OBJECTS section).
The queuing discipline of the link is specified by
.I type,
which may be
.B DropTail,
.B FQ
.B SFQ,
.B DRR,
.B RED,
.B CBQ,
or
.B CBQ/WRR.
A DropTail link is a simple FIFO queue which drops the last packet
in the queue when the queue overflows.
A FQ link is for Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A SFQ link is for Stochastic Fair Queuing (for details see [?]).
A DRR link is for deficit round robin scheduling (for details see [9]).
A RED link is a random-early drop queue (for details see [2]).
A CBQ link is for class-based queuing using a packet-by-packet round-robin
scheduler (for details see [3]).
A CBQ/WRR link is for class-based queuing with a weighted round robin scheduler.
.IP "\fBnew Agent/\fItype\fP"
Create an Agent
of type
.I type
which may be:
.nf
Null - Traffic Sink
LossMonitor - Traffic Sink that monitors loss parameters
TCP - BSD Tahoe TCP
TCP/FullTcp - Full Reno TCP with two-way connections [11]
TCP/Reno - BSD Reno TCP
TCP/Newreno - a modified version of BSD Reno TCP
TCP/Vegas - Vegas TCP (from U. Arizonia via USC)
TCP/Sack1 - BSD Reno TCP with selective ACKs
TCP/Fack - BSD Reno TCP with forward ACKs
TCPSink - standard TCP sink
TCPSink/DelAck - TCP sink that generates delayed ACKs
TCPSink/Sack1 - TCP sink that generates selective ACKs
TCPSink/Sack1/DelAck - delayed-ack TCP sink with selective ACKs
UDP - UDP Transport
RTP - RTP agent
Session/RTP -
RTCP - RTCP agent
IVS/Source -
IVS/Receiver -
SRM -
.fi
The methods, configuration parameters
and the relevant state variables
associated with these objects
are discussed in detail in later sections.
Note that some agents e.g. TCP or SRM
do not generate their own data.
Such agents need sources attached to them
to generate data
(see attach-source and attach-traffic methods
in AGENT OBJECTS section).
.IP "\fB$ns attach-agent \fInode agent\fP"
Attach the agent object
.I agent
to
.I node.
The
.I agent
and
.I node
objects should have already been created.
.IP "\fB$ns detach-agent \fInode agent\fP"
Detach the agent object
.I agent
from
.I node.
.IP "\fB$ns connect \fIsrc dst\fP"
Establish a two-way connection between the agent
.I src
and the agent
.I dst.
Returns the handle to
.I src
agent.
A helper method
has been defined to
facilitate creating and attaching an agent
to each of two nodes
and establishing a two-way connection between them.
(see BUILTINS section).
.IP "\fB$ns use-scheduler \fItype\fP"
Use an event scheduler of type
.I type
in the simulations.
.I type
is one of List, Heap, Calendar, RealTime.
The List scheduler is the default.
A Heap scheduler uses a heap for event queueing.
A Calendar scheduler uses a calendar queue to keep track of events.
RealTime scheduler is used in emulation mode when the simulator
interacts with an external agent.
.IP "\fB$ns at\fI time procedure\fP"
Evaluate
.I procedure
at simulation time
.I time.
The procedure could be a globally accessible function (proc) or an object
method (instproc).
This command can be used
to start and stop sources,
dynamically reconfigure the simulator,
dump statistics at specified intervals, etc.
Returns an event id.
.IP "\fB$ns cancel \fIeid\fP"
Remove the event specified by the event id
.I eid
from the event queue.
.IP "\fB$ns now\fP"
Return the current simulation time.
.IP "\fB$ns gen-map\fP"
Walks through the simulation topology
and lists all the objects
that have been created
and the way they are hooked up to each other.
This is useful to debug simulation scripts.
.IP "\fBns-version\fP"
Return a string identifying the version of ns currently running.
This method is executed in
the global context
by the interpreter.
.IP "\fBns-random\fI [ seed ]\fP"
If
.I seed
is not present,
return a pseudo-random integer between 0 and 2^31-1.
Otherwise, seed the pseudo-random number generator with
.I seed
and return the seed used.
If
.I seed
is 0, choose an initial seed heuristically (which varies
on successive invocations).
This method is executed in
the global context
by the interpreter.
.LP
Ns has other facilities for random number generation;
please see documentation for details [13].
.SH "OBJECT HIERARCHY"
A brief description of
the object hierarchy in
.I ns
is presented in this section.
This description is
not intended to be complete.
It has been provided to depict
how the methods and configuration parameters
associated with the various objects
are inherited.
For more complete information
see "ns notes & documentation"
and the automatically generated class library information
on the ns web page.
.LP
Objects are associated with
configuration parameters that can be
dynamically set and queried,
and state variables that can be queried
(usually modified only when the state variables need to be reset for
another simulation run).
.LP
Configuration parameters represent simulation parameters
that are usually fixed during the entire simulation (like a
link bandwidth), but can be changed dynamically if desired.
State variables represent values that are specific to a
given object and that object's implementation.
.LP
The following diagram depicts a portion the object hierarchy:
.nf
Simulator
MultiSim
Node
Link
SimpleLink
CBQLink
DummyLink
DelayLink
Queue
DropTail
FQ
SFQ
DRR
RED
CBQ
CBQ/WRR
QueueMonitor
ED
Flowmon
Flow
rtObject
RouteLogic
Agent
rtProto
Static
Session
DV
Direct
Null
LossMonitor
TCP
FullTcp
Reno
Newreno
Sack1
Fack
TCPSink
DelAck
Sack1
DelAck
UDP
RTP
RTCP
IVS
Source
Receiver
SRM
Session
RTP [how is this diff from Agent/CBR/RTP]
Appplication
FTP
Telnet
Traffic
Expoo
Pareto
CBR
Trace
Integrator
Samples
.fi
.LP
For a complete, automatically generated, object hierarchy,
see the link "class hierarchy" (which points to
http://www-sop.inria.fr/rodeo/personnel/Antoine.Clerget/ns/)
on the ns web pages. (Thanks to Antoine Clerget for maintaining
this!)
.LP
For example, any method that is supported by a
.I TCP
agent is also supported by a
.I Reno
or a
.I Sack1
agent.
Default configuration parameters are also inherited.
For example,
.I $tcp set window_ 20
where $tcp is a TCP agent
defines the default TCP window size for both
.I TCP
and
.I Reno
objects.
.SH "OBJECT METHODS"
The following sections document the methods, configuration parameters
and state variables associated with the various objects
as well as those to enable
Network dynamics, Unicast routing, Multicast routing and
Trace and Monitoring support.
The object class is specified implicitly by the object
variable name in the description.
For example,
.B $tcp
implies the tcp object class and all of its child classes.
.SH "NODE OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
.IP "\fB$node id\fP"
Returns the node id.
.IP "\fB$node neighbors\fP"
Returns a list of the neighbour node objects.
.IP "\fB$node attach \fIagent\fP"
Attach an agent of type
.I agent
to this node.
.IP "\fB$node detach \fIagent\fP"
Detach an agent of type
.I agent
from this node.
.IP "\fB$node agent \fIport\fP"
Return a handle to the agent attached to port
.I port
on this node. Returns an empty string if the port is not in use.
.IP "\fB$node reset"
Reset all agents attached to this node.
This would re-initialize the state variables
associated with the various agents
at this node.
.IP "\fB$node rtObject?\fP"
Returns a handle to rtObject
if there exists an instance
of the object at that node.
Only nodes that take part in
a dynamic unicast routing protocol
will have this object
(see UNICAST ROUTING METHODS and RTOBJECT OBJECTS section).
.IP "\fB$node join-group \fIagent group\fP"
Add the agent specified by the object handle
.I agent
to the multicast host group identified by the address
.I group.
This causes the group membership protocol to arrange for the appropriate
multicast traffic to reach this agent.
Multicast group address should be
in the range 0x8000 - 0xFFFF.
.IP "\fB$node allocaddr\fP"
Returns multicast group address
in ascending order
on each invocation
starting from 0x8000
and ending at 0xFFFF.
.\"
.IP "\fB$node shape \fIshape\fP"
Set the shape of the node to "\fIshape\fP". When called before the
simulator starts to run, it changes the default shape of
the node in the nam trace file. The default shape of a node is """circle"""
.\"
.IP "\fB$node color \fIcolor\fP"
Set the color of the node to \fIcolor\fP. It can be called anytime to change
the current color of the node in nam trace file, if there is one.
.\"
.IP "\fB$node get-attribute \fIname\fP"
Get the specified attribute \fIname\fP of the node. Currently a Node object
has two attributes: \fICOLOR\fP and \fISHAPE\fP. Note: these letters must be
capital.
.IP "\fB$node add-mark \fIname color shape\fP"
Add a mark (in nam trace file) with \fIcolor\fP and \fIshape\fP around
the node. The shape can be """circle""", """hexagon""" and """square""" (case
sensitive). The added mark will be identified by \fIname\fP.
.IP "\fB$node delete-mark \fIname\fP"
Delete the mark with \fIname\fP in the given node.
.LP
There are no state variables or configuration parameters
specific to the node class.
.SH "LINK OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
.IP "\fB$link trace-dynamics \fIns fileID\fP"
Trace the dynamics of this link
and write the output to
.I fileID
filehandle.
.I ns
is an instance of the Simulator or MultiSim object
that was created to invoke the simulation
(see TRACE AND MONITORING METHODS section
for the output trace format).
.\"
.IP "\fB$link trace-callback \fIns cmd\fP"
Trace all packets on the link with the callback \fIcmd\fP.
Cmd is invoked for each trace event (enqueue, dequeue, drop)
with the text that would be logged as parameters.
(See the description of the log file for this information.)
A demo of trace callbacks is in
the program tcl/ex/callback_demo.tcl
in the distribution.
.\"
.IP "\fB$link color \fIcolor\fP"
Set the color of the Link object. It can be called anytime to change
the current color of the link in nam trace file, if there is one.
.\"
.IP "\fB$link get-attribute \fIname\fP"
Get the specified attribute \fIname\fP of the Link. Currently a Link object
has three attributes: \fICOLOR\fP, \fIORIENTATION\fP, and \fIQUEUE_POS\fP.
.\"
.LP
Currently the following two functions should not be directly called. Use
\fB$ns duplex-link-op\fP instead. Refer to the corresponding section in this
man page.
.\"
.IP "\fB$link orient \fIori\fP"
Set the orientation of the link to \fIori\fP. When called before the simulator
starts to run, it changes the default orientation of the link in nam trace
file, if there is one. If orientation is unspecified for any link(s), nam will
use automatic layout. The default orientation of a Link object is unspecified.
.\"
.IP "\fB$link queuePos \fIpos\fP"
Set the queue position of the link to \fIpos\fP. When called before the
simulator starts to run, it changes the default queue placement of the simplex
link in nam trace file, if there is one. \fIpos\fP specifies the angle between
the horizontal line and the line along which queued packets will be displayed.
.LP
.SH "SIMPLELINK OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
.IP "\fB$link cost \fIcost-val\fP"
Make
.I cost-val
the cost of this link.
.IP "\fB$link cost?\fP"
Return the cost of this link.
.LP
Any configuration parameters or state variables?
.SH "DELAYLINK OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
The DelayLink Objects determine
the amount of time required for a packet to
traverse a link.
This is defined to be
size/bw + delay
where
size is the packet size,
bw is the link bandwidth and
delay is the link propagation delay.
There are no methods or state variables associated with this object.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIbandwidth_\fP
Link bandwidth in bits per second.
.IP \fIdelay_\fP
Link propagation delay in seconds.
.LP
There are no state variables associated with this object.
.SH "NETWORK DYNAMICS METHODS"
This section describes methods
to make the
links and nodes
in the topology
go up and down
according to various distributions.
A dynamic routing protocol should
generally be used whenever
a simulation is to be done
with network dynamics.
Note that a static topology model
is the default in ns.
.IP "\fB$ns rtmodel \fImodel model-params node1 [node2]\fP"
Make the link between
.I node1
and
.I node2
change between up and down states
according to the model
.I model.
In case only
.I node1
is specified all the links
incident on the node
would be brought up and down
according to the specified
.I model.
.I model-params
contains the parameters required for the relevant model
and is to be specified as a list
i.e. the parameters are to be
enclosed in curly brackets.
.I model
can be one of
.I Deterministic,
.I Exponential,
.I Manual,
.I Trace.
Returns a handle to a model object
corresponding to the specified
.I model.
In the Deterministic model
.I model-params
is
.I [start-time] up-interval down-interval [finish-time].
Starting from
.I start-time
the link is made up for
.I up-interval
and down for
.I down-interval
till
.I finish-time
is reached.
The default values for
start-time, up-interval, down-interval
are 0.5s, 2.0s, 1.0s respectively.
finish-time defaults to the end of the simulation.
The start-time defaults to 0.5s
in order to let the
routing protocol computation quiesce.
If the Exponential model is used
.I model-params
is of the form
.I up-interval down-interval
where the link up-time
is an exponential distribution
around the mean
.I up-interval
and the link down-time
is an exponential distribution
around the mean
.I down-interval.
Default values for
.I up-interval
and
.I down-interval
are 10s and 1s respectively.
If the Manual distribution is used
.I model-params
is
.I at op
where
.I at
specifies the time at which the operation
.I op
should occur.
.I op
is one of
.I up, down.
The Manual distribution
could be specified alternately using the
.I rtmodel-at
method described later in the section.
If Trace is specified as the
.I model
the link/node dynamics
is read from a Tracefile.
The
.I model-params
argument would in this case
be the file-handle of the
Tracefile that has
the dynamics information.
The tracefile format is identical
to the trace output generated by
the trace-dynamics link method
(see TRACE AND MONITORING METHODS SECTION).
.IP "\fB$ns rtmodel-delete \fImodel-handle\fP"
Delete the instance of
the route model specified by
.I model-handle.
.IP "\fB$ns rtmodel-at \fIat op node1 [node2]\fP"
Used to specify the up and down times
of the link between nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2.
If only
.I node1
is given all the links
incident on
.I node1
will be brought up and down.
.I at
is the time
at which
the operation
.I op
that can be either
.I up
or
.I down
is to be performed
on the specified link(s).
.SH "QUEUE OBJECTS"
A queue object is a general class of object capable
of holding and possibly marking or discarding packets as they
travel through the simulated topology.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIlimit_\fP
The queue size in packets.
.IP \fIblocked_\fP
Set to false by default,
this is true if the queue is blocked (unable to send
a packet to its downstream neighbor).
.IP \fIunblock_on_resume_\fP
Set to true by default, indicates a queue should unblock
itself at the time the last packet packet sent has been
transmitted (but not necessarily received).
.SH "DROP-TAIL OBJECTS"
Drop-tail objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement simple
FIFO queue. There are no methods that are specific to drop-tail
objects. The only configuration parameter is \fIdrop-front_\fP,
which when set to true causes the queue to behave as a drop-from-front
queueing discipline. This variable is set to false by default.
.SH "FQ OBJECTS"
FQ objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement
Fair queuing. There are no methods
that are specific to FQ objects.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIsecsPerByte_\fP
.LP
There are no state variables associated with this object.
.SH "SFQ OBJECTS"
SFQ objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement
Stochastic Fair queuing. There are no methods
that are specific to SFQ objects.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fImaxqueue_\fP
.IP \fIbuckets_\fP
.LP
There are no state variables associated with this object.
.SH "DRR OBJECTS"
DRR objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement deficit
round robin scheduling. These objects implement deficit round robin
scheduling amongst different flows ( A particular flow is one which
has packets with the same node and port id OR packets which have the
same node id alone). Also unlike other multi-queue objects, this queue
object implements a single shared buffer space for its different flows.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIbuckets_\fP
Indicates the total number of buckets to be used for hashing each of
the flows.
.IP \fIblimit_\fP
Indicates the shared buffer size in bytes.
.IP \fIquantum_\fP
Indicates (in bytes) how much each flow can send during its turn.
.IP \fImask_\fP
mask_, when set to 1, means that a particular flow consists of packets
having the same node id (and possibly different port ids), otherwise a
flow consists of packets having the same node and port ids.
.SH "RED OBJECTS"
RED objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement
random early-detection gateways. The object can be configured
to either drop or ``mark'' packets.
There are no methods that are specific to RED objects.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIbytes_\fP
Set to "true" to enable ``byte-mode'' RED, where the size of arriving
packets affect the likelihood of marking (dropping) packets.
.IP \fIqueue-in-bytes_\fP
Set to "true" to measure the average queue size in bytes rather than
packets.
Enabling this option also causes \fIthresh_\fP and \fImaxthresh_\fP to
be automatically scaled by \fImean_pktsize_\fP (see below).
.IP \fIthresh_\fP
The minimum threshold for the average queue size in packets.
.IP \fImaxthresh_\fP
The maximum threshold for the average queue size in packets.
.IP \fImean_pktsize_\fP
A rough estimate of the average packet size in bytes. Used in updating
the calculated average queue size after an idle period.
.IP \fIq_weight_\fP
The queue weight, used in the exponential-weighted moving average for
calculating the average queue size.
.IP \fIwait_\fP
Set to true to maintain an interval between dropped packets.
.IP \fIlinterm_\fP
As the average queue size varies between "thresh_" and "maxthresh_",
the packet dropping probability varies between 0 and "1/linterm".
.IP \fIsetbit_\fP
Set to "true" to mark packets by setting
the congestion indication bit in packet headers
rather than drop packets.
.IP \fIdrop-tail_\fP
Set to true to use drop-tail rather than random-drop or
drop-from-front when the queue overflows or the average queue size
exceeds "maxthresh_". This is the default behavior.
For a further explanation of these variables, see [2].
.IP \fIdrop-rand_\fP
Set to true to use random-drop rather than drop-tail or
drop-from-front when the queue overflows or the average queue size
exceeds "maxthresh_".
.IP \fIdrop-front_\fP
Set to true to use drop-from-front rather than drop-tail or random drop
when the queue overflows or the average queue size exceeds
"maxthresh_".
.IP \fIns1-compat_\fP
Set to true to avoid resetting the count since the last packet drop,
after a forced packet is dropped. This gives compatibility with
previous behavior of RED. The default is set to false.
.IP \fgentle_\fP
Set to true to increase the packet drop rate slowly from max_p to
1 as the average queue size ranges from maxthresh to twice maxthresh.
The default is set to false, and max_p increases abruptly from
max_p to 1 when the average queue size exceeds maxthresh.
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.RS
None of the state variables of the RED implementation are accessible.
.RE
.SH "CBQ OBJECTS"
CBQ objects are a subclass of Queue objects that implement
class-based queueing.
.IP "\fB$cbq insert $class\fP"
Insert traffic class
.I class
into the link-sharing structure associated with link object
.I cbq.
.IP "\fB$cbq bind $cbqclass $id1 [$id2]\fP"
Cause packets containing flow id
.I $id1
(or those in the range
.I $id1
to
.I $id2
inclusive)
to be associated with the traffic class
.I $cbqclass.
.IP "\fB$cbq algorithm $alg"
Select the CBQ internal algorithm.
.I $alg
may be set to one of: "ancestor-only", "top-level", or "formal".
.LP
.HD
.SH "CBQ/WRR OBJECTS"
CBQ/WRR objects are a subclass of CBQ objects that implement
weighted round-robin scheduling among classes of the same
priority level. In contrast, CBQ objects implement packet-by-packet
round-robin scheduling among classes of the same priority level.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fImaxpkt_\fP
The maximum size of a packet in bytes.
This is used only by CBQ/WRR objects in
computing maximum bandwidth allocations
for the weighted round-robin scheduler.
.SH "CBQCLASS OBJECTS"
CBQClass objects implement the traffic classes associated with CBQ objects.
.IP "\fB$cbqclass setparams \fIparent okborrow allot maxidle prio level extradelay\fP"
Sets several of the configuration parameters for the CBQ traffic class (see below).
.IP "\fB$cbqclass parent [$cbqcl|none]"
specify the parent of this class in the link-sharing tree.
The parent may be specified as ``none'' to indicate this class is a root.
.IP "\fB$cbqclass newallot $a"
Change the link allocation of this class to the specified amount (in range
0.0 to 1.0).
Note that only the specified class is affected.
.IP "\fB$cbqclass install-queue $q\fP"
Install a Queue object into the compound CBQ or CBQ/WRR link structure.
When a CBQ object is initially created, it includes no internal
queue (only a packet classifier and scheduler).
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fBokborrow_\fP
is a boolean indicating the class is permitted to borrow bandwidth
from its parent.
.IP \fBallot_\fP
is the maximum fraction of link bandwidth allocated to the class
expressed as a real number between 0.0 and 1.0.
.IP \fBmaxidle_\fP
is the maximum amount of time a class may be required to have its
packets queued before they are permitted to be forwarded
.IP \fBpriority_\fP
is the class' priority level with respect to other classes.
This value may range from 0 to 10, and more than one class
may exist at the same priority.
Priority 0 is the highest priority.
.IP \fBlevel_\fP
is the level of this class in the link-sharing tree.
Leaf nodes in the tree are considered to be at level 1;
their parents are at level 2, etc.
.IP \fBextradelay_\fP
increase the delay experienced by a delayed class by the specified
number of seconds.
.\" check units?
.SH "QUEUEMONITOR Objects"
QueueMonitor Objects are used to monitor
a set of packet and byte arrival, departure and drop
counters.
It also includes support for aggregate statistics such
as average queue size, etc.
[see TRACE AND MONITORING METHODS].
.IP "\fB$queuemonitor reset\fP"
reset all the cumulative counters described below
(arrivals, departures, and drops) to zero.
Also, reset the integrators and delay sampler, if defined.
.IP "\fB$queuemonitor set-delay-samples \fIdelaySamp_\fP"
Set up the Samples object
.I delaySamp_
to record statistics about queue delays.
.I delaySamp_
is a handle to a Samples object
i.e the Samples object should have already been created.
.IP "\fB$queuemonitor get-bytes-integrator\fP"
Returns an Integrator object
that can be used to find the integral of the queue size in bytes.
(see Integrator Objects section).
.IP "\fB$queuemonitor get-pkts-integrator \fP"
Returns an Integrator object
that can be used to find the integral of the queue size in packets.
(see Integrator Objects section).
.IP "\fB$queuemonitor get-delay-samples\fP"
Returns a Samples object
.I delaySamp_
to record statistics about queue delays
(see Samples Objects section).
.LP
There are no configuration parameters specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIsize_\fP
Instantaneous queue size in bytes.
.IP \fIpkts_\fP
Instantaneous queue size in packets.
.IP \fIparrivals_\fP
Running total of packets that have arrived.
.IP \fIbarrivals_\fP
Running total of bytes contained in packets that have arrived.
.IP \fIpdepartures_\fP
Running total of packets that have departed (not dropped).
.IP \fIbdepartures_\fP
Running total of bytes contained in packets that have departed (not dropped).
.IP \fIpdrops_\fP
Total number of packets dropped.
.IP \fIbdrops_\fP
Total number of bytes dropped.
.IP \fIbytesInt_\fP
Integrator object that computes
the integral of the queue size in bytes.
The
.I sum_
variable of this object has the running sum (integral)
of the queue size in bytes.
.IP \fIpktsInt_\fP
Integrator object that computes
the integral of the queue size in packets.
The
.I sum_
variable of this object has the running sum (integral)
of the queue size in packets.
.RE
.SH "QUEUEMONITOR/ED Objects"
This derived object is capable of differentiating regular
packet drops
from \fIearly\fP drops. Some queues distinguish regular
drops (e.g. drops due to buffer exhaustion) from other
drops (e.g. random drops in RED queues).
Under some circumstances, it is useful to distinguish these
two types of drops.
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIepdrops_\fP
The number of packets that have been dropped ``early''.
.IP \fIebdrops_\fP
The number of bytes comprising packets that have been
dropped ``early''
.RE
.LP
\fBNote:\fP because this class is a subclass of QueueMonitor,
objects of this type also have fields such as \fCpdrops_\fP and
\fCbdrops_\fP. These fields describe the \fItotal\fP number of
dropped packets and bytes, including both early and non-early
drops.
.SH "QUEUEMONITOR/ED/FLOWMON Objects"
These objects may be used in the place of a conventional
QueueMonitor object when wishing to collect per-flow counts and
statistics in addition to the aggregate counts and statistics
provided by the basic QueueMonitor.
.IP "\fB$fmon classifier [$cl]"
insert (read) the specified classifier into (from) the flow monitor object.
This is used to map incoming packets to which flows they are associated with.
.IP "\fB$fmon dump"
Dump the current per-flow counters and statistics to the I/O channel
specified in a previous \fCattach\fP operation.
.IP "\fB$fmon flows"
Return a character string containing the names of all flow objects known
by this flow monitor. Each of these objects are of type
QueueMonitor/ED/Flow.
.IP "\fB$fmon attach $chan"
Attach a tcl I/O channel to the flow monitor.
Flow statistics are written to the channel when the
\fCdump\fP operation is executed.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters
.RS
.IP \fBenable_in_\fP
Set to true by default, indicates that per-flow arrival state should
be kept by the flow monitor.
If set to false, only the aggregate arrival information is kept.
.IP \fBenable_out_\fP
Set to true by default, indicates that per-flow departure state should
be kept by the flow monitor.
If set to false, only the aggregate departure information is kept.
.IP \fBenable_drop_\fP
Set to true by default, indicates that per-flow drop state should
be kept by the flow monitor.
If set to false, only the aggregate drop information is kept.
.IP \fBenable_edrop_\fP
Set to true by default, indicates that per-flow early drop state should
be kept by the flow monitor.
If set to false, only the aggregate early drop information is kept.
.SH "QUEUEMONITOR/ED/FLOW Objects"
These objects contain per-flow counts and statistics managed by
a QUEUEMONITOR/ED/FLOWMON object.
They are generally created in an OTcl callback procedure when a
flow monitor is given a packet it cannot map on to a known flow.
Note that the flow monitor's classifier is responsible for mapping
packets to flows in some arbitrary way. Thus, depending on the
type of classifier used, not all of the state variables may
be relevant (e.g. one may classify packets based only on flow id,
in which case the source and destination addresses may not be
significant).
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.RS
.IP \fBsrc_\fP
The source address of packets belonging to this flow.
.IP \fBdst_\fP
The destination address of packets belonging to this flow.
.IP \fBflowid_\fP
The flow id of packets belonging to this flow.
.SH "UNICAST ROUTING METHODS"
A dynamic unicast routing protocol
can be specified to run
on a subset of nodes in the topology.
Note that a dynamic routing protocol should
be generally used whenever
a simulation is done
with network dynamics.
.IP "\fB$ns rtproto \fIproto node-list\fP"
Specifies the dynamic unicast routing protocol
.I proto
to be run on the nodes specified by
.I node-list.
Currently
.I proto
can be one of
Static, Session, DV.
Static routing is the default.
Session implies
that the unicast routes
over the entire topology
are instantaneously recomputed
whenever a link goes up or down.
DV implies that a
simple distance vector routing protocol
is to be simulated.
.I node-list
defaults to all the nodes in the topology.
.IP "\fB$ns compute-routes\fP"
Compute routes between all the nodes in the topology.
This can be used if static routing is done
and the routes have to be recomputed
as the state of a link has changed.
Note that Session routing (see
.I rtproto
method above)
will recompute routes automatically whenever
the state of any link in the topology changes.
.IP "\fB$ns get-routelogic\fP"
Returns an handle to
a RouteLogic object that
has methods for route table lookup etc.
.SH "ROUTELOGIC OBJECTS"
.IP "\fB$routelogic lookup \fIsrcid destid\fP"
Returns the id of the node that is the next hop from
the node with id
.I srcid
to the node with id
.I destid.
.IP "\fB$routelogic dump \fInodeid\fP"
Dump the routing tables of all nodes
whose id is less than
.I nodeid.
Node ids are typically assigned to nodes
in ascending fashion starting from 0
by their order of creation.
.SH "RTOBJECT OBJECTS"
Every node that takes part in a dynamic
unicast routing protocol will have an instance
of rtObject
(see NODE OBJECTS section for the method
to get an handle to this object at a particular node).
Note that nodes will not have an instance of this
object if Session routing is done as a detailed
routing protocol is not being simulated in this case.
.IP "\fB$rtobject dump-routes \fIfileID\fP"
Dump the routing table to the output channel
specified by
.I fileID.
.I fileID
must be a file handle returned by the Tcl
.I open
command and it must have been opened for writing.
.IP "\fB$rtobject rtProto? \fIproto\fP"
Returns a handle to
the routing protocol agent
specified by
.I proto
if it exists at that node.
Returns an empty string otherwise.
.IP "\fB$rtobject nextHop? \fIdestID\fP"
Returns the id of the node
that is the next hop
to the destination specified by the node id,
.I destID.
.IP "\fB$rtobject rtpref? \fIdestID\fP"
.IP "\fB$rtobject metric? \fIdestID\fP"
.SH "MULTICAST ROUTING METHODS"
Multicast routing is enabled
by setting Simulator EnableMcast_ variable
to 1 at the beginning of the simulation.
Note that this variable must be set before
any node, link or agent objects are created
in the simulation.
Also links must have been created with
interface labels
(see simplex-link and duplex-link methods in NS COMMANDS section).
.IP "\fB$ns mrtproto \fIproto node-list\fP"
Specifies the multicast routing protocol
.I proto
to be run on the nodes specified by
.I node-list.
Currently
.I proto
can be one of
CtrMcast, DM, detailedDM, dynamicDM, pimDM.
.I node-list
defaults to all the nodes in the topology.
Returns an handle to a protocol-specific object
that has methods, configuration parameters
specific to that protocol.
Note that currently CtrMcastComp object
is returned if CtrMcast is used
but a null string is returned
if DM, detailedDM, dynamicDM or pimDM are used.
If proto is 'CtrMcast'
a Rendezvous Point (RP) rooted shared tree is built
for a multicast group.
The actual sending
of prune, join messages etc.
to set up state at the nodes is not simulated.
A centralized computation agent is used
to compute the fowarding trees and set up
multicast forwarding state, (*,G) at the relevant nodes
as new receivers join a group.
Data packets from the senders to a group
are unicast to the RP.
Methods are provided in the CtrMcastComp object
(see CTRMCASTCOMP OBJECTS section)
that is returned by mrtproto
to switch to source-specific trees,
choose some nodes as candidate RPs etc.
When a node/link on a multicast distribution tree
goes down, the tree is instanteously recomputed.
If proto is 'DM'
DVMRP-like dense mode is simulated.
Parent-child lists are used
to reduce the number of links over which
the data packets are broadcast.
Prune messages are sent by nodes
to remove branches from the multicast forwarding tree
that do not lead to any group members.
The prune timeout value is 0.5s by default
(see DM OBJECTS section to change the default).
This does not adapt to network changes.
There is also currently no support for
proper functioning in topologies with LANs.
If proto is 'detailedDM'
a dense mode protocol based on
Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM)
is simulated.
This is currently the most complete version of the
dense mode protocol in the simulator
and is recommended for use
over the other dense mode protocols.
It adapts to network dynamics and functions correctly
in topologies with LANs
(where LANs are created using the multi-link-of-interfaces method -
see NS COMMANDS).
In case there are multiple potential forwarders
for a LAN, the node with the highest id
is chosen as the forwarder
(this is done through the Assert mechanism).
The default values for the
prune timeout, interface deletion timeout (used for LANs) and
graft retransmission timeout are
0.5s, 0.1s and 0.05s respectively.
(see Prune/Iface/Timer, Deletion/Iface/Timer
and GraftRtx/Timer objects respectively
to change the default values
and for more information about the timers).
If proto is 'dynamicDM'
DVMRP-like dense mode protocol that
adapts to network changes is simulated. 'Poison-reverse' information
(i.e. the information that a particular neighbouring node
uses this node to reach a particular network)
is read from the routing tables of neighbouring nodes
in order to adapt to network dynamics
(DVMRP runs its own unicast routing protocol
that exchanges this information).
The current implementation does not support
proper functioning in topologies with LANs.
The prune timeout value is 0.5s by default
(see DM OBJECTS section to change the default).
If proto is 'pimDM'
Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense mode is simulated.
In this case the data packets are broadcast
over all the outgoing links except the incoming link.
Prune messages are sent by nodes to remove
the branches of the multicast forwarding tree
that do not lead to any group members.
The current implementation does not adapt to network dynamics
and does not support proper functioning in topologies with LANs.
The prune timeout value is 0.5s by default
(see DM OBJECTS section to change the default).
.SH "CTRMCASTCOMP OBJECTS"
A handle to the CtrMcastComp object is returned
when the protocol is specified as 'CtrMcast'
in mrtproto.
.IP "\fB$ctrmcastcomp switch-treetype \fIgroup-addr\fP"
Switch from the Rendezvous Point rooted shared tree
to source-specific trees
for the group specified by
.I group-addr.
Note that this method cannot be used
to switch from source-specific trees
back to a shared tree for a multicast group.
.IP "\fB$ctrmcastcomp set_c_rp \fInode-list\fP"
Make all the nodes specified in
.I node-list
as candidate RPs
and change the state of
all the other nodes
to not be candidate RPs.
Note that all nodes are candidate RPs by default.
Currently the node with the highest node id
serves as the RP for all multicast groups.
This method should be invoked before
any source starts sending packets to the group
or any receiver joins the group.
.IP "\fB$ctrmcastcomp get_rp \fInode group\fP"
Returns the RP for the group
as seen by the node
.I node
for the multicast group with address
.I group-addr.
Note that different nodes may see different
RPs for the group if the network is partitioned
as the nodes might be in different partitions.
.SH "DM OBJECTS"
DM Objects implement DVMRP style densemode multicast
where parent-child lists are used to reduce
the number of links over which
initial data packets are broadcast.
There are no methods or state variables specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
Configuration parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIPruneTimeout\fP
.LP
Timeout value for the prune state at nodes.
.SH "PRUNE/IFACE/TIMER OBJECTS"
The Prune/Iface/Timer objects are used to implement
the prune timer for detailedDM.
There are no methods or state variables specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
Configuration parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fItimeout\fP
.LP
Timeout value for the prune state at nodes.
.SH "DELETION/IFACE/TIMER OBJECTS"
The Deletion/Iface/Timer objects are used to implement
the interface deletion timer that are required for
correct functioning at nodes that are part of LANs.
If a node has a LAN as its incoming interface
for packets from a certain source and
it does not have any downstream members
it sends out a prune message onto the LAN.
Any node that has the LAN as its incoming interface
for the same source and has downstream members
on hearing the prune message sent on the LAN.
will send a join message onto the LAN.
When the node that is acting as the forwarder for the LAN hears
the prune message from the LAN, it does not immediately
prune off the LAN as its outgoing interface.
Instead it starts an interface deletion timer
for the outgoing interface.
The forwarder will remove the LAN as its
outgoing interface only if it does not
receive any join messages from the LAN
before its deletion timer expires.
There are no methods or state variables specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
Configuration parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fItimeout\fP
.LP
Timeout value for the interface deletion timer.
.SH "GRAFTRTX/TIMER OBJECTS"
The GraftRtx/Timer objects are used to implement
the graft retransmission timer at nodes.
This is to ensure the reliability of grafts
sent upstream by a node.
.LP
.HD
Configuration parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fItimeout\fP
.LP
Timeout value for the graft retransmission timer.
.SH "AGENT OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
.IP "\fB$agent port\fP"
Return the transport-level port of the agent.
Ports are used to identify agents within a node.
.IP "\fB$agent dst-addr\fP"
Return the address of the destination node this agent is connected to.
.IP "\fB$agent dst-port\fP"
Return the port at the destination node that this agent is connected to.
.IP "\fB$agent attach-source \fItype\fP"
Install a data source
of type
.I type
in this agent.
.I type
is one of FTP or bursty[???].
See the corresponding object methods
for information on configuration parameters.
Returns a handle to the source object.
.IP "\fB$agent attach-traffic \fItraffic-object\fP"
Attach
.I traffic-object
to this agent
.I traffic-object
is an instance of
Traffic/Expoo, Traffic/Pareto or Traffic/Trace.
Traffic/Expoo generates traffic based on
an Exponential On/Off distribution.
Traffic/Pareto generates traffic based on
a Pareto On/Off distribution.
Traffic/Trace generates traffic from a trace file.
The relevant configuration parameters for
each of the above objects can be
found in the TRAFFIC METHODS section.
.IP "\fB$agent connect\fI addr port\fP"
Connect this agent to the agent identified by the address
.I addr
and port
.I port.
This causes packets transmitted from this agent to contain the
address and port indicated, so that such packets are routed to
the intended agent. The two agents must be compatible (e.g.,
a tcp-source/tcp-sink pair as opposed a cbr/tcp-sink pair).
Otherwise, the results of the simulation are unpredictable.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIdst_\fP
Address of destination that the agent is connected to. Currently 32
bits with the higher 24 bits the destination node ID and the
lower 8 bits being the port number.
.LP
There are no state variables specific to the generic agent class.
.RE
.SH "NULL OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
Null objects are a subclass of agent objects that
implement a traffic sink.
They inherit all of the generic agent object functionality.
There are no methods, configuration parameters or state variables
specific to this object.
.SH "LOSSMONITOR OBJECTS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
LossMonitor objects are a subclass of agent objects
that implement a traffic sink which also maintains some
statistics about the received data e.g.,
number of bytes received, number of packets lost etc.
They inherit all of the generic agent object functionality.
.IP "\fB$lossmonitor clear\fP"
Resets the expected sequence number to -1.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
There are no configuration parameters specific to this object.
.RE
.HD
State Variables \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fInlost_\fP
Number of packets lost.
.IP \fInpkts_\fP
Number of packets received.
.IP \fIbytes_\fP
Number of bytes received.
.IP \fIlastPktTime_\fP
Time at which the last packet was received.
.IP \fIexpected_\fP
The expected sequence number of the next packet.
.RE
.SH "TCP OBJECTS"
TCP objects are a subclass of agent objects that implement the
BSD Tahoe TCP transport protocol as described in [7]. They inherit all
of the generic agent functionality.
.LP
To trace TCP parameters,
mark each parameter with
``$tcp trace window_''
and then send the output to a trace file
with ``$tcp attach [open trace.tr w]''.
.LP
Tcp segments can be sent with the advance and advanaceby commands.
When all data is sent, the done method will be invoked
(which can be overridden in OTcl).
.LP
.IP "\fB$tcp advance n\fP"
Send up to the nth packets.
.IP "\fB$tcp advanceby n\fP"
Send n more packets.
.IP "\fB$tcp done\fP"
Functional called when all packets (specified by advance/advanceby/maxpkts_)
have been sent. Can be overriden on a per-object basis.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIwindow_\fP
The upper bound on the advertised window for the TCP connection
(in packets).
.IP \fImaxcwnd_\fP
The upper bound on the congestion window for the TCP connection.
Set to zero to ignore. (This is the default.)
Measured in packets.
.IP \fIwindowInit_\fP
The initial size of the congestion window on slow-start.
(in packets).
.IP \fIwnd_init_option_\fP
The algorithm used for determining the initial size of the
congestion window. Set to 1 for a static algorithm using the
value in \fIwindowInit_\fP. Set to 2 for a dynamic algorithm
using a function of \fIpacketSize_\fP.
.IP \fIsyn_\fP
Set to true to model the initial SYN/ACK exchange in one-way TCP.
Set to false as default.
.IP \fIdelay_growth_\fP
Set to true to delay the initial congestion window until after one
packet has been sent and acked.
Set to false as default.
.IP \fIwindowOption_\fP
The algorithm to use for managing the congestion window
in linear phase.
The standard algorithm is 1 (the default).
Other experimental algorithms are documented in the source code.
.IP \fIwindowThresh_\fP
Gain constant to exponential averaging filter used to compute
.I awnd
(see below).
For investigations of different window-increase algorithms.
.IP \fIoverhead_\fP
The range (in seconds)
of a uniform random variable used to delay each output
packet. The idea is to insert random delays at the source
in order to avoid phase effects, when desired [4].
This has only been implemented for the Tahoe ("tcp") version of tcp, not
for tcp-reno. This is not intended to be a
realistic model of CPU processing overhead.
.IP \fIecn_\fP
Set to true to use explicit congestion notification in addition
to packet drops to signal congestion.
This allows a Fast Retransmit after a quench() due to
an ECN (explicit congestion notification) bit.
.IP \fIpacketSize_\fP
The size in bytes to use for all packets from this source.
.IP \fItcpip_base_hdr_size_\fP
The size in bytes of the base TCP/IP header.
.IP \fItcpTick_\fP
The TCP clock granularity for measuring roundtrip times. Note that it is set
by default to the non-standard value of 100ms.
Measured in seconds.
.IP \fIbugFix_\fP
Set to true to remove a bug when multiple fast retransmits are allowed
for packets dropped in a single window of data.
.IP \fImaxburst_\fP
Set to zero to ignore. Otherwise, the maximum number of packets that
the source can send in response to a single incoming ACK.
.IP \fIslow_start_restart_\fP
Boolean; set to 1 to slow-start after the connection goes idle.
On by default.
.IP \fIsrtt_init_\fP
Initial value for the smoothed roundtrip time estimate.
Default is 0 seconds.
.IP \fIt_rttvar_\fP
Initial value for the variance in roundtrip time.
Default is 3 seconds.
.IP \fIrtxcur_init_\fP
Initial value for the retransmit value.
Default is 6 seconds.
.IP \fIT_SRTT_BITS\fP
Exponent of weight for updating the smoothed round-trip time t_srtt_.
Default is 3, for a weight of 1/2^T_SRTT_BITS or 1/8.
.IP \fIT_RTTVAR_BITS\fP
Exponent of weight for updating variance in round-trip time, t_rttvar_.
Default is 2, for a weight of 1/2^T_RTTVAR_BITS or 1/4.
.IP \fIrttvar_exp_\fP
Exponent of multiple of the mean deviation in calculating the
current retransmit value t_rtxcur_.
Default is 2, for a multiple of 2^rttvar_exp_ or 4.
.RE
.LP
.HD
Defined Constants
.RS
.LP
.IP \fIMWS\fP
The Maximum Window Size in packets for a TCP connection. MWS determines
the size of an array in tcp-sink.cc.
The default for MWS is 1024 packets.
For Tahoe TCP, the "window" parameter, representing the receiver's
advertised window, should be less than MWS-1. For Reno TCP, the
"window" parameter should be less than (MWS-1)/2.
.RE
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.RS
.LP
.IP \fIdupacks_\fP
Number of duplicate acks seen since any new data was acknowledged.
.IP \fIseqno_\fP
Highest sequence number for data from data source to TCP.
.IP \fIt_seqno_\fP
Current transmit sequence number.
.IP \fIack_\fP
Highest acknowledgment seen from receiver.
.IP \fIcwnd_\fP
Current value of the congestion window
(in packets).
.IP \fIawnd_\fP
Current value of a low-pass filtered version of the congestion window.
For investigations of different window-increase algorithms.
.IP \fIssthresh_\fP
Current value of the slow-start threshold
(in packets).
.IP \fIrtt_\fP
Round-trip time estimate.
In seconds (expressed in multiples of tcpTick_).
.IP \fIsrtt_\fP
Smoothed round-trip time estimate.
In seconds (in multiples of tcpTick_/8).
.IP \fIrttvar_\fP
Round-trip time mean deviation estimate.
.\" what units?
.IP \fIt_rtxcur_\fP
Current retransmit value.
In seconds.
.IP \fIbackoff_\fP
Round-trip time exponential backoff constant.
.RE
.SH "TCP/RENO OBJECTS"
TCP/Reno objects are a subclass of TCP objects that implement the
Reno TCP transport protocol as described in [7].
There are no methods, configuration parameters or state variables
specific to this object.
.RE
.SH "TCP/NEWRENO OBJECTS"
TCP/Newreno objects are a subclass of TCP objects that implement
a modified version of the BSD Reno TCP transport protocol.
.LP
There are no methods or state variables
specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fInewreno_changes_\fP
Set to zero for the default NewReno described in [7]. Set to 1 for
additional
NewReno algorithms as suggested in [10]; this includes the estimation
of the ssthresh parameter during slow-start.
.RE
.SH "TCP/VEGAS OBJECTS"
This section of the man page has not yet been written.
.\" TCP/Vegas objects are a subclass of TCP objects that implement
.\" a modified version of the Reno TCP transport protocol (?).
.\" There are no methods state variables
.\" specific to this object (?).
.\" Configuration Parameters \fP
.\" .LP
.\" .RS
.\" .IP \fIvegas_changes_\fP
.\" .RE
.SH "TCP/SACK1 OBJECTS"
TCP/Sack1 objects are a subclass of TCP objects that implement
the BSD Reno TCP transport protocol with Selective
Acknowledgement Extensions as described in [7].
They inherit all of the TCP object functionality.
There are no methods, configuration parameters or state variables
specific to this object.
.SH "TCP/FACK OBJECTS"
TCP/Fack objects are a subclass of TCP objects that implement
the BSD Reno TCP transport protocol with Forward
Acknowledgement congestion control.
They inherit all of the TCP object functionality.
There are no methods or state variables specific to this object.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIss-div4\fP
Overdamping algorithm. Divides ssthresh by 4 (instead of 2)
if congestion is detected within 1/2 RTT of slow-start. (1=Enable, 0=Disable)
.IP \fIrampdown\fP
Rampdown data smoothing algorithm. Slowly reduces congestion window
rather than instantly halving it. (1=Enable, 0=Disable)
.RE
.SH "TCP/FULLTCP OBJECTS"
This section has not yet been added to the man page.
The implementation and the configuration parameters are described in
[11].
.SH "TCPSINK OBJECTS"
TCPSink objects are a subclass of agent objects that implement
a receiver for TCP packets.
The simulator only implements "one-way" TCP connections, where the
TCP source sends data packets and the TCP sink sends ACK packets.
TCPSink objects inherit all of the generic agent functionality.
There are no methods or state variables specific to the TCPSink object.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIpacketSize_\fP
The size in bytes to use for all acknowledgment packets.
.IP \fImaxSackBlocks_\fP
The maximum number of blocks of data that can be acknowledged
in a SACK option. For a receiver that is also
using the time stamp option [RFC 1323], the SACK option
specified in RFC 2018 has room to include three SACK blocks.
This is only used by the TCPSink/Sack1 subclass.
This value may not be increased within any particular TCPSink
object after that object has been allocated.
(Once a TCPSink object has been allocated, the value of this
parameter may be decreased but not increased).
.RE
.SH "TCPSINK/DELACK OBJECTS"
DelAck objects are a subclass of TCPSink that implement
a delayed-ACK receiver for TCP packets.
They inherit all of the TCPSink object functionality.
There are no methods or state variables specific to the DelAck object.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIinterval_\fP
The amount of time to delay before generating an acknowledgment
for a single packet. If another packet arrives before this
time expires, generate an acknowledgment immediately.
.RE
.SH "TCPSINK/SACK1 OBJECTS"
TCPSink/Sack1 objects are a subclass of TCPSink that implement
a SACK receiver for TCP packets.
They inherit all of the TCPSink object functionality.
There are no methods, configuration parameters or state variables
specific to this object.
.SH "TCPSINK/SACK1/DELACK OBJECTS"
TCPSink/Sack1/DelAck objects are a subclass of TCPSink/Sack1 that implement
a delayed-SACK receiver for TCP packets.
They inherit all of the TCPSink/Sack1 object functionality.
There are no methods or state variables specific to this object.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIinterval_\fP
The amount of time to delay before generating an acknowledgment
for a single packet. If another packet arrives before this
time expires, generate an acknowledgment immediately.
.RE
.SH "SRM OBJECTS"
SRM objects are a subclass of agent objects that implement the
SRM reliable multicast transport protocol. They inherit all of the
generic agent functionalities.
.IP "\fB$srm traffic-source \fIsource\fP"
Attach a traffic source, e.g., Application/Traffic/CBR, to the SRM agent.
.IP "\fB$srm start\fP"
Join the multicast group, start the SRM agent and its attached traffic source.
.IP "\fB$srm delete\fP"
Stop the SRM agent, delete all its status and detach the traffic source.
.IP "\fB$srm trace \fItrace-file \fP"
Write the traces generated by the SRM agent to \fItrace-file\fP. The traces
includes timer settings, request and repair sending and receipts, etc. Two
related files that are not built into ns are
\fItcl/mcast/srm-debug.tcl\fP
that permits more detailed tracing of the delay computation functions,
and
\fItcl/mcast/srm-nam.tcl\fP
that separately marks srm control messages from data.
The latter is useful to enhance nam visualisation.
.IP "\fB$srm log \fIlog-file \fP"
Write the recovery statistics during each request or repair to \fIlog-file\fP.
The statistics include start time, duration, message id, total number of
duplicate requests and repairs.
.IP "\fB$srm distance? \fInode \fP"
Return the distance estimate to \fInode\fP in this SRM agent.
.IP "\fB$srm distances? \fInode \fP"
Returns a list of <group member, distance> tuples of the distances to all
group members that this node is aware of. The group member is
identified
as the address of the remote agent.
The first tuple is this agent's token.
The list can be directly loaded into a Tcl array.
.LP
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.RS
.IP \fIpacketSize_\fP
The data packet size in bytes
that will be used for repair messages. The default value
is 1024.
.IP \fIrequestFunction_\fP
The algorithm used to produce a retransmission request, e.g., setting
request timers. The default value is SRM/request. Other possible request
functions are SRM/request/Adaptive, used by the
Adaptive SRM code.
.IP \fIrepairFunction_\fP
The algorithm used to produce a repair, e.g., compute repair timers. The
default value is SRM/repair. Other possible request functions are
SRM/repair/Adaptive, used by the Adaptive SRM code.
.IP \fIsessionFunction_\fP
The algorithm used to generate session messages. Default is SRM/session
.IP \fIsessionDelay_\fP
The basic interval of session messages. Slight random variation is added to
this interval to avoid global synchronization of session messages. User may
want to adjust this variable according to their specific simulation.
Measured in seconds;
default value is 1.0 seconds.
.IP "\fIC1_, C2_\fP"
The parameters which control the request timer. Refer to [8] for detail. The
default value is \fIC1_\fP = \fIC2_\fP = 2.0.
.IP "\fID1_, D2_\fP"
The parameters which control the repair timer. Refer to [8] for detail. The
default value is \fID1_\fP = \fID2_\fP = 1.0.
.IP \fIrequestBackoffLimit_\fP
The maximum number of exponential backoffs. Default value is 5.
.RE
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.RS
.LP
.IP \fIstats_\fP
An array containing multiple statistics needed by adaptive SRM agent.
Including: duplicate requests and repairs in current request/repair period,
average number of duplicate requests and repairs, request and repair delay in
current request/repair period, average request and repair delay.
.RE
.SH "SRM/Adaptive OBJECTS"
SRM/Adaptive objects are a subclass of the SRM objects that implement the
adaptive SRM reliable multicast transport protocol. They inherit all of the
SRM object functionalities.
.LP
.HD
State Variables
Refer to the SRM paper by Sally et al ([11]) for more detail.
.RS
.LP
.IP \fIpdistance_\fP
This variable is used to pass the distance estimate provided by the
remote agent in a request or repair message.
.IP "\fID1_, D2_\fP"
The same as that in SRM agents, except that they are initialized to
log10(group size) when generating the first repair.
.IP "\fIMinC1_, MaxC1_, MinC2_, MaxC2_\fP"
The minimum/maximum values of C1_ and C2_. Default initial values are
defined in [8].
These values define the dynamic range of \fIC1_\fP and \fIC2_\fP.
.IP "\fIMinD1_, MaxD1_, MinD2_, MaxD2_\fP"
The minimum/maximum values of D1_ and D2_. Default initial values are defined
in [8]. These values define the dynamic range of \fID1_\fP and \fID2_\fP.
.IP \fIAveDups\fP
Higher bound for average duplicates.
.IP \fIAveDelay\fP
Higher bound for average delay.
.\" units?
.IP \fIeps\fP
\fIAveDups\fP - \fIdups\fP determines the lower bound of the number of
duplicates, when we should adjust parameters to decrease delay.
.RE
.SH "APPLICATION OBJECTS"
Application objects generate data for transport agents to send.
.SH "FTP APPLICATION OBJECTS"
Application/FTP objects produce bulk data for a TCP object to
send.
.IP "\fB$ftp start\fP"
Causes FTP to produce packets indefinitely.
.IP "\fB$ftp produce \fIn\fP"
Causes the FTP object to produce
.I n
packets instantaneously.
.IP "\fB$ftp stop\fP"
Causes the attached TCP object to stop sending data.
.IP "\fB$ftp attach \fIagent\fP"
Attaches an Application/FTP object to \fIagent\fP.
.IP "\fB$ftp producemore \fIcount\fP"
Causes the Application/FTP object to produce \fIcount\fP more packets.
.RE
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fImaxpkts\fP
The maximum number of packets generated.
.RE
.SH "TELNET APPLICATION OBJECTS"
Application/Telnet objects produce individual packets with inter-arrival
times as follows. If \fIinterval_\fP is non-zero, then inter-arrival
times are chosen from an exponential distribution with average
\fIinterval_\fP. If \fIinterval_\fP is zero, then inter-arrival times
are chosen using the "tcplib" telnet distribution.
.IP "\fB$telnet start\fP"
Causes the Application/Telnet object to start producing packets.
.IP "\fB$telnet stop\fP"
Causes the Application/Telnet object to stop producing packets.
.IP "\fB$telnet attach \fIagent\fP"
Attaches a Application/Telnet object to \fIagent\fP.
.RE
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIinterval_\fP
The average inter-arrival time in seconds for packets generated by the
Application/Telnet object.
.RE
.SH "TRAFFIC OBJECTS"
Traffic objects create data for a transport protocol to send.
A Traffic object is created by instantiating an object of class
Application/Traffic/\fItype\fP
where
.I type
is one of Exponential, Pareto, CBR, Trace.
.SH "EXPONENTIAL TRAFFIC OBJECTS"
Application/Traffic/Exponential objects generate On/Off traffic. During "on" periods,
packets are generated at a constant burst rate. During "off"
periods, no traffic is generated.
Burst times and
idle times are taken from exponential distributions.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIpacket_size_\fP
The packet size in bytes.
.IP \fIburst_time_\fP
Burst duration in seconds.
.IP \fIidle_time_\fP
Idle time in seconds.
.IP \fIrate_\fP
Peak rate in bits per second.
.SH "PARETO TRAFFIC OBJECTS"
Application/Traffic/Pareto objects generate On/Off traffic with burst times and
idle times taken from pareto distributions.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIpacket_size_\fP
The packet size in bytes.
.IP \fIburst_time_\fP
Average on time in seconds.
.IP \fIidle_time_\fP
Average off time in seconds.
.IP \fIrate_\fP
Peak rate in bits per second.
.IP \fIshape_\fP
Pareto shape parameter.
.SH "CBR (CONSTANT BIT RATE) TRAFFIC OBJECTS"
Application/Traffic/CBR objects generate packets at a constant rate.
Dither can be added to the interarrival times by enabling the "random" flag.
.HD
Configuration Parameters \fP
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIrate_\fP
Peak rate in bits per second.
.IP \fIpacket_size_\fP
The packet size in bytes.
.IP \fIrandom_\fP
Flag that turns dithering on and off (default is off).
.IP \fImaxpkts_\fP
Maximum number of packets to send.
.SH "TRACE TRAFFIC OBJECTS"
Application/Traffic/Trace objects are used to generate traffic from a trace file.
.IP "\fB$trace attach-tracefile \fItfile\fP"
Attach the Tracefile object
.I tfile
to this trace.
The Tracefile object
specifies the trace file
from which the traffic data is to be read
(see TRACEFILE OBJECTS section). Multiple Application/Traffic/Trace objects can
be attached to the same Tracefile object. A random starting place
within the Tracefile is chosen for each Application/Traffic/Trace object.
.LP
There are no configuration parameters for this object.
.SH "TRACEFILE OBJECTS"
Tracefile objects are used to specify the
trace file that is to be used
for generating traffic (see TRAFFIC/TRACE OBJECTS section).
$tracefile is an instance of the Tracefile Object.
.IP "\fB$tracefile filename \fItrace-input\fP"
Set the filename from which
the traffic trace data is to be read to
.I trace-input.
.LP
There are no configuration parameters for this object. A trace file
consists of any number of fixed length records. Each record consists
of 2 32 bit fields. The first indicates the interval until the next
packet is generated in microseconds. The second indicates the length
of the next packet in bytes.
.SH "TRACE AND MONITORING METHODS"
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
Trace objects are used to generate event level capture logs typically
to an output file.
Throughout this section $ns
refers to a Simulator object, $agent
refers to an Agent object.
.IP "\fB$ns create-trace \fItype fileID node1 node2 [option]\fP"
Create a Trace object of type
.I type
and attach the filehandle
.I fileID
to it to monitor the
queues between nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2.
.I type
can be one of
Enque, Deque, Drop.
Enque monitors packet arrival at a queue.
Deque monitors packet departure at a queue.
Drop monitors packet drops at a queue.
.I fileID
must be a file handle returned by the Tcl
.I open
command and it must have been opened for writing.
If \fIoption\fP is not specified, the command will instruct the created
trace object to generate ns traces. If \fIoption\fP is """nam"""
the new object will produce nam traces.
Returns a handle to the trace object.
.IP "\fB$ns drop-trace \fInode1 node2 trace\fP"
Remove trace object attached to
the link between nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2
with
.I trace
as the object handle.
.IP "\fB$ns trace-queue \fInode1 node2 fileID\fP"
Enable Enque, Deque and Drop
tracing on the link between
.I node1
and
.I node2.
.IP "\fB$ns namtrace-queue \fInode1 node2 fileID\fP"
Same function as \fB$ns trace-queue\fP, except it produces nam traces.
.IP "\fB$ns trace-all \fIfileID\fP"
Enable Enque, Deque, Drop Tracing
on all the links in the topology
created after this method is invoked.
Also enables the tracing of network dynamics.
.I fileID
must be a file handle returned by the Tcl
.I open
command and it must have been opened for writing.
.IP "\fB$ns namtrace-all \fIfileID\fP"
Same function as \fB$ns trace-all\fP, except it will produce all equivalent
traces in nam format. In addition, calling this command \fIbefore\fP the
simulator
starts to run will generate color configurations (if any) and topology
information needed by nam (nodes, links, queues). An example can be found
at ns-2/tcl/ex/nam-example.tcl.
.IP "\fB$ns namtrace-config \fIfileID\fP"
Assign a file to store nam configuration information, e.g.,
node/link/agents and some Simulator-related traces such as annotations.
When you don't want to trace every object. call this function and then
use \fI$ns namtrace-queue\fP, \fIrtModel trace\fP, etc., to insert
traces individually. Note that you should use the same file for individual
traces and nam configuration. An example for this is available at
ns-2/tcl/ex/nam-separate-trace.tcl.
.IP "\fB$ns monitor-queue \fInode1 node2\fP"
Arrange for queue length of link
between nodes
.I node1
and
.I node2
to be tracked.
Returns QueueMonitor object that can be queried
to learn average queue size etc.
[see QueueMonitor Objects section]
.IP "\fB$ns flush-trace\fP"
Flush the output channels attached to all the trace objects.
.IP "\fB$link trace-dynamics \fIns fileID [option]\fP"
Trace the dynamics of this link
and write the output to
.I fileID
filehandle.
.I ns
is an instance of the Simulator or MultiSim object
that was created to invoke the simulation.
.IP "\fB$ns color \fIid name\fP"
Create a color index, which links the number \fIid\fP to the color name
\fIname\fP. All colors created \fIbefore\fP the simulator starts to run will
be written to nam trace file, if there is any.
.IP "\fB$ns trace-annotate \fIstring\fP"
Writes an annotation to ns and nam trace file, if there are any. The string
should be enclosed in double quote to make it a single argument.
.IP "\fBtrace_annotate \fIstring\fP"
Another version of \fB$ns trace-annotate\fP, which is a global function and
doesn't require the caller to know ns.
.IP "\fB$ns duplex-link-op $node1 $node2 $op $args\fP"
Perform a given operation \fI$op\fP on the given duplex link
(\fI$node1\fP, \fI$node2\fP).
The following two operations may be used:
.nf
orient - Specify the nam orientation of the duplex link. Values can be
left, right, up, down, their mixture combined by '-' (e.g.,
left-down), and a number specifying the angle between the
link and the horizontal line.
queuePos - Construct a queue of the simplex link (\fI$node1\fP,
\fI$node2\fP) in nam, and specify the angle between the
horizontal line and the line along which the queued packets
will be displayed.
.fi
.IP "\fB$ns add-agent-trace \fIagent name [fileID]\fP"
Write a nam trace line, which will create a trace agent for \fIagent\fP when
interpreted by nam. The trace agent's name will be
\fIname\fP. This nam trace agent is used to show the position of \fIagent\fP
and can be used to write nam traces of variables associated with the agent.
By default traces will be written to the file assigned by \fInamtrace-all\fP.
\fIfileID\fP can be used to write traces to another file.
.IP "\fB$agent tracevar \fIname\fP"
Label OTcl variable \fIname\fP of \fB$agent\fP to be traced. Then whenever
the variable \fIname\fP changes value, a nam trace line will be written to
nam trace file, if there is one. Note that \fIname\fP must be the same as the
variable's real OTcl name.
.IP "\fB$ns delete-agent-trace \fIagent\fP"
Write a nam trace line, which will delete the nam trace associated with
\fIagent\fP when interpreted by nam.
.IP "\fB$agent add-var-trace \fIname value [type]\fP"
Write a nam trace line, which creates a variable trace with name \fIname\fP and
value \fIvalue\fP, when interpreted by nam. \fItype\fP indicates the type of
the variable, e.g., is it a list, array, or a plain variable. Currently only
plain variable is supported, for which \fItype\fP = 'v'.
.LP
The following 2 functions should be called \fIafter\fP the simulator starts
running. This can be done using \fB$ns at\fP.
.IP "\fB$agent delete-var-trace \fIname\fP"
Write a nam trace line, which deletes the variable trace \fIname\fP when
interpreted by nam.
.IP "\fB$agent update-var-trace \fIname value [type]\fP"
Write a nam trace line, which changes the value of traced variable \fIname\fP
when interpreted by nam. Unlike \fB$agent tracevar\fP, the above 3
functions provide 'manual' variable tracing, in which variable tracing are done
by placing \fB$agent update-var-trace\fP in OTcl code, while \fItracevar\fP
automatically generates nam traces when the traced variable changes value.
.LP
The tracefile format is backward compatible
with the output files in the
ns version 1 simulator
so that ns-1 post-processing
scripts can still be used.
Trace records of traffic for link objects with Enque, Deque or Drop
Tracing have the following form:
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> <time> <hsrc> <hdst> <packet>
.fi
.RE
.LP
where
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> := [hd+-r] h=hop d=drop +=enque -=deque r=receive
<time> := simulation time in seconds
<hsrc> := first node address of hop/queuing link
<hdst> := second node address of hop/queuing link
<packet> := <type> <size> <flags> <flowID> <src.sport> <dst.dport> <seq> <pktID>
<type> := tcp|telnet|cbr|ack etc.
<size> := packet size in bytes
<flags> := [CP] C=congestion, P=priority
<flowID> := flow identifier field as defined for IPv6
<src.sport> := transport address (src=node,sport=agent)
<dst.sport> := transport address (dst=node,dport=agent)
<seq> := packet sequence number
<pktID> := unique identifer for every new packet
.fi
Only those agents interested in
providing sequencing will generate
sequence numbers and hence
this field may not be
useful for packets generated by some agents.
.LP
For links that use RED gateways,
there are additional trace records as follows:
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> <time> <value>
.fi
.RE
.LP
where
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> := [Qap] Q=queue size, a=average queue size,
p=packet dropping probability
<time> := simulation time in seconds
<value> := value
.fi
.RE
.LP
Trace records for link dynamics are of the form:
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> <time> <state> <src> <dst>
.fi
.RE
.LP
where
.LP
.RS
.nf
<code> := [v]
<time> := simulation time in seconds
<state> := [link-up | link-down]
<src> := first node address of link
<dst> := second node address of link
.fi
.RE
.SH "INTEGRATOR Objects"
Integrator Objects support the approximate computation
of continuous integrals using discrete sums.
The running sum(integral) is computed as:
sum_ += [lasty_ * (x - lastx_)]
where (x, y) is the last element entered and (lastx_, lasty_)
was the element previous to that added to the sum.
lastx_ and lasty_ are updated as new elements
are added.
The first sample point defaults to (0,0)
that can be changed by changing the values of (lastx_,lasty_).
.IP "\fB$integrator newpoint \fIx y\fP"
Add the point (x,y) to the sum.
Note that it does not make sense for x to be less than lastx_.
.LP
There are no configuration parameters specific to this object.
.LP
.HD
State Variables
.LP
.RS
.IP \fIlastx_\fP
x-coordinate of the last sample point.
.IP \fIlasty_\fP
y-coordinate of the last sample point.
.IP \fIsum_\fP
Running sum (i.e. the integral) of the sample points.
.SH "SAMPLES Objects"
Samples Objects support the computation of
mean and variance statistics for a given sample.
.IP "\fB$samples mean\fP"
Returns mean of the sample.
.IP "\fB$samples variance\fP"
Returns variance of the sample.
.IP "\fB$samples cnt\fP"
Returns a count of the sample points considered.
.IP "\fB$samples reset\fP"
Reset the Samples object to monitor a fresh set of samples.
.LP
There are no configuration parameters or state variables specific to
this object.
.SH BUILTINS
[NOTE: This section has not been verified to be up-to-date with the release.]
Because
.I OTcl
is a full-fledged programming language, it is easy to build
high-level simulation constructs from the ns primitives.
Several library routines have been built in this way, and
are embedded into the ns interpreter
as methods of the Simulator class.
Throughout this section
$ns represents a Simulator object.
.IP "\fB$ns create-connection \fIsrcType srcNode dstType dstNode class\fP"
Create a source agent of type
.I srcType
at node
.I srcNode
and connect it to a destination agent of type
.I dstType
at node
.I dstNode.
Also, connect the destination agent to the source agent.
The traffic class of both agents is set to
.I class.
This method returns the source agent.
.SH EXAMPLE
.nf
set ns [new Simulator]
#
# Create two nodes
#
set n0 [$ns node]
set n1 [$ns node]
#
# Create a trace and arrange for all the trace events of the
# links subsequently created to be dumped to "out.tr"
#
set f [open out.tr w]
$ns trace-all $f
#
# Connect the two nodes with a 1.5Mb link with a transmission
# delay of 10ms using FIFO drop-tail queuing
#
$ns duplex-link $n0 $n1 1.5Mb 10ms DropTail
#
# Set up BSD Tahoe TCP connections in opposite directions.
#
set tcp_src1 [new Agent/TCP]
set tcp_snk1 [new Agent/TCPSink]
set tcp_src2 [new Agent/TCP]
set tcp_snk2 [new Agent/TCPSink]
$ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp_src1
$ns attach-agent $n1 $tcp_snk1
$ns attach-agent $n1 $tcp_src2
$ns attach-agent $n0 $tcp_snk2
$ns connect $tcp_src1 $tcp_snk1
$ns connect $tcp_src2 $tcp_snk2
#
# Create ftp sources at the each node
#
set ftp1 [$tcp_src1 attach-source FTP]
set ftp2 [$tcp_src2 attach-source FTP]
#
# Start up the first ftp at the time 0 and
# the second ftp staggered 1 second later
#
$ns at 0.0 "$ftp1 start"
$ns at 1.0 "$ftp2 start"
#
# run the simulation for 10 simulated seconds
#
$ns at 10.0 "exit 0"
$ns run
.fi
.SH DEBUGGING
To enable debugging when building ns from source:
.nf
% ./configure --enable-debug
% make
.fi
.LP
For more details about ns debugging
please see
<http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/ns-debugging.html>.
.SH DIFFERENCES FROM NS-1
In general, more complex objects in ns-1 have been broken down
into simpler components for greater flexibility
and composability.
Details of differences between ns-1 and ns-2
can be found at
<http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/ns.html>.
.SH HISTORY
Work on the LBL Network Simulator began in May 1990 with modifications to
S. Keshav's (keshav@research.att.com) REAL network
simulator, which he developed for his Ph.D. work at U.C. Berkeley.
In Summer 1991, the simulation description language
was revamped, and later, the NEST threads model was
replaced with an event driven framework and
an efficient scheduler. Among other contributions,
Sugih Jamin (jamin@usc.edu)
contributed the calendar-queue based scheduling code
to this version of the program, which was known as
.I tcpsim.
In December 1994, McCanne ported tcpsim
to C++ and replaced the yacc-based simulation description
language with a Tcl interface, and added preliminary
multicast support. Also at this time, the name changed from
.I tcpsim
to the more generic
.I ns.
Throughout, Floyd has made modifications to
the TCP code and added additional source models for her
investigations into RED gateways, resource management,
class-based queuing, explicit congestion notification,
and traffic phase effects. Many of the papers discussing these
issues are available through URL http://www-nrg.ee.lbl.gov/.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl(1),
tclsh(1),
nam(1),
otclsh
.IP \fB[1]\fP
S. Keshav, ``REAL: A Network Simulator''. UCB CS Tech Report 88/472,
December 1988. See
http://minnie.cs.adfa.oz.au/REAL/index.html
for more information.
.IP \fB[2]\fP
Floyd, S. and Jacobson, V. Random Early Detection gateways for
Congestion Avoidance. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking,
Vol. 1, No. 4. August 1993. pp. 397-413. Available from
http://www-nrg.ee.lbl.gov/floyd/red.html.
.IP \fB[3]\fP
Floyd, S. Simulator Tests. July 1995.
URL ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/simtests.ps.Z.
.IP \fB[4]\fP
Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V.
On Traffic Phase Effects in Packet-Switched Gateways.
Internetworking: Research and Experience, V.3 N.3, September 1992.
pp. 115-156.
.IP \fB[5]\fP
Floyd, S., and Jacobson, V.
Link-sharing and Resource Management Models for Packet Networks.
IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 3 No. 4, August 1995.
pp. 365-386.
.IP \fB[6]\fP
Floyd, S.,
Notes of Class-Based Queueing: Setting Parameters.
URL ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/ params.ps.Z. September 1995.
.IP \fB[7]\fP
Fall, K., and Floyd, S. Comparisons of Tahoe, Reno, and Sack TCP.
December 1995. URL ftp:// ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/sacks.ps.Z.
.IP \fB[8]\fP
David Wetherall and Christopher J. Linblad.
Extending Tcl for Dynamic Object-Oriented Programming.
In Proceedings of the USENIX Tcl/Tk Workshop, Toronto, Ontario, USENIX.
July, 1995.
At <http://www.tns.lcs.mit.edu/publications/tcltk95.djw.html>.
.IP \fB[9]\fP
M. Shreedhar and G. Varghese. Efficient Fair Queueing Using Deficit
Round Robin. In Proc. of SIGCOMM, pp. 231-242, 1995.
.IP \fB[10]\fP
Hoe, J.,
Improving the Start-up Behavior of a Congestion Control Scheme for TCP.
in SIGCOMM 96, August 1996, pp. 270-280.
URL http://www.acm.org/sigcomm/sigcomm96/papers/hoe.html.
.IP \fB[11]\fP
Fall, K., Floyd, S., and Henderson, T.,
Ns Simulator Tests for Reno FullTCP.
URL ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/fulltcp.ps. July 1997.
.IP \fB[12]\fP
Floyd, S., Jacobson, V., Liu, C.-G., McCanne, S. and Zhang, L.,
A Reliable Multicast Framework for Light-weight Sessions and Application Level
Framing. To appear in IEEE/ACK Transaction on Networking, November 1996.
ftp://ftp.ee.lbl.gov/papers/srm1.ps.gz
.IP \fB[13]\fP
Fall, K., and Varadhan, K., (eds.),
"Ns notes and documentation",
work in progress.
http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/nsDoc.ps.gz
.LP
Research using ns is on-going.
A list of recent research contributions employing ns
can be found at
<http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/ns-research.html>.
.LP
Work on ns is on-going.
Information about the most recent version is available
at
<http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/ns.html>.
.LP
A mailing list for ns users and announcements is also available,
send mail to ns-users-request@mash.cs.berkeley.edu
or ns-announce-request@mash.cs.berkeley.edu
to join.
Questions should be forwarded to ns-users;
ns-announce will be low-traffic announcements only.
.SH AUTHORS
Steven McCanne (mccanne@ee.lbl.gov), University of California, Berkeley
and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, and
Sally Floyd (floyd@ee.lbl.gov)
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.
A complete list of contributors to ns is at
<http://www-mash.cs.berkeley.edu/ns/ns-contributors.html>.
.SH BUGS
Not all of the functionality supported in ns-1 has been ported to ns-2.
This manual page is incomplete.