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# Software reference {#book:sw-carpentry status=ready nonumber=1}
Maintainer: Andrea Censi
This part describes quick reference about the UNIX/Linux environments.
Note: Documentation writers: please make sure that every command used
has a section in these chapters. You are encouraged to link to other sources of information.
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# Linux reference {#part:linux-ref}
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# Ubuntu packaging with APT {#apt status=draft}
## `apt install`
TODO: to write
## `apt update`
TODO: to write
### `apt dist-upgrade`
TODO: hold back packages
## `apt-key` {#apt-key}
TODO: to write
## `apt-mark` {#apt-mark}
TODO: to write
## `apt-get` {#apt-get}
TODO: to write
## `add-apt-repository` {#add-apt-repository}
TODO: to write
## `wajig` {#wajig}
TODO: to write
## `dpigs` {#dpigs}
TODO: to write
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# GNU/Linux general notions {#linux-general status=draft}
Assigned: Andrea Censi
## Background reading
- UNIX
- Linux
- free software; open source software.
<!--
### Can you do the following?
- Log in the Duckiebot from the laptop;
- Log in the Duckiebot from the laptop, without using password;
### Can you do the following?
- Copy a file from the Duckiebot to the laptop;
- Copy a file from the laptop to the Duckiebot; -->
# Every-day Linux {#every-day-linux status=draft}
## `man` {#man}
This is an interface to the on-line reference manuals. Whenever you meet some unfamiliar commands, try use `man certain_command` before Googling. You will find it extremely clear, useful and self-contained.
## `cd` {#cd}
Go to the directory you want. If you just use:
laptop $ cd
then you will go to your home directory, i.e., ~
## `sudo` {#sudo}
Whenever you want to modify system files, you will need `sudo`. Commonly touched system files including `/etc`, `/opt` and so on. Since most of you have followed the guideline to use passwordless sudo, I would recommend that make sure what you are doing with sudo before you execute the command, otherwise you may need to reinstall the system.
## `ls` {#ls}
List all the files and documents in the current directory. From `~/.bashrc`, we know some commonly used alias. See more by `man ls`.
-- `la` for `ls -a` which will list out all files and documents including the hidden ones(whose name starts with a dot).
-- `ll` for `ls -l` which will display Unix file types, permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size, last-modified date and filename.
## `cp` {#cp}
`cp fileA directoryB` will copy the file A to directory B. See more by executing `man cp`.
## `mkdir` {#mkdir}
Make new directory. See more by `man mkdir`.
## `touch` {#touch}
Update the access and modification times of the input file to current time. See more by `man touch`.
## `reboot` {#reboot}
This command must be executed as root. `sudo` required. This will reboot your laptop or Raspberry Pi. See more by `man reboot`.
## `shutdown` {#shutdown}
This command requires `sudo`. You can set a countdown to shutdown you machine. More by `man shutdown`.
## `rm` {#rm}
Remove certain file. `rm -r` will remove files. More in `man rm`.
# Users {#users-management status=draft}
## `passwd` {#passwd}
Update password of the current user. Old password needed.
# UNIX tools {#unix-tools status=draft}
## `cat` {#cat}
Cat some file will return you the content. More in `man cat`.
## `tee` {#tee}
Read from standard input and write to standard output and files. More on `man tee`.
## `truncate` {#truncate}
TODO: to write
# Linux disks and files {#linux-disk-and-files status=draft}
## `fdisk` {#fdisk}
TODO: to write
## `mount` {#mount}
TODO: to write
## `umount` {#umount}
TODO: to write
## `losetup` {#losetup}
TODO: to write
## `gparted` {#gparted}
TODO: to write
## `dd` {#dd}
TODO: to write
## `sync` {#sync}
TODO: to write
## `df` {#df}
TODO: to write
## How to make a partition {#how-to-partition status=draft}
TODO: to write
# Other administration commands {#linux-other-admin status=draft}
## `visudo` {#visudo}
TODO: to write
## `update-alternatives` {#update-alternatives}
TODO: to write
## `udevadm` {#udevadm}
TODO: to write
## `systemctl` {#systemctl}
TODO: to write
# Make {#gnu-make status=draft}
## `make` {#make}
TODO: to write
# Python-related tools {#python-tools status=draft}
## `virtualenv` {#virtualenv}
TODO: to write
## `pip` {#pip}
TODO: to write
# Raspberry-PI commands {#RPI-commands status=draft}
## `raspi-config` {#raspi-config}
TODO: to write
## `vcgencmd` {#vcgencmd}
TODO: to write
## `raspistill` {#raspistill}
TODO: to write
## `jstest` {#jstest}
TODO: to write
## `swapon` {#swapon}
TODO: to write
## `mkswap` {#mkswap}
TODO: to write
# Users and permissions {#users-and-permissions status=draft}
## `chmod` {#chmod}
TODO: to write
## `groups` {#groups}
TODO: to write
## `adduser` {#adduser}
TODO: to write
## `useradd` {#useradd}
TODO: to write
# Downloading {#download-utils status=draft}
## `curl` {#curl}
TODO: to write
## `wget` {#wget}
TODO: to write
## `sha256sum` {#sha256sum}
TODO: to write
## `xz` {#xz}
TODO: to write
# Shells and environments {#linux-shells status=draft}
## `source` {#source}
You can only do `source file_name` if the file can be executed by bash.
## `which` {#which}
Tell you the /bin/ directory of your command. This is useful to distinguish which python you are using if you have virtualenv.
## `export` {#export}
TODO: to write
# Other misc commands {#linux-misc status=draft}
## `pgrep`
TODO: to write
## `npm` {#npm}
TODO: to write
## `nodejs` {#nodejs}
TODO: to write
## `ntpdate` {#ntpdate}
TODO: to write
## `chsh` {#chsh}
TODO: to write
## `echo` {#echo}
TODO: to write
## `sh` {#sh}
TODO: to write
## `fc-cache` {#fc-cache}
TODO: to write
# Mounting USB drives {#mounting-usb status=ready}
First **plug in the USB drive** nothing will work if you don't do that first. Now ssh into your robot. On the command line type:
duckiebot $ lsusb
you should see your Sandisk USB drive as an entry. Congrats, you correctly plugged it in
duckiebot $ lsblk
Under name you should see `sda1`, with size about 28.7GB and nothing under the `MOUNTPOINT` column (if you see something under `MOUNTPOINT` congrats you are done.
Next make a directory to mount to:
duckiebot $ sudo mkdir /media/logs
Next mount the drive
duckiebot $ sudo mount -t vfat /dev/sda1 /media/logs -o umask=000
Test by running `lsblk` again and you should now see `/media/logs` under `MOUNTPOINT`
## Unmounting a USB drive {#unmount-usb}
duckiebot $ sudo umount /media/logs
Oops, something went wrong.

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