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# Duckietown {#book:duckietown-experience status=ready}

Maintainer: Andrea Censi, Liam Paull
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# General info {#part:general-info status=beta}
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# The Duckietown project {#duckietown-project status=beta}

Duckietown is a robotics education and outreach effort.

It started at MIT in 2016 and now includes hundreds of people around the world.

## Mission

TODO for Andrea Censi, Liam Paull, Kirsten Bowser: add mission here


## Goals and objectives

The most tangible goal of the project is to provide a low-cost educational platform for learning about autonomous systems, consisting of lectures and other learning material, the Duckiebot autonomous robots, and the Duckietowns, which constitute the infrastructure in which the Duckiebots navigate.

We focus on the *learning experience* as a whole, by providing a set of modules, teaching plans, and other guides, as well as a curated role-play experience.

We have two targets:

1. For **instructors**, we want to create a "class-in-a-box" that allows people to offer a modern and engaging learning experience. Currently, this is feasible at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level, though in the future we would like to provide a platform that can be adapted to a range of different grade and experience levels.

2. For **self-guided learners**, we want to create a "self-learning experience" that allows students to go from having zero knowledge of robotics to a graduate-level understanding.

In addition, the Duckietown platform is also suitable for research.

## Learn about the Duckietown educational experience

The video in [](#duckumentary) is the "Duckumentary", a documentary about the first version
of the class, during Spring 2016.

<div figure-id="fig:duckumentary">
<figcaption>The Duckumentary, created by <a href="https://www.facebook.com/ChrisWelchPhotography/">Chris Welch.</a>
</figcaption>
<dtvideo src='vimeo:231688769'/>
</div>

The video in [](#road-to-autonomy) is a documentary created by Red Hat
on the current developments in self-driving cars.

<div figure-id="fig:road-to-autonomy">
<figcaption>The road to autonomy</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:219731087"/>
</div>


If you'd like to know more about the educational experience, [](#bib:tani16duckietown) present a more formal description of the course design for Duckietown: learning objectives, teaching methods, etc.


## Learn about the platform

The video in [](#duckietown-functionality-v3) shows some of the functionality of the platform.

If you would like to know more, the paper [](#bib:paull17duckietown) describes the Duckiebot
and its software. (With 30 authors, we made the record for a robotics conference!)


<div figure-id="fig:duckietown-functionality-v3">
<figcaption>Duckietown functionality</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:231843373"/>
</div>



<!--
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<cite class='pub-ref-desc' id='bib:'>
<span class="author"><a href='http://people.csail.mit.edu/lpaull/'>Liam Paull</a>, <a href='https://eapsweb.mit.edu/people/jtani'>Jacopo Tani</a>, Heejin Ahn, Javier Alonso-Mora, Luca Carlone, Michal Cap, Yu Fan Chen, Changhyun Choi, Jeff Dusek, Daniel Hoehener, Shih-Yuan Liu, Michael Novitzky, Igor Franzoni Okuyama, Jason Pazis, Guy Rosman, Valerio Varricchio, Hsueh-Cheng Wang, Dmitry Yershov, Hang Zhao, Michael Benjamin, <a href='http://web.mit.edu/chrisc/www/Home.html'>Christopher Carr</a>, <a href='https://eapsweb.mit.edu/people/zuber/'>Maria Zuber</a>, <a href='http://karaman.mit.edu/'>Sertac Karaman</a>, <a href='http://ares.lids.mit.edu/'>Emilio Frazzoli</a>, <a href='http://www.mit.edu/~ddv/'>Domitilla Del Vecchio</a>, <a href='http://danielarus.csail.mit.edu/'>Daniela Rus</a>, <a href='http://www.mit.edu/~jhow/'>Jonathan How</a>, <a href='https://marinerobotics.mit.edu/'>John Leonard</a>, and <span class="author-ac">Andrea Censi</span>.</span>
<span class="title">Duckietown: an open, inexpensive and flexible platform for autonomy education and research.</span>
<span class="booktitle">In <em>IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)</em>. Singapore, May 2017.</span>
<span class="links"><span class="pdf"><a href="http://people.csail.mit.edu/lpaull/publications/Paull_ICRA_2017.pdf"><img style='border:0; margin-bottom:-6px; height: 17px' src='pdf.png'/> pdf</a></span><span class="url"><a href="http://duckietown.mit.edu/"><img style='border:0; margin-bottom:-6px; height: 17px' src='web.png'/> supp. material</a></span></span><a class='pub-ref-bibtex-link' onclick='javascript:document.getElementById("paull17duckietown").style.display="block";' href='javascript:void(0)'>bibtex</a><pre class='pub-ref-bibtex' id='paull17duckietown' style='display: none;'>
@inproceedings{paull17duckietown,
author = "Paull, Liam and Tani, Jacopo and Ahn, Heejin and Alonso-Mora, Javier and Carlone, Luca and Cap, Michal and Chen, Yu Fan and Choi, Changhyun and Dusek, Jeff and Hoehener, Daniel and Liu, Shih-Yuan and Novitzky, Michael and Okuyama, Igor Franzoni and Pazis, Jason and Rosman, Guy and Varricchio, Valerio and Wang, Hsueh-Cheng and Yershov, Dmitry and Zhao, Hang and Benjamin, Michael and Carr, Christopher and Zuber, Maria and Karaman, Sertac and Frazzoli, Emilio and Vecchio, Domitilla Del and Rus, Daniela and How, Jonathan and Leonard, John and Censi, Andrea",
title = "Duckietown: an Open, Inexpensive and Flexible Platform for Autonomy Education and Research",
url = "http://duckietown.mit.edu/",
booktitle = "IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)",
year = "2017",
month = "May",
address = "Singapore",
pdf = "http://people.csail.mit.edu/lpaull/publications/Paull_ICRA_2017.pdf"
}</pre>
</cite>
<cite class='pub-ref-desc' id='bib:tani16duckietown'>
<span class="author"><a href='https://eapsweb.mit.edu/people/jtani'>Jacopo Tani</a>, <a href='http://people.csail.mit.edu/lpaull/'>Liam Paull</a>, <a href='https://eapsweb.mit.edu/people/zuber/'>Maria Zuber</a>, <a href='http://danielarus.csail.mit.edu/'>Daniela Rus</a>, <a href='http://www.mit.edu/~jhow/'>Jonathan How</a>, <a href='https://marinerobotics.mit.edu/'>John Leonard</a>, and <span class="author-ac">Andrea Censi</span>.</span>
<span class="title">Duckietown: an innovative way to teach autonomy.</span>
<span class="booktitle">In <em>EduRobotics 2016</em>. Athens, Greece, December 2016.</span>
<span class="links"><span class="pdf"><a href="http://people.csail.mit.edu/lpaull/publications/Tani_EDU_2016.pdf"><img style='border:0; margin-bottom:-6px; height: 17px' src='pdf.png'/> pdf</a></span><span class="url"><a href="http://duckietown.mit.edu/"><img style='border:0; margin-bottom:-6px; height: 17px' src='web.png'/> supp. material</a></span></span><a class='pub-ref-bibtex-link' onclick='javascript:document.getElementById("tani16duckietown").style.display="block";' href='javascript:void(0)'>bibtex</a><pre class='pub-ref-bibtex' id='tani16duckietown' style='display: none;'>
</pre>
</cite>
-->
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# Duckietown history and future {#duckietown-history-and-future status=beta}

## The beginnings of Duckietown


The original Duckietown class was at MIT in 2016 ([](#MIT-class)).

<div figure-id="fig:MIT-class">
<img src="duckietown-mit.jpg" class='fancybox group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Part of the first MIT class, during the final demo.</figcaption>
</div>

TODO for Liam Paull, Andrea Censi: provide better description.

Duckietown was built by elves ([](#elves)).

<div figure-id="fig:elves">
<figcaption>The elves of Duckietown</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:149916365"/>
</div>

These are some advertisement videos we used.

<div figure-id="fig:v1">
<figcaption>The need for autonomy</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:152233002"/>
</div>

<div figure-id="fig:v2">
<figcaption>Advertisement</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:152499589"/>
</div>

<div figure-id="fig:duckietown-by-night">
<figcaption>Cool Duckietown by night</figcaption>
<dtvideo src="vimeo:152825632"/>
</div>



## University-level classes in 2016 {status=beta}

TODO for Kirsten Bowser: if we use Wordpress for these statistics, link them here.

Later that year, the Duckietown platform was also used in these classes:

- [National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan](http://duckietown.nctu.edu.tw/) - [Prof. Nick Wang];
- Tsinghua University, People's Republic of China - [Prof. (Samuel) Qing-Shan Jia's](http://cfins.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/personalhg/jiaqingshan/HomgPage_QSJ_EN.htm) *Computer Networks with Applications* course; and
- Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute 2016 - [Prof. John Wen](http://john-wen.com/node/241) [*Robotics I*](https://tinyurl.com/y7tejw8m) course.

<div figure-id="fig:NCTU">
<img src="duckietown-taiwan.jpg" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Duckietown at NCTU in 2016</figcaption>
</div>

<style>
.group-photo {
max-width: 80%;
}
</style>

## University-level classes in 2017

TODO for Kirsten Bowser: if we use Wordpress for these statistics, link them here.

In 2017, these four courses were taught together, with the students interacting among institutions:

- [ETH Zürich 2017](http://duckietown.org/classes/2017/17-ETHZ/) - Prof. Emilio Frazzoli, Dr. Andrea Censi, Dr. Jacopo Tani ([](#ETHZ2017));
- [University of Montreal, 2017](http://duckietown.org/classes/2017/17-Montreal/) - Prof. Liam Paull;
- [TTI/Chicago 2017](http://duckietown.org/classes/2017/17-TTIC/) - Prof. Matthew Walter; and
- [National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan](http://duckietown.nctu.edu.tw/) - Prof. Nick Wang.

Furthermore, the Duckietown platform was used also in the following universities:

- [Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute - (Jeff Trinkle)](http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~trink/Courses/AlgorithmicRobotics/) *Algorithmic Robotics* course;
- National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan - [Prof. Yon-Ping Chen's](https://people.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~ypchen/) *Dynamic system simulation and implementation* course;
- Chosun University, Korea - Prof. Woosuk Sung's course;
- [Petra Christian University, Indonesia](http://www.petra.ac.id/) - Prof. Resmana Lim's *Mobile Robot Design* course;
- National Tainan Normal University, Taiwan - [Prof. Jen-Jee Chen's](http://home.nutn.edu.tw/jjchen/) *Vehicle to Everything* (V2X) course; and
- Yuan Zhu University, Taiwan - Prof. Kan-Lin Hsiung's *Control* course.

<div figure-id="fig:ETHZ2017">
<img src="duckietown-ethz-2017.jpg" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Duckietown at ETHZ in 2017</figcaption>
</div>
<!--
<div figure-id="fig:UdM">
<img src="duckietown-udm.jpg" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Duckietown at UdM in 2017</figcaption>
</div>
<div figure-id="fig:TTIC">
<img src="duckietown-ttic.jpg" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Duckietown at TTIC in 2017</figcaption>
</div>
-->
TODO for Liam Paull: add picture of 2017 UdM class

TODO for Andrea Daniele: add picture of 2017 TTIC class

## 2018 and beyond

The classes are too many to list.

## Statistics {#duckietown-statistics}

This section reports some aggregated statistics of the courses at graduate and undergraduate level that used the Duckietown platform in 2016-17, listed above.

<div figure-id="fig:stats-grad-history">
<img src="Duckietown-class-history-graduate-level.png" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Number of students and staff for the Duckietown graduate level class </figcaption>
</div>

<div figure-id="fig:stats-duckiebots">
<img src="Duckiebots-fleet-size-2017.png" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Duckiebot approximate cost and fleet size for graduate level classes</figcaption>
</div>

<div figure-id="fig:stats-alumni-university">
<img src="Duckietown-alumni-university-2017.png" class='group-photo'/>
<figcaption>Number of reported students and staff for graduate and undergraduate classes using the Duckietown platform. These figures do not include [Duckietown HS](#dt-hs) alumni (200 up to 2017)</figcaption>
</div>


<figure class="flow-subfigures">
<figcaption>Statistics of Duckietown alumni</figcaption>
<figure>
<figcaption>Gender</figcaption>
<img style='width:10em' src="Duckietown-univesity-alumni-gender-2017.png"/>
</figure>
<figure>
<figcaption>Role</figcaption>
<img style='width:10em' src="Duckietown-university-students-and-staff-2017.png"/>
</figure>
</figure>

<figure>
<figcaption>Backgrounds of students and staff</figcaption>
<figure>
<figcaption>Students</figcaption>
<img style='width:18em' src="Duckietown-students-backgrounds-2017.png"/>
</figure>
<figure>
<figcaption>Staff</figcaption>
<img style='width:18em' src="Duckietown-staff-background-2017.png"/>
</figure>
</figure>
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