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Installation Guide

Chris Dunlap edited this page Jan 4, 2018 · 4 revisions

Installing the Software

MUNGE requires either the Libgcrypt or OpenSSL cryptographic library. Libgcrypt is licensed under the LGPL, whereas OpenSSL is licensed under dual original-BSD-style licenses. On some systems, the OpenSSL license is incompatible with the GPL license used by MUNGE. While Libgcrypt offers a more compatible license, OpenSSL typically offers better performance. The selection of the cryptographic library can be specified at build time with the configure script's --with-crypto-lib option.

MUNGE includes support for bzip2 and zlib compression if these libraries are found when the software is built.

MUNGE can be installed using one of the following methods:

  • Distributions:

    MUNGE has been packaged for several distributions: Arch Linux, Debian, Fedora, Gentoo, and Ubuntu.

    On FreeBSD, install the binary package with pkg:

    # pkg install munge

    On NetBSD, install the binary package with pkg_add or pkgin:

    # pkgin install munge

  • RPMs:

    Build binary RPMs from the tarball:

    $ rpmbuild -tb --clean munge-x.y.z.tar.bz2

    This will create three binary RPMs: munge, munge-devel, and munge-libs. The munge RPM contains the daemon and client binaries. The munge-devel RPM contains a header file and static library for developing applications using MUNGE. The munge-libs RPM contains a shared library for running applications using MUNGE.

    The binary RPMs can be installed with rpm:

    # rpm -ivh munge-x.y.z-1.x86_64.rpm munge-devel-x.y.z-1.x86_64.rpm munge-libs-x.y.z-1.x86_64.rpm

  • Source:

    Edit src/libcommon/munge_defs.h to customize values if necessary. To compile the software, execute the following command; note that "make install" will require root privileges:

    $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc --localstatedir=/var && make && sudo make install

    On FreeBSD, compile and install with the Ports Collection:

    # cd /usr/ports/security/munge && make install

    On NetBSD, compile and install with pkgsrc:

    # cd /usr/pkgsrc/security/munge && make install

Securing the Installation

On most platforms, the munged daemon does not require root privileges to run. If possible, you should run the daemon as a non-privileged user. This can be specified in the init script as detailed in the Starting the Daemon section.

By default, the munged daemon uses the following system directories:

  • /etc/munge/

    This directory contains the daemon's secret key. The recommended permissions for it are 0700.

  • /var/lib/munge/

    This directory contains the daemon's PRNG seed file. It is also where the daemon creates pipes for authenticating clients via file-descriptor-passing. If the file-descriptor-passing authentication method is being used, this directory must allow execute permissions for all; however, it should not expose read permissions. The recommended permissions for it are 0711.

  • /var/log/munge/

    This directory contains the daemon's log file. The recommended permissions for it are 0700.

  • /var/run/munge/

    This directory contains the Unix domain socket for clients to communicate with the daemon. It also contains the daemon's pid file. This directory must allow execute permissions for all. The recommended permissions for it are 0755.

These directories must be owned by the user that the munged daemon will run as. They cannot allow write permissions for group or other (unless the sticky-bit is set). In addition, all of their parent directories in the path on up to the root directory must be owned by either root or the user that the munged daemon will run as. None of these directories can allow write permissions for group or other (unless the sticky-bit is set).

Creating a Secret Key

A security realm encompasses a group of hosts having common users and groups. It is defined by a shared cryptographic key. Credentials are valid only within a security realm. All munged daemons within a security realm must possess the same secret key.

By default, the secret key resides in /etc/munge/munge.key. This location can be overridden on the munged command-line or via the init script as detailed in the Starting the Daemon section below.

You can create a secret key using a variety of methods:

  • Wait around for some random data (recommended for the paranoid):

    $ dd if=/dev/random bs=1 count=1024 >/etc/munge/munge.key

  • Grab some pseudorandom data (recommended for the impatient):

    $ dd if=/dev/urandom bs=1 count=1024 >/etc/munge/munge.key

  • Enter the hash of a password (not recommended):

    $ echo -n "foo" | sha512sum | cut -d' ' -f1 >/etc/munge/munge.key

  • Enter a password directly (really not recommended):

    $ echo "foo" >/etc/munge/munge.key

This file should be permissioned 0400 and owned by the user that the munged daemon will run as. Securely propagate this file (e.g., via ssh) to all other hosts within the same security realm.

Starting the Daemon

On each host within the security realm, invoke the daemon directly (/usr/sbin/munged) or use the init script (/etc/init.d/munge start). The init script sources /etc/default/munge (found on Debian-based systems) and /etc/sysconfig/munge (found on RedHat-based systems), if present, to set variables recognized by the script.

The DAEMON_ARGS variable passes additional command-line options to the daemon; for example, this can be used to override the location of the secret key (--key-file) or set the number of worker threads (--num-threads). If the init script is invoked by root, the USER variable causes the daemon to execute under the specified username; the "munge" user is used by default.

Testing the Installation

The following steps can be performed to verify that the software has been properly installed and configured:

  • Generate a credential on stdout:

    $ munge -n

  • Check if a credential can be locally decoded:

    $ munge -n | unmunge

  • Check if a credential can be remotely decoded:

    $ munge -n | ssh <somehost> unmunge

  • Run a quick benchmark:

    $ remunge

If you encounter problems, check if the munged daemon is running (/etc/init.d/munge status). Also, check the logfile (/var/log/munge/munged.log) or try running the daemon in the foreground (/usr/sbin/munged --foreground). Some error conditions can be overridden by forcing the daemon (/usr/sbin/munged --force).

Using MUNGE

Applications written in C/C++ can use the interface provided by <munge.h> and link against libmunge. Scripts can invoke the munge and unmunge executables -- specify -h or --help for usage information, or Read The Fine Manpages.

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