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!mpz data type

The !mpz data type can store integer numbers of arbitrary size, up to the maximum memory allowed by PostgreSQL data types (about 1GB).

Every PostgreSQL integer type (!int16, !int32, !int64) can be converted to !mpz. Not integer types (!float4, !float8, !numeric) are truncated. Cast from integer types are automatic, whereas non integer require explicit cast (but are implicitly converted in assignment).

SELECT mpz(10000);      -- Cast using mpz as a function
SELECT 10000::mpz;      -- PostgreSQL-style cast

Casting !mpz to PostgreSQL integer types and !numeric works as expected and will overflow if the value is too big for their range. Casting to !float4 and !float8 works as well: in case of overflow the value will be Infinity.

!mpz values can be compared using the regular PostgreSQL comparison operators. Indexes on !mpz columns can be created using the btree or the hash method.

!mpz textual input/output

.. function:: mpz(text)
              mpz(text, base)

    Convert a textual representation into an `!mpz` number. The form
    :samp:`{text}::mpz` is equivalent to :samp:`mpz({text})`.

    White space is allowed in the string, and is simply ignored.

    The *base* may vary from 2 to 62, or if *base* is 0 or omitted, then the
    leading characters are used: ``0x`` and ``0X`` for hexadecimal, ``0b`` and
    ``0B`` for binary, ``0`` for octal, or decimal otherwise.

    For bases up to 36, case is ignored; upper-case and lower-case letters
    have the same value.  For bases 37 to 62, upper-case letter represent the
    usual 10..35 while lower-case letter represent 36..61.

    .. code-block:: psql

        =# SELECT '0x10'::mpz AS "hex", '10'::mpz AS "dec",
        -#        '010'::mpz AS "oct", '0b10'::mpz AS "bin";
         hex | dec | oct | bin
        -----+-----+-----+-----
         16  | 10  | 8   | 2


    .. note:: The maximum base accepted by GMP 4.1 is 36, not 62.


.. function:: text(z)
              text(z, base)

    Convert the `!mpz` *z* into a string. The form :samp:`{z}::text` is
    equivalent to :samp:`text({z})`.

    *base* may vary from 2 to 62 or from -2 to -36.  For base in the range
    2..36, digits and lower-case letters are used; for -2..-36, digits and
    upper-case letters are used; for 37..62, digits, upper-case letters, and
    lower-case letters (in that significance order) are used. If *base* is not
    specified, 10 is assumed.

    .. note:: The maximum base accepted by GMP 4.1 is 36, not 62.


Arithmetic Operators and Functions

These operators can either work on !mpz arguments or take an integer argument that will be implicitly converted. Operators taking a 2^n argument always use an integer as right argument.

Note

GMP defines many structures in terms of !long or !unsigned long, whose definitions may vary across platforms. PostgreSQL instead offers data types with a defined number of bytes (e.g. !int4, !int8). For this reason, functions taking an integer as argument are defined as !int8, but they may actually fail if the server is 32 bit and the argument doesn't fit into an !int4.

Arithmetic operators
Operator Description Example Return
!- Unary minus !- 5::mpz -5
!+ Unary plus !+ 5::mpz 5
!+ Addition !2::mpz + 3::mpz 5
!- Subtraction !2::mpz - 3::mpz -1
!* Multiplication !7::mpz * 3::mpz 21
!<< Multiplication by 2^n !3::mpz << 2 12
!^ Power (1) !3::mpz ^ 2 9

Notes:

  1. See also the exponentiation functions.
.. function:: abs(z)

    Return the absolute value of *z*.


.. function:: sgn(z)

    Return +1 if *z* > 0, 0 if *z* = 0, and -1 if *z* < 0.


.. function:: odd(z)
              even(z)

    Return `!true` if *z* is odd or even, respectively, else `!false`.


Division Operators and Functions

For all the division-related operators n \oslash d, q and r will satisfy n = q \cdot d + r, and r will satisfy 0 \le |r| \lt |d|.

Note

Only the truncating division and reminder (!/ and !%) have the correct precedence respect to addition, subtraction and multiplication. See the PostgreSQL precedence table for further details.

Division operators
Operator Description Example Return
!/

Division quotient

Rounding towards zero

! 7::mpz / 3::mpz

!-7::mpz / 3::mpz

2

-2

!%

Division reminder

Rounding towards zero

! 7::mpz % 3::mpz

!-7::mpz % 3::mpz

1

-1

+/

Division quotient

Rounding towards +infinity

! 7::mpz +/ 3::mpz

!-7::mpz +/ 3::mpz

3

-2

+%

Division reminder

Rounding towards +infinity

! 7::mpz +% 3::mpz

!-7::mpz +% 3::mpz

-2

-1

!-/

Division quotient

Rounding towards -infinity

! 7::mpz -/ 3::mpz

!-7::mpz -/ 3::mpz

2

-3

!-%

Division reminder

Rounding towards -infinity

! 7::mpz -% 3::mpz

!-7::mpz -% 3::mpz

1

2

/? Divisible (1) !21::mpz /? 7::mpz !true
/! Exact division (2) !21::mpz /! 7::mpz 3

Notes:

  1. See also the function divisible().
  2. The exact division operator (!/!) produces correct results only when it is known in advance that d divides n. The operator is much faster than the other division operators, and is the best choice when exact division is known to occur, for example reducing a rational to lowest terms.
Division operators for powers of 2
Operator Description Example Return
!>>

Quotient of division by 2^n

Rounding towards zero

! 1027::mpz >> 3

!-1027::mpz >> 3

128

-128

!%>

Remainder of division by 2^n

Rounding towards zero

! 1027::mpz %> 3

!-1027::mpz %> 3

3

-3

!+>>

Quotient of division by 2^n

Rounding towards +infinity

! 1027::mpz +>> 3

!-1027::mpz +>> 3

129

-128

!+%>

Remainder of division by 2^n

Rounding towards +infinity

! 1027::mpz +%> 3

!-1027::mpz +%> 3

-5

-3

!->>

Quotient of division by 2^n

Rounding towards -infinity

! 1027::mpz ->> 3

!-1027::mpz ->> 3

128

-129

!-%>

Remainder of division by 2^n

Rounding towards -infinity

! 1027::mpz -%> 3

!-1027::mpz -%> 3

3

5

>>? Divisible by 2^n (1) !64::mpz >>? 3 !true
  1. See also the function divisible_2exp().
.. function:: tdiv_qr(n, d)

    Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
    rounding towards 0.


.. function:: cdiv_qr(n, d)

    Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
    rounding towards +infinity (ceil).


.. function:: fdiv_qr(n, d)

    Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
    rounding towards -infinity (floor).



.. function:: divisible(n, d)
              divisible_2exp(n, b)

    Return `!true` if *n* is exactly divisible by *d*, or in the case of
    `!divisible_2exp()` by :math:`2^b`.

    :math:`n` is divisible by :math:`d` if there exists an integer :math:`q`
    satisfying :math:`n = q \cdot d`.  Unlike the other division operators,
    *d*\=0 is accepted and following the rule it can be seen that only 0
    is considered divisible by 0.

    The operators `!/?` and `!>>?` are aliases for `!divisible()` and
    `!divisible_2exp()`.


.. function:: congruent(n, c, d)
              congruent_2exp(n, c, b)

    Return `!true` if *n* is congruent to *c* modulo *d*, or in the case of
    `!congruent_2exp()` modulo :math:`2^b`.

    :math:`n` is congruent to :math:`c \mod d` if there exists an integer
    :math:`q` satisfying :math:`n = c + q \cdot d`. Unlike the other division
    operators, *d*\=0 is accepted and following the rule it can be seen that n
    and c are considered congruent mod 0 only when exactly equal.


Exponentiation Functions

.. function:: pow(base, exp)

    Return *base* raised to *exp*.

    *exp* is defined as `!int8` but must fit into a `!long` as defined on the
    server.

    The function is an alias for the `!^` operator.


.. function:: powm(base, exp, mod)

    Return (*base* raised to *exp*) modulo *mod*.

    Negative *exp* is supported if an inverse *base^-1* mod *mod* exists (see
    `invert()` function). If an inverse doesn't exist then a divide by zero is
    raised.


Root Extraction Functions

.. function:: root(op, n)

    Return the truncated integer part of the *n*\th root of *op*.

    *n* is defined as `!int8` but must fit into a `!long` as defined on the
    server.

.. function:: rootrem(op, n)

    Return a tuple of 2 elements with the truncated integer part of the *n*\th
    root of *op* and the remainder (*i.e.* *op* - *root* ^ *n*).

    .. code-block:: psql

        =# select * from rootrem(28, 3);
         root | rem
        ------+-----
         3    | 1

    .. note:: The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.

.. function:: sqrt(op)

    Return the truncated integer part of the square root of *op*.

.. function:: sqrtrem(op)

    Return a tuple of 2 elements with the truncated integer part of the square
    root of *op* and the remainder (*i.e.* *op* - *root* \* *root*).

    .. code-block:: psql

        =# select * from sqrtrem(83);
         root | rem
        ------+-----
         9    | 2

.. function:: perfect_power(op)

    Return `!true` if *op* is a perfect power, *i.e.*, if there exist
    integers :math:`a` and :math:`b`, with :math:`b>1`, such that *op* equals
    :math:`a^b`.

    Under this definition both 0 and 1 are considered to be perfect powers.
    Negative values of op are accepted, but of course can only be odd perfect
    powers.

.. function:: perfect_square(op)

    Return `!true` if *op* is a perfect square, *i.e.*, if the square root of
    *op* is an integer. Under this definition both 0 and 1 are considered to
    be perfect squares.


Number Theoretic Functions

.. function:: probab_prime(n, reps)

    Determine whether *n* is prime. Return 2 if *n* is definitely prime,
    return 1 if *n* is probably prime (without being certain), or return 0 if
    *n* is definitely composite.

    This function does some trial divisions, then some `Miller-Rabin
    probabilistic primality tests`__. *reps* controls how many such tests are
    done, 5 to 10 is a reasonable number, more will reduce the chances of a
    composite being returned as "probably prime".

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller%E2%80%93Rabin_primality_test

    Miller-Rabin and similar tests can be more properly called compositeness
    tests. Numbers which fail are known to be composite but those which pass
    might be prime or might be composite. Only a few composites pass, hence
    those which pass are considered probably prime.

    .. seealso:: `Primality test
        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primality_test>`__


.. function:: nextprime(op)

    Return the next prime greater than *op*.

    This function uses a probabilistic algorithm to identify primes. For
    practical purposes it's adequate, the chance of a composite passing will
    be extremely small.


.. function:: gcd(a, b)

    Return the greatest common divisor of *a* and *b*. The result is
    always positive even if one or both input operands are negative.


.. function:: gcdext(a, b)

    Return the greatest common divisor *g* of *a* and *b*, and in addition
    coefficients *s* and *t* satisfying :math:`a \cdot s + b \cdot t = g`. The
    value *g* is always positive, even if one or both of *a* and *b* are
    negative. The values *s* and *t* are chosen such that :math:`|s| \le |b|
    \hspace{0em}` and :math:`|t| \le |a| \hspace{0em}`.

    ..
        The \hspace{} are there to avoid the vim rest syntax highlighter to
        get crazy.

    .. code-block:: psql

        =# select * from  gcdext(6, 15);
         g | s  | t
        ---+----+---
         3 | -2 | 1


.. function:: lcm(a, b)

    Return the least common multiple of *a* and *b*. The value returned is
    always positive, irrespective of the signs of *a* and *b*. The return
    will be zero if either *a* or *b* is zero.


.. function:: fac(op)

    Return *op*\!, the factorial of *op*.


.. function:: bin(n, k)

    Return the `binomial coefficient`__ :math:`{n \choose k}`.
    Negative values of *n* are supported, using the identity
    :math:`{-n \choose k} = (-1)^k {n+k-1 \choose k}`.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_coefficient


.. function:: fib(n)
              fib2(n)

    `!fib()` returns :math:`F_n`, the *n*\th `Fibonacci number`__.
    `!fib2()` returns :math:`F_n` and :math:`F_{n-1}`.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number

    These functions are designed for calculating isolated Fibonacci numbers.
    When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start with `!fib2()`
    and iterate the defining :math:`F_{n+1}=F_n+F_{n-1}` or similar.


.. function:: lucnum(n)
              lucnum2(n)

    `!lucnum()` returns :math:`L_n`, the *n*\th `Lucas number`__.
    `!lucnum2()` returns :math:`L_n` and :math:`L_{n-1}`.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucas_number

    These functions are designed for calculating isolated Lucas numbers.
    When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start with `!lucnum2()`
    and iterate the defining :math:`L_{n+1}=L_n+L_{n-1}` or similar.

    The Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers are related sequences, so it's
    never necessary to call both `!fib2()` and `!lucnum2()`. The formulas for
    going from Fibonacci to Lucas can be found in `Lucas Numbers Algorithm`__,
    the reverse is straightforward too.

    .. __: http://gmplib.org/manual/Lucas-Numbers-Algorithm.html


.. function:: invert(a, b)

    Return the inverse of *a* modulo *b* if exists. The return value *r*
    will satisfy :math:`0 \le r \lt b`. If an inverse doesn't exist return
    `!NULL`.


.. function:: jacobi(a, b)

    Calculate the `Jacobi symbol`__ :math:`(\frac{a}{b})`. This is defined
    only for *b* odd.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacobi_symbol


.. function:: legendre(a, p)

    Calculate the `Legendre symbol`__ :math:`(\frac{a}{p})`.  This is defined
    only for *p* an odd positive prime, and for such *p* it's identical to the
    Jacobi symbol.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legendre_symbol


.. function:: kronecker(a, b)

    Calculate the Jacobi symbol :math:`(\frac{a}{b})` with the Kronecker
    extension :math:`(\frac{a}{2})=(\frac{2}{a})` when *a* odd, or
    :math:`(\frac{a}{2})=0` when *a* even.

    .. seealso::
        Section 1.4.2, Henri Cohen, "A Course in Computational Algebraic
        Number Theory", Graduate Texts in Mathematics number 138,
        Springer-Verlag, 1993. http://www.math.u-bordeaux.fr/~cohen/


Logical and Bit Manipulation Functions

These functions behave as if twos complement arithmetic were used (although sign-magnitude is the actual implementation). The least significant bit is number 0.

Logical Operators
Operator Description Example Return
!& Bitwise and !'0b10001'::mpz & '0b01001'::mpz !'0b1'::mpz
!| Bitwise inclusive-or !'0b10001'::mpz | '0b01001'::mpz !'0b11001'::mpz
!# Bitwise exclusive-or !'0b10001'::mpz # '0b01001'::mpz !'0b11000'::mpz
.. function:: com(op)

    Return the ones' complement of *op*.


.. function:: popcount(op)

    If op>=0, return the population count of *op*, which is the number of 1
    bits in the binary representation. If op<0, the number of 1s is infinite,
    and the return value is the largest possible, represented by
    `gmp_max_bitcnt()`.


.. function:: hamdist(op1, op2)

    If *op1* and *op2* are both >=0 or both <0, return the `Hamming
    distance`__
    between the two operands, which is the number of bit positions where *op1*
    and *op2* have different bit values. If one operand is >=0 and the other <0
    then the number of bits different is infinite, and the return value is the
    largest possible, represented by `gmp_max_bitcnt()`.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamming_distance


.. function:: scan0(op, starting_bit)
              scan1(op, starting_bit)

    Scan *op*, starting from bit *starting_bit*, towards more significant
    bits, until the first 0 or 1 bit (respectively) is found. Return the index
    of the found bit.

    If the bit at *starting_bit* is already what's sought, then *starting_bit*
    is returned.

    If there's no bit found, then the largest possible bit count is returned
    (represented by `gmp_max_bitcnt()`). This will happen in `!scan0()` past
    the end of a negative number, or `!scan1()` past the end of a nonnegative
    number.


.. function:: setbit(op, bit_index)

    Return *op* with bit *bit_index* set.

.. function:: clrbit(op, bit_index)

    Return *op* with bit *bit_index* cleared.

.. function:: combit(op, bit_index)

    Return *op* with bit *bit_index* complemented.

    .. note:: The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.

.. function:: tstbit(op, bit_index)

    Test bit *bit_index* in *op* and return 0 or 1 accordingly.


Random number functions

Sequences of pseudo-random numbers are generated using an internal per-session variable, which holds an algorithm selection and a current state. Such a variable must be initialized by a call to one of the !randinit*() functions, and can be seeded with the randseed() function.

.. function:: randinit()

    Initialize the session random state with a default algorithm. This will be
    a compromise between speed and randomness, and is recommended for
    applications with no special requirements. Currently this is
    `randinit_mt()`.


.. function:: randinit_mt()

    Initialize the session random state for a `Mersenne Twister`__ algorithm.
    This algorithm is fast and has good randomness properties.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mersenne_twister

    .. note:: The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.


.. function:: randinit_lc_2exp(a, c, e)

    Initialize the session random state with a `linear congruential`__
    algorithm :math:`X = (a \cdot X + c) \mod 2^e`.

    .. __: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_congruential_generator

    The low bits of *X* in this algorithm are not very random. The least
    significant bit will have a period no more than 2, and the second bit no
    more than 4, etc. For this reason only the high half of each *X* is
    actually used.

    When a random number of more than :math:`e/2` bits is to be generated,
    multiple iterations of the recurrence are used and the results
    concatenated.


.. function:: randinit_lc_2exp_size(s)

    Initialize the session random state for a linear congruential algorithm as
    per `randinit_lc_2exp()`. *a*, *c* and *e* are selected from a table,
    chosen so that size bits (or more) of each *X* will be used, ie.
    :math:`e/2 \ge s`.

    The function fails if *s* is bigger than the table data provides. The
    maximum size currently supported is 128.


.. function:: randseed(seed)

    Set an initial seed value into session random state.

    The size of a seed determines how many different sequences of random
    numbers is possible to generate. The "quality" of the seed is the
    randomness of a given seed compared to the previous seed used, and this
    affects the randomness of separate number sequences. The method for
    choosing a seed is critical if the generated numbers are to be used for
    important applications, such as generating cryptographic keys.

    Traditionally the system time has been used to seed, but care needs to be
    taken with this. If an application seeds often and the resolution of the
    system clock is low, then the same sequence of numbers might be repeated.
    Also, the system time is quite easy to guess, so if unpredictability is
    required then it should definitely not be the only source for the seed
    value. On some systems there's a special device ``/dev/random`` which
    provides random data better suited for use as a seed.


.. function:: urandomb(n)

    Generate a uniformly distributed random integer in the range :math:`0` to
    :math:`2^n-1`, inclusive.

    The session state must be initialized by calling one of the `!randinit()`
    functions before invoking this function.


.. function:: urandomm(n)

    Generate a uniformly distributed random integer in the range 0 to
    *n*\-1, inclusive.

    The session state must be initialized by calling one of the `!randinit()`
    functions before invoking this function.


.. function:: rrandomb(n)

    Generate a random integer with long strings of zeros and ones in the
    binary representation. Useful for testing functions and algorithms, since
    this kind of random numbers have proven to be more likely to trigger
    corner-case bugs. The random number will be in the range :math:`0` to
    :math:`2^n-1`, inclusive.

    The session state must be initialized by calling one of the `!randinit()`
    functions before invoking this function.


Aggregation functions

.. function:: sum(z)

    Return the sum of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: prod(z)

    Return the product of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: max(z)

    Return the maximum value of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: min(z)

    Return the minimum value of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: bit_and(z)

    Return the bitwise and of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: bit_or(z)

    Return the bitwise inclusive-or of *z* across all input values.

.. function:: bit_xor(z)

    Return the bitwise exclusive-or of *z* across all input values.