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flyswatter.cfg adding information about usign the FT4232H board. Feb 6, 2014
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README

See the top level README for information on where to find the
schematic and programmers reference manual for the ARM processor
on the raspberry pi.  Also find information on how to load and run
these programs.

This example is an alternate bootloader basically.  The ARM11 on the
Raspberry Pi has a jtag based debug port for software development.
Problem is the pins are not by default connected to the outside world
so you cant for example reset the ARM as that would disconnect the
jtag.  (there is no SRST available)

On the older rev1 boards, all but one signal is available on P1,
unfortunately that other signal is on the S5 connector.  I was able to
solder a wire onto it.

The rev2 boards, no soldering is required.

I use jumper wires like these to get from my jtag board/device to the
raspberry pi.

http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9140
http://www.sparkfun.com/products/9385

The signal name, gpio pins, schematic name, connector pin
and direction shown here.  When looking into the holes of an arm
20 pin (female) jtag connector.  There should be a key or bit of plastic
almost two holes wide on one side.  With that key pointed up, looking
into the holes pin one is the top left corner.  The arm jtag names
on the left of this list start with pin 1 and go along that side of
the connector in order.  For ground use any one of the holes on the
other side except the lower left, pin 2, that is not a ground.

See this page as an example
http://www.amontec.com/jtag_pinout.shtml


rev1 raspberry pi boards (older boards)

1 ARM_VREF                   P1-1
2 ARM_TRST      22 GPIO_GEN3 P1-15  IN (22 ALT4)
3 ARM_TDI     4/26 GPIO_GCLK P1-7   IN ( 4 ALT5)
4 ARM_TMS    12/27 CAM_GPIO  S5-11 OUT (27 ALT4)
5 ARM_TCK    13/25 GPIO_GEN6 P1-22 OUT (25 ALT4)
7 no connect
9 ARM_TDO     5/24 GPIO_GEN5 P1-18 OUT (24 ALT4)

4-20 ARM_GND                    P1-25


rev2 raspberry pi boards

1 ARM_VREF                   P1-1
2 ARM_TRST      22 GPIO_GEN3 P1-15  IN (22 ALT4)
3 ARM_TDI     4/26 GPIO_GCLK P1-7   IN ( 4 ALT5)
4 ARM_TMS    12/27 CAM_GPIO  P1-13 OUT (27 ALT4)
5 ARM_TCK    13/25 GPIO_GEN6 P1-22 OUT (25 ALT4)
7 no connect
9 ARM_TDO     5/24 GPIO_GEN5 P1-18 OUT (24 ALT4)

4-20 ARM_GND                    P1-25


In parenthesis is the gpio pin used and the alternate function setting
needed in the GPIO to connect it to the edge of the BCM chip.

armjtag.c does just that, first it disables pull up or pull down on the
gpio pins in question.  Then it configures the alternate gpio functions
for the pins in question.

armjtag.c also configures gpio16 to drive the OK led and sets up a
timer so that after configuring it blinks an led every 2 seconds.

(copy armjtag.bin to kernel.img on the raspbery pi sd card and power
the raspberry pi, verify it is right from the blinking led).

fastblink.c is a test program that we will load using jtag, but first.

To do all of this you are going to need a jtag debugger card/board/box.
Not long ago that meant forking out a few grand, or making something
with a parallel port (what is a parallel port you ask?).   The one I
use day in and day out is this one:

http://www.amontec.com/jtagkey-tiny.shtml

Problem is the shipping to the USA makes it not worth it unless you buy
a bunch or have your boss buy it.  If you are not in the USA then it
might be cheaper shipping and definitely worth it...

The jtagkey-tiny and a great number of other usb to jtag boards or
microcontroller or fpga or cpld boards that include a usb jtag programmer
on the board use some flavor of the FT2232 from Future Technology
Devices International (FTDI).  http://www.ftdichip.com.  They have
an array of usb to _blank_ devices.  Usb to serial, usb to spi, i2c,
jtag, parallel.  Some devices have what they call Multi-Protocol
Synchronous Serial Engine (MPSSE).  What we care about here is it can
be used to accelerate jtag beyond simple bit banging.  Openocd has long
had FT2232 support.  Dont do what I did and confuse the FT232 with the
FT2232, the FT232 does not have an MPSSE so you have to do just slow
bit banging (which I talk about below).

The FT2232 has two of these MPSSEs so you can use the part as two
uarts or one uart one jtag, two jtags, one uart one spi, etc.  They also
have an FT4232, which has four uarts, but DOES NOT have four MPSSEs it
still only has two MPSSEs.  So you can have three uarts and one jtag
and so on.

Some boards have come and gone, unfortunately for example the
signalyzer-lite is no longer available.

You can get the flyswatter though which is yet another ft2232 board.

http://www.tincantools.com/JTAG/Flyswatter.html

And the jtag side is basically the same as the amontec.  The flyswatter
breaks out the uart, but we cant use it with the raspberry pi because
it is at RS232 levels and if you were to connect it to the raspberry
pi you will likely damage one board or the other or both.

If you look around the openocd source code or schematics, etc the MPSSE
deals with TCK, TMS, TDI, and TDO.  TRST, SRST if there are supported
by the other pins which are generic bit bang GPIO in this mode.  The
various board vendors naturally have other features beyond that.

So I dont know how long these have been out but I was very happy to see
that FTDI now has a couple of development boards one for the FT2232H
and one for the FT4232H.  These boards are under $30, and I have
successfully used one with the Raspberry Pi, the bonus is you can use
both the JTAG and Serial, one board and you get both.  Even better the
FT2232H/FT4232H supports jtag up to 30Mbps, where the prior incarnations
of the FT2232 went to 6Mbps, so in theory we can compete speed-wise with
the multi-thousand dollar boxes.  Even at 6Mbps you can easily push the
I/O or other speed limits in your target, so just because your jtag
debugger device might go fast, doesnt mean you can always run that
fast you either need to ask the (target) chip vendor or do some
experiments.

If you go to

http://www.mouser.com

And search for either of these part numbers

895-FT2232HMINIMOD
895-FT4232HMINIMOD

You will find the FTDI development boards I am talking about.  You can
also get them from other distributors around the world.  I assume anyone
that sells FTDI parts might also sell FTDI boards.



FT4232H Mini Module:

Searching for this you get the datasheet for the development board.  You
dont necessarily NEED this as I will show you what to connect, but it
is probably a good idea for your own education to look at it, it is a
fairly short document.  And may help to see the pinout which you will
need to get right if you want to hook this up.

http://www.ftdichip.com/Documents/DataSheets/Modules/DS_FT4232H_Mini_Module.pdf

Googling for the FT4232H part you get its webpage

http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/ICs/FT4232H.htm

Where you can download the datasheet.  The part we care about there is
the pinout per function AD0 is TCK for JTAG, AD1 is TDI and so on.

I spent some time fiddling with the FT_PROG utility thinking I was going
to need to reconfigure something.  I also messed with the ftdi_eeprom
and eeprom tools from libftdi, to find that they work just fine on
linux (not obvious at all on HOW to get them working) but we dont need
them.  When openocd fires up and grabs the A bus for jtag linux
gives up on that being a uart.

[1275978.391156] ftdi_sio ttyUSB1: FTDI USB Serial Device converter now disconnected from ttyUSB1
[1275978.391164] ftdi_sio 3-2:1.0: device disconnected

They wisely used the same pin for uart and jtag output (D0) and the
same pin for input (D1) so for the period of time that the FTDI part
is thinking it is a uart, you wont hurt the jtag on your board (in
theory, I should have already had a disclaimer that you are on
your own, I wont be responsible for you melting down your board
trying this stuff).

This part is such that you can power the usb from the usb host side
or the device side, and if you dont do anything the part isnt powered
so as it says in the develompent board datasheet.

Connect VBUS to VCC (CN3, pin 1 to CN3, pin 3)

Likewise I connected CN2 pin 2 to CN2 pin 11 to Connect V3V3 to VIO,
depending on the power needed you may need to connect more of the
3.3 volt pins to more of the VCCIO pins.  I have been successful with
just this one connection.

Now when you plug in the mini module it will show up in lsusb and
demesg will show the four uarts.

Uart first I have already walked through other usb to uart
connections.  The P1 connector on the raspberry pi is the 2 rows of 13
pins along one side starting at a corner.  The outer corner pin is
numbered pin 2.  The pin next to it as you move toward the micro-b
usb connector that powers the raspberry pi, is pin 1.  The pins along
the outer edge of the board (other than pin 1) are the even numbered
the row inside that are the odd numbered.  So the outside starting
at the corner heading toward the yellow rca (composite video) are
pins 2,4,6,8,10, up to pin 26.  The inner pins are 1,3,5,7,11 up to
25.  This is a very common numbering scheme for dual row headers.  You
just have to figure out which one is pin one and you are set from there.
If you look on the back of the board, the sd card side of the raspberry
pi, the hole where the pin is soldered on is square, the rest are
round.  This is very common with these kind of through hole connectors
to make the hole for pin 1 square and/or different than the others (just
FYI).

So the raspberry pi side of the uart/serial connection is

 2 outer corner
 4
 6 GND
 8 TX out
10 RX in

The FT4232H Mini Module side, we want to use BD0 and BD1 which are pins
CN2-18 and CN2-17.  With the board oriented so the pins are pointing
away from you and the mini-b usb connector on the top and pointed
left.  The top connector is CN3 and bottom CN2.  The lower right pin
is 25, the one to the left of that 23 and so on.  You can count backward
from there to find CN2-17

17 BD1 RXD in
19
21
23
25 lower right corner

So P1-8 TX out on the rasberry pi connects to CN2-17 RXD on the FT4232H
board.

The pin next to that on the FT board (or above it if still holding it
in that orientation is pin 18

18 BD0 TXD out
20
22
24
26 inside and next to lower right

That connects to P1-10 on the raspberry pi.

The lower left corner of the FT board is CN2-1 which we are using to
power VCCIO.  Above that toward the usb connector is CN2-2 a ground
you can connect that to ground on the raspberry pi which is P1-6

If all you want is uart, there you go.  To add jtag then:

JTAG: (FT board left, Raspi right)
  TCK:   CN2-7   P1-22
  TDI:   CN2-10  P1-7
  TDO:   CN2-9   P1-18
  TMS:   CN2-12  P1-13
UART:
  TXRX:  CN2-18  P1-10
  RXTX:  CN2-17  P1-8
Ground:
  GND:   CN2-2   P1-6
Raspi to Raspi:
  TRST:  P1-1    P1-15
FTDI board to FTDI board:
  VCCIO: CN2-1   CN2-11
  VCC:   CN3-1   CN3-3

That is for a rev2 Raspberry Pi board, for a rev1 use S5-11 instead of
P1-13 (some soldering or cable hacking required).

Lastly when you connect your FT4232H board to your computer dmesg will
show the four uarts (/dev/ttyUSBx) the first one on the list will go
away when we take it over to do jtag, the second one listed will be
the one you use for uart/serial communications to the raspberry pi.

FT2232H Mini Module:

The FT2232H Mini Module is very similar to the FT4232H above. The only
difference relevant in our case is the location of the the UART pins,
instead giving us the connections:

JTAG: (FT board left, Raspi right)
  TCK:   CN2-7   P1-22
  TDI:   CN2-10  P1-7
  TDO:   CN2-9   P1-18
  TMS:   CN2-12  P1-13
UART:
  TXRX:  CN3-26  P1-10
  RXTX:  CN3-25  P1-8
Ground:
  GND:   CN2-2   P1-6
Raspi to Raspi:
  TRST:  P1-1    P1-15
FTDI board to FTDI board:
  VCCIO: CN2-1   CN2-11
  VCC:   CN3-1   CN3-3


Other alternatives, it doesnt take too much work to use the ftdi drivers
to bit bang a board like this.

http://www.sparkfun.com/products/718

Openocd has drivers for this you just make the (software) connectin
between the bits that openocd wants you to drive or read and the gpio
pins on the ftdi part.  This is pretty slow but functions as a sub
$20 jtag.

For a little more money you can approach the more expensive solutions
speed and perhaps features so long as you can declare your work
educational.  The educational version of the jlink is around $60, and
it is pretty speedy.  The non-educational version is I assume the same
functionality if not the same, but more expensive.

http://microcontrollershop.com/product_info.php?cPath=154_171&products_id=3647

The title of the page says ARM7/ARM9, the description includes ARM11, I
have used it on an ARM11 (not the raspi yet).

And the jlink works with openocd and is fast with openocd.  You can also
use their proprietary software.

The software you want is

http://openocd.sourceforge.net/

Now, I normally download the source, and build specifically with ftdi
drivers enabled.  And this is on linux.  You might have to do it that
way, I want to remember that you may have to pick some things at compile
time.  Try it out see what happens, maybe one size fits all, maybe on
windows it is different than linux.

Openocd (sources) come with a number of configuration files, just like
my boot code and linker script I like to carry my openocd configs with
the project.  I have provided the jtag debugger files for the ones
mentioned and then a file for the ARM itself.  If you are running with
the amontec you would run:

openocd -f amontec.cfg -f raspi.cfg

and should see something like this:

Open On-Chip Debugger 0.5.0 (2011-09-20-21:55)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
    http://openocd.berlios.de/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
1000 kHz
adapter_nsrst_delay: 400
jtag_ntrst_delay: 400
none separate
raspi.arm
Info : clock speed 1000 kHz
Info : JTAG tap: raspi.arm tap/device found: 0x07b7617f (mfg: 0x0bf, part: 0x7b76, ver: 0x0)
Info : found ARM1176
Info : raspi.arm: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 2 watchpoints

This is a client server type of thing, the openocd program itself is
the server.  I recommend you are in the directory that contains the
programs you want to run when you start openocd.  The reason is the
binaries are in the same path, you dont have to type a full path
to a file.  One client is gdb, which you are welcome to use, I have
no use for it, can barely spell it.  I prefer to telnet into openocd
and use openocd's native commands (This is where the path thing comes
in).

With the openocd server running in one terminal/window I telnet to it
in another:

telnet localhost 4444

and see:

Trying ::1...
Trying 127.0.0.1...
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
Open On-Chip Debugger
>

Be careful here, as the first command you type is halt and if you are
root on a normal command line prompt (linux) and type halt it will
halt your computer.  So dont just type blindly, wait and watch.

So the first thing you type is halt

> halt
target state: halted
target halted in ARM state due to debug-request, current mode: Supervisor
cpsr: 0x800001d3 pc: 0x0000007c

your cpsr and pc might be different.

Since the armjtag program already set up the led you can manually
change the gpio pin now:

> mww 0x2020001C 0x10000

and

> mww 0x20200028 0x10000

The led should turn on or off depending on which command.  Note these
are the GPSET0 and GPCLR0 registers, the 0x10000 is bit 16 which is
GPIO16 the led register.

mww means memory write word.  mdw is a memory read word

> mdw 0
0x00000000: eaffffff

Type the help command to see more fun stuff.  Be careful, this is a
powerful interface you dont want to just poke around at any memory
address unless you know what it is...

Also note that for example if you have left the instruction cache on
on the ARM.  The ARM cache has some instruction in it probably.  The
jtag debug port goes directly to memory not through the cache so
if you halt the ARM and load another program and run it you can get
a mixture of new isntructions and old instructions from the prior
program which is probably going to result in a crash.  When messing
with the mmu or cache, just power cycle the board to try again.

This directory also contains the fastblink example which is just
blinker03 basically.  I only built the .elf not the .bin because with
openocd I rarely use .bin files.  If you use the .elf then openocd can
read that file and put the programs in the proper place.  For example
if you wanted to run from 0x20000 instead of 0 and built your binary
to run from that memory address just load the elf and start execution
at that address.  What the elf saves you most of the time is typing
in an address which you already had in the linker script.

So

> halt
> load_image fastblink.elf
216 bytes written at address 0x00000000
downloaded 216 bytes in 0.063038s (3.346 KiB/s)
> resume 0

What I tend to do is have yet another terminal open.  One for openocd
server, one for the telnet client and one to re-build the binary (.elf)
file.  I type the above three commands (with the appropriate binary
file name and resume with the starting address).  Then I can quickly

up, up, up, enter
up, up, up, enter
up, up, up, enter

In the telnet window to re-load and re-run a new build of the program.

If you ctrl-c in the openocd window it kills both openocd and the telnet
session.  If you power cycle the board without doing this the two windows
freak out.  I have had them work once the board is back up and jtag is
available, but I prefer to stop openocd and start fresh anyway.

There are other .cfg files in this directory for the different jtag
interface boards I have used (signalizer-lite, jlink, ft4232h, amontec).
Use the same command line above but replace the appropriate config file

openocd -f amontec.cfg -f raspi.cfg

replace amontec.cfg with one of the other files or make your own.




Update: amontec is history their website is gone.  But you can
get j-link (or clone) boxes from asia on ebay for around $11, so far
I have tried them with ARM JTAG and ARM SWD.  Very pleased so far.
YMMV.

As of this writing the signalyer at least the $50 one is long gone
that company still makes something but it is pricy.  flyswatter?
I think they are still out there.  Bus pirate, still out there, I
think I got a $18 one on ebay and I think it works fine for jtag
as well, the serial port i didnt get figured out, some soldering
required.  (the j-link, no soldering required).  And the FT2232H
and 4232 mini modules should still be out there too, have to use
a number of jumpers to get VDDIO and such powered.