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Latest version

rust_ledger

command line accounting tool for Linux and macOS

Summary

  • Spiritual port of ledger
  • Uses double-entry accounting paradigm
  • Supports all ISO 4217 currency formats
  • Uses yaml files as data store
  • Includes a tool to convert csv files to yaml format
  • Small feature set based on typical personal finance use cases

Contributing

  • See CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md for guidelines
  • PRs, issues and feature requests are welcome and encouraged

Install

From Cargo

cargo install rust_ledger

Binaries for Linux and macOS

We distribute binaries for the above platforms. See releases for a complete list.

Build from Source

Alternatively, clone this repo and do the following:

  • If Rust is not installed on your machine, follow the instructions on how to do that here: https://www.rust-lang.org/tools/install
  • run cargo build --release to compile the binary
  • copy the /target/release/rust_ledger binary to /usr/bin or wherever your system maintains application binaries

Test

  • cargo test

Usage

rust_ledger --help will provide a menu of all available commands and optional arguments.

rust_ledger <version>
Eric Crowder <eric@ebcrowder.dev>

USAGE:
    rust_ledger [SUBCOMMAND]

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information

SUBCOMMANDS:
    account     account module
    balance     balance module
    budget      budget module
    csv         csv module
    help        Prints this message or the help of the given subcommand(s)
    register    register module

rust_ledger yaml file format

In lieu of the plain text ledger file format, this project uses a defined yaml schema. yaml has a relatively simple syntax and is able to represent useful data types, such as lists, quite easily.

An example ledger yaml file can be found at examples/example.yaml.

Further, parsing yaml via is trivial thanks to tools such as serde. This allowed me to skip writing a parser to support the ledger plain text file format and focus on implementing functionality. Additionally, modern formatting tools, such as prettier can be leveraged to maintain yaml files with ease as they are agnostic to the schema of the underlying file.

The ledger tool has been rewritten in many programming languages. Almost all of these ports utilize the original ledger plain text format. Above all else, I view rust_ledger as an experiment in using a different ledger file format while maintaining the core feature set of the original tool.

rust_ledger utilizes yaml files in the following format:

currency: USD

accounts:
  - account:
    amount:

transactions:
  - date:
    amount:
    description:
    account:
    offset_account:
  - date:
    description:
    transactions:
      - amount:
        account:
      - amount:
        account:

The ledger format schema is purposely lightweight. The only requirements are as follows:

  • the currency field should be a ISO 4217 currency code.
  • the account field should be expressed in the following format: account_classification:account_name.
  • the amount field should be a number. It can include up to two (2) decimal points.
  • the date field should be in the following format: YYYY-MM-DD.

Transactions

Transactions can be expressed in two different ways. One is a "simplified" format for transactions that only impact two accounts:

- date: 2020-01-01
  amount: 200
  offset_account: liability:cc_amex
  description: grocery store
  account: expense:expense_general

The sign (debit / credit) associated with the offset_account value is the opposite of the sign of the value contained in amount field.

In the above example transaction, since expense_general was debited by 200, the cc_amex account will be credited by the same amount.

Transactions that involve more than two accounts are expressed in the following manner:

- date: 2020-01-01
  description: grocery store
  transactions:
    - amount: 20
      account: expense:general
    - amount: 180
      account: expense:grocery
    - amount: -200
      account: liability:cc_amex

Transactions that only involve two accounts can also be expressed in the above format.

Specifying the rust_ledger file path via environment variable

Optionally, the ledger file path can be set via the environment variable RUST_LEDGER_FILE in lieu of specifying whenever the program is invoked. If -f is provided with a file path, the file provided will be used instead of any RUST_LEDGER_FILE set.

API

account

Lists all accounts contained within the ledger file.

rust_ledger-account
account module

USAGE:
    rust_ledger account [OPTIONS] --filename <filename>

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -f, --filename <filename>    location of ledger file

example output:

 Account 
----------------------------
 asset:cash_checking 
 asset:cash_savings 
 liability:cc_amex 
 equity:equity 
 expense:grocery 
 expense:general 
 expense:mortgage 
 income:general 

balance

Lists account balances to date.

rust_ledger-balance
balance module

USAGE:
    rust_ledger balance [OPTIONS] --filename <filename>

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -f, --filename <filename>    location of ledger file

example output:

 Account             | Balance 
---------------------+------------
 asset               |  
 asset:cash_checking | $-400.00 
  asset:cash_savings | $1,000.00 
 liability           |  
   liability:cc_amex | $-455.00 
 equity              |  
       equity:equity | $-3,500.00 
 expense             |  
     expense:grocery | $635.00 
     expense:general | $1,020.00 
    expense:mortgage | $2,000.00 
 income              |  
      income:general | $-300.00 
                     |  
 check               | 0 

register

Lists general ledger transactions to date. The output can be filtered by any field via optional parameter.

rust_ledger-register
register module

USAGE:
    rust_ledger register [OPTIONS] --filename <filename>

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -f, --filename <filename>    location of ledger file
    -g, --group <group>          group register output by value
    -o, --option <option>        filter output by optional value
  • register report can be optionally rolled up via the group parameter (yearly, monthly or daily)
  • if a group parameter is specified, a option parameter must also be specified to indicate the value to group by. For example, this value could be 2020 if using a yearly group parameter or 12 (December) if using a monthly group parameter.
  • register report can also be optionally filtered by option parameter. All matching Description, Account or Amount values will be included in the output.

example output:

 Date       | Description        | Account             | Amount 
------------+--------------------+---------------------+------------
 2019-12-31 | weekly groceries   | expense:grocery     | $455.00 
 2019-12-31 | weekly groceries   | liability:cc_amex   | $-455.00 
 2020-01-01 | mortage            | expense:mortgage    | $2,000.00 
 2020-01-01 | mortage            | asset:cash_checking | $-2,000.00 
 2020-01-01 | stuff              | expense:general     | $1,000.00 
 2020-01-01 | stuff              | asset:cash_savings  | $-1,000.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store      | expense:general     | $20.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store      | expense:grocery     | $180.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store      | asset:cash_checking | $-200.00 
 2020-01-01 | donut sale to dale | asset:cash_checking | $300.00 
 2020-01-01 | donut sale to dale | income:general      | $-300.00 

example output for rust_ledger -f RUST_LEDGER_FILE -o grocery:

 Date       | Description      | Account             | Amount 
------------+------------------+---------------------+----------
 2019-12-31 | weekly groceries | expense:grocery     | $455.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store    | expense:general     | $20.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store    | expense:grocery     | $180.00 
 2020-01-01 | grocery store    | asset:cash_checking | -$200.00

example output for rust_ledger -f RUST_LEDGER_FILE -g yearly -o 2020:

Date / Account      | Total
---------------------+------------
2020                |  
expense:grocery     | $180.00
expense:mortgage    | $2,000.00
asset:cash_checking | -$1,900.00
income:general      | -$300.00
asset:cash_savings  | -$1,000.00
expense:general     | $1,020.00

budget

Outputs a report of budgeted and actual values for income statement accounts.

rust_ledger-budget 
budget module

USAGE:
    rust_ledger budget --filename <filename> --group <group> --option <option>

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -f, --filename <filename>    location of ledger file
    -g, --group <group>          group budget output by value
    -o, --option <option>        filter output by optional value
  • budget report is rolled up via the group parameter (yearly, monthly or daily)
  • report is filtered by option parameter. For example, this value could be 2020 if using a yearly group parameter or 12 (December) if using a monthly group parameter.

Here is an example output of rust_ledger budget -f RUST_LEDGER_FILE -g yearly -o 2020:

 Date / Account   | Budget     | Actual    | Delta 
------------------+------------+-----------+------------
 2020             |            |           |  
 income:general   | $0.00      | -$300.00  | $300.00 
 expense:mortgage | $24,000.00 | $2,000.00 | $22,000.00 
 expense:grocery  | $6,000.00  | $180.00   | $5,820.00 
 expense:general  | $0.00      | $1,020.00 | -$1,020.00 

csv

rust_ledger-csv
csv module

USAGE:
    rust_ledger csv [OPTIONS] --csv <csv> --filename <filename>

FLAGS:
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -i, --invert     invert amount for each csv transaction
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -c, --csv <csv>              path of csv file
    -f, --filename <filename>    location of ledger file
    -o, --offset <offset>        offset account for each csv transaction

Converts csv files to yaml format expected by rust_ledger:

  • should be invoked with -f and -c arguments. These include the rust_ledger file location (unless specified via environment variable), csv file location and account offset, respectively.
  • the -i flag can be used to invert the sign of the "amount" column values that are being imported. This is useful when working with CSV files that represent debits as negative values and credits as positive values.
  • the account offset (-o argument) would be the offset transaction that the csv transactions should be posted against.
  • the csv tool will look for existing transactions that have matching description fields and will populate the appropriate expense/income accounts for any matches. Non-matches will use a default of expense:general or income:general, which is determined based on the sign of the amount field (or debit or credit) contained in the transaction.

The CSV tool can import columns with the following case-sensitive names:

  • date
  • description
  • name
  • amount
  • debit
  • credit

Often, banks will provide exports in one of two formats: 1) amounts are represented in one column whereby debits and credits are identified by negative and positive (or vice-versa) amounts or 2) separate debit and credit columns. The CSV import tool can handle both scenarios.

CSV file(s) should have date, description and name columns as they are required fields.

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Rust implementation of ledger, the command line accounting tool.

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