Editing Methods for Amadis in Translation

Elisa Beshero-Bondar edited this page Aug 25, 2015 · 1 revision

Editorial declaration:

This digital critical edition seeks to reproduce the reading experience of the 1547 Amadís de Gaula (Sevilla: Cromberger) with which Robert Southey worked for his translation in order to facilitate comparisons. The following modifications have been made to the 1547 print edition.

  1. We employ the letters i/e/u/y/j as in modern Spanish: i/e/u express vowel sounds and y/j express consonants. For example, “reyna” in the 1547 has been transcribed as “reina” and “cauallero” as “cavallero.” The letter y has vocalic value only at the ends of words, as in “muy” and “rey,” and as the conjunction meaning and.

  2. We preserve most of the consonant use of the 1547, including the alternation of b/v and m/n before b/p as well as the absence or presence of h. We normalize the use of qu.

  3. Doubled consonants, bb, cc, ff, etc. are resolved as single except where they have phonetic value.

  4. The single r and not rr has been transcribed after consonants: “honrra” becomes “honra.” In some cases the rr has been supplied for r for phonetic reasons: “tiera” becomes “tierra.”

  5. We resolve the few abbreviations in the 1547 without alerting the reader. For example, q with tilde has been resolved as “que” and “scta” as “sancta.” Any ambiguities in abbreviations are tagged.

  6. We transcribe the tironian sign as y.

  7. We use accentuation according to the norms of modern Spanish in order to guide the reader’s pronunciation and to disambiguate words.

  8. We use capital and lower-case letters as in modern Spanish in order to clearly mark proper names and the boundaries of sentence-like groups.

  9. We normalize the union and separation of words according to modern Spanish usage.

  10. We preserve the punctuation of the 1547 in order to facilitate clause-by-clause comparisons with Southey’s translation. We preserve the 1547’s clause-like units (the space between successive punctuation marks) even though we recognize significant differences from modern usage. The 1547 uses [. : /] and infrequent [?] as punctuation, and while sentence-like groups end with a period, the period [.] is also used within sentence-like groups to introduce dialogue. The punctuation marks [:] and [/] appear to freely alternate. We reproduce [. : /] as they appear in the 1547 without modernization. We have not added modern [¿?] to mark questions. We do not mark dialogue with em dash; rather, for this digital edition, dialogue, including questions, has been coded in the milestone element. We do not preserve the // that indicates line breaks in the middle of words. Our goal in these punctuation decisions is to render structural elements of the text at the sentence and clause level as Southey would have confronted them in order to elucidate whether the 1547 structure and punctuation influenced Southey in his own construction of sentences and clauses, which we observe differs from standard English use. Rare instances of the calderón sign have been interpreted as indicating a new paragraph.

  11. Obvious printer errors have been tagged with the sic element. Corrections are provided based on Juan Manuel Cacho Blecua’s critical edition (Madrid: Cátedra, 1999), which takes into consideration multiple sixteenth-century editions of Amadís de Gaula including the Sevilla 1526 on which the Sevilla 1547 is based.

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