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gen_tests Clean up test vectors Nov 29, 2015
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.gitignore Foundations of circuit Nov 27, 2015
LICENSE Added MIT license Nov 29, 2015
Makefile Move test.cpp to src/. Nov 29, 2015 Update Nov 1, 2016
get-libsnark Foundations of circuit Nov 27, 2015

This simple SNARK application was made in response to a lightning-dev forum post, where AJ Towns suggested using SNARKs to implement a variant of the lightning protocol. The exact application doesn't matter too much, but in the thread there was an initial attempt at benchmarking, which seemed to suggest ridiculous numbers, like 100+MB for a proof about a single hash. So, this project was made to set the record straight about what performance could be expected.

This is a SNARK implementation using libsnark for the following:

ZkPoK{ (R1, R2): H1 = sha256(R1) and H2 = sha256(R2) and R1 = R2 ^ X }

Read: given H1, H2, and X, prove you know R1 and R2 such that R1 is the preimage of H1, R2 is the preimage of H2, and R1 is R2 xor X.


on my computer (Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770S CPU @ 3.10GHz):

  • key generation time: 11.6551s
  • proof generation time: 3.0884s
  • verification time: 0.0262s
  • proof size: 2294 bits
  • proving key size: 102284136 bits
  • verifying key size: 4586 bits
  • R1CS constraints: 56101 (mostly sha256-related)


./get-libsnark && make && ./test


  • src/gadget.hpp exposes the gadget, which is an abstraction of related constraint and witness behavior in a circuit. This gadget uses other gadgets, creates its own constraints, and exposes an interface for building input maps.

  • src/snark.hpp exposes a loose wrapper around the constraint system and key generation used by test.cpp to construct proofs and verify them as necessary.

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