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Emmanuel Blondel edited this page Jun 11, 2019 · 55 revisions

geometa – Facilities to write and read OGC/ISO geographic metadata in R

The geometa R package offers tools for managing ISO/OGC geographic metadata, including ISO 19115, 19110, and 19119 through the ISO 19139 XML format. This also extends to the Geographic Markup Language (GML – ISO 19136) used for describing geographic data. The main features of geometa include:

  • a R object-oriented model for OGC/ISO geographic metadata classes covering ISO 19115, 19110, 19119 and 19136 standards
  • Capacity to write ISO 19139 geographic metadata (XML format encoding)
  • Capacity to read ISO 19139 geographic metadata (XML format decoding)
  • Capacity to validate ISO 19139 geographic metadata documents produced with geometa, including a ISO/OGC validator (based on ISO 19139 schemas), and an INSPIRE metadata validator (interacting with the INSPIRE online metadata validator)
  • Capacity to convert metadata objects from/to other metadata languages of interest such as NetCDF-CF (with ncdf4 package) and EML (with EML/emld packages)

The use of geometa in combination with publication tools such as ows4R and geosapi fosters the use of R software to ease the management and publication of metadata documents and related datasets in web catalogues, and then allows to move forward with a real R implementation of spatial data management plans based on FAIR (Findable, Accessible Interoperable and Reusable) principles. Orchestration tools of such spatial data management plans are under active development in the geoflow project.


If you wish to sponsor geometa, do not hesitate to contact me

Many thanks to the following organizations that have provided fundings for strenghtening the geometa package:


Table of contents

1. Overview
2. Package status
3. Credits
4. User guide
   4.1 Installation
   4.2 Write metadata (encoding)
      4.2.1 List of metadata classes
      4.2.2 Write ISO 19139 XML from geometa
        ├ Methodology to write metadata with geometa
        └ Write multi-lingual metadata
      4.2.3 Validate ISO 19139 XML from geometa
        ├ ISO 19139 compliance
        └ INSPIRE compliance
   4.3 Read metadata (decoding)
   4.4 Convert metadata (mapping)
5. Issue reporting

1. Overview and vision


Until now, equivalent tools were existing for other programming languages (e.g. Java, Python) but not in R. However, R is still one of the preferred languages of the data management community. The increasing amount of data and metadata to produce requires tools to easily manage metadata description, from its production to its publication on catalogues.

geometa intends to provide facilities to write and read OGC/ISO geographic metadata in R, covering various ISO metadata standards and its XML format (ISO 191139): ISO 19115 (dataset metadata), ISO 19119 (service metadata), ISO 19110 (Feature Catalogue) but also ISO 19136 (GML - Geographic Markup Language).

Metadata produced with geometa can then be published in catalogues such as Geonetwork, e.g. through its API with package geonapi or through standard OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) protocol using package ows4R.

2. Development status


The package is under active developmennt on Github and regular releases are done on CRAN.

The present focus of geometa is on the following activities:

  • support of multi-lingual metadata
  • provide facilities to validate metadata sheets according to INSPIRE directive & ISO profile schemas
  • completeness of ISO 19115:2003, 19115-2 and 19139:2015, and related standards (ISO 19119, ISO 19110)
  • increase R native support of ISO 19136 (GML) in geometa
  • provide adapters with other metadata formats such as EML and NetCDF-CF

3. Credits


(c) 2017, Emmanuel Blondel

Package distributed under MIT license.

If you use geometa, i would be very grateful if you can add a citation in your published work. By citing geometa, beyond acknowledging the work, you contribute to make it more visible and guarantee its growing and sustainability. geometa can be cited with its DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1184892

4. User guide


4.1 How to install geometa in R

To install geometa from CRAN

install.packages("geometa")

To install geometa from Github

Install devtools package:

install.packages("devtools")

Once the devtools package loaded, you can use the install_github to install geometa. By default, package will be installed from master which is the current version in development (likely to be unstable).

require("devtools")
install_github("eblondel/geometa")

4.2 Metadata encoding

4.2.1 List of metadata classes

geometa suggests a simple object-oriented model where the R user can create objects from the ISO/OGC metadata standards.

The geometa project references all ISO/OGC metadata classes in its inventory. You can check if a particular class is implemented in geometa by checking this inventory (columns geometa_class / in_geometa)

A summary of ISO/OGC standard classes coverage is computed and updated each time new classes will be added to geometa. The perspective is naturally to reach 100% coverage of the standards implemented by geometa. The following table presents the current metadata standards coverage of geometa:

Standard Title Namespace Coverage Supported Missing
ISO/TC211 19110:2005 Geographic Information - Methodology for feature cataloguing GFC ISO/TC211 19110:2005 17 0
ISO/TC211 19115-1:2003 Geographic Information - Metadata GMD ISO/TC211 19115-1:2003 132 0
ISO/TC211 19115-2:2009 Geographic Information - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data GMI ISO/TC211 19115-2:2009 40 0
ISO/TC211 19119:2005 Geographic Information - Service Metadata SRV ISO/TC211 19119:2005 7 12
ISO/TC211 19139:2007 Geographic Metadata XML Schema GMX ISO/TC211 19139:2007 5 61
ISO/TS 19103:2005 Geographic Common extensible markup language GCO ISO/TS 19103:2005 22 0
GML 3.2.1 (ISO 19136) Geographic Markup Language GML GML 3.2.1 (ISO 19136) 62 107
GML 3.2.1 Coverage (OGC GMLCOV) OGC GML Coverage Implementation Schema GMLCOV GML 3.2.1 Coverage (OGC GMLCOV) 1 0
GML 3.3 Referenceable Grid (OGC GML) OGC GML Referenceable Grid GMLRGRID GML 3.3 Referenceable Grid (OGC GML) 5 0
4.2.2 Write ISO 19139 XML metadata documents
Methodology how to write metadata with geometa

All ISO element classes provided by geometa extend an abstract class named ISOAbstractObject that comes with a simple encode() method to convert the object into its XML form (specified by the ISO 19139 standard).

For example, a simple ISOGeographicBoundingBox element will be converted as below:

bbox <- ISOGeographicBoundingBox$new(minx = -180, miny = -90, maxx = 180, maxy = 90)
bbox_xml <- bbox$encode()

Hence, with the encode(), you can check that each metadata element you want to add is correctly encoded as XML, before adding the final metadata XML to your favorite metadata catalogue.

The below example provides a complete ISOMetadata creation and its encoding to XML.

#Create an ISO metadata and encode it as XML
md = ISOMetadata$new()
md$setFileIdentifier("my-metadata-identifier")
md$setParentIdentifier("my-parent-metadata-identifier")
md$setCharacterSet("utf8")
md$setLanguage("eng")
md$setDateStamp(ISOdate(2015, 1, 1, 1))
md$setMetadataStandardName("ISO 19115:2003/19139")
md$setMetadataStandardVersion("1.0")
md$setDataSetURI("my-dataset-identifier")

#add 3 contacts
for(i in 1:3){
    rp <- ISOResponsibleParty$new()
    rp$setIndividualName(paste0("someone",i))
    rp$setOrganisationName("somewhere")
    rp$setPositionName(paste0("someposition",i))
    rp$setRole("pointOfContact")
    contact <- ISOContact$new()
    phone <- ISOTelephone$new()
    phone$setVoice(paste0("myphonenumber",i))
    phone$setFacsimile(paste0("myfacsimile",i))
    contact$setPhone(phone)
    address <- ISOAddress$new()
    address$setDeliveryPoint("theaddress")
    address$setCity("thecity")
    address$setPostalCode("111")
    address$setCountry("France")
    address$setEmail("someone@theorg.org")
    contact$setAddress(address)
    res <- ISOOnlineResource$new()
    res$setLinkage("http://somelink")
    res$setName("someresourcename")
    contact$setOnlineResource(res)
    rp$setContactInfo(contact)
    md$addContact(rp)
}

#VectorSpatialRepresentation
vsr <- ISOVectorSpatialRepresentation$new()
vsr$setTopologyLevel("geometryOnly")
geomObject <- ISOGeometricObjects$new()
geomObject$setGeometricObjectType("surface")
geomObject$setGeometricObjectCount(5L)
vsr$setGeometricObjects(geomObject)
md$addSpatialRepresentationInfo(vsr)

#ReferenceSystem
rs <- ISOReferenceSystem$new()
rsId <- ISOReferenceIdentifier$new(code = "4326", codeSpace = "EPSG")
rs$setReferenceSystemIdentifier(rsId)
md$setReferenceSystemInfo(rs)

#data identification
ident <- ISODataIdentification$new()
ident$setAbstract("abstract")
ident$setPurpose("purpose")
ident$addCredit("credit1")
ident$addCredit("credit2")
ident$addCredit("credit3")
ident$addStatus("completed")
ident$setLanguage("eng")
ident$setCharacterSet("utf8")
ident$addTopicCategory("biota")
ident$addTopicCategory("oceans")

#adding a point of contact
rp <- ISOResponsibleParty$new()
rp$setIndividualName("someone")
rp$setOrganisationName("somewhere")
rp$setPositionName("someposition")
rp$setRole("pointOfContact")
contact <- ISOContact$new()
phone <- ISOTelephone$new()
phone$setVoice("myphonenumber")
phone$setFacsimile("myfacsimile")
contact$setPhone(phone)
address <- ISOAddress$new()
address$setDeliveryPoint("theaddress")
address$setCity("thecity")
address$setPostalCode("111")
address$setCountry("France")
address$setEmail("someone@theorg.org")
contact$setAddress(address)
res <- ISOOnlineResource$new()
res$setLinkage("http://somelink")
res$setName("somename")
contact$setOnlineResource(res)
rp$setContactInfo(contact)
ident$addPointOfContact(rp)

#citation
ct <- ISOCitation$new()
ct$setTitle("sometitle")
d <- ISODate$new()
d$setDate(ISOdate(2015, 1, 1, 1))
d$setDateType("publication")
ct$addDate(d)
ct$setEdition("1.0")
ct$setEditionDate(as.Date(ISOdate(2015, 1, 1, 1)))
ct$setIdentifier(ISOMetaIdentifier$new(code = "identifier"))
ct$setPresentationForm("mapDigital")
ct$setCitedResponsibleParty(rp)
ident$setCitation(ct)

#graphic overview
go1 <- ISOBrowseGraphic$new(
   fileName = "http://wwww.somefile.org/png1",
   fileDescription = "Map Overview 1",
   fileType = "image/png"
)
go2 <- ISOBrowseGraphic$new(
   fileName = "http://www.somefile.org/png2",
   fileDescription = "Map Overview 2",
   fileType = "image/png"
)
ident$addGraphicOverview(go1)
ident$addGraphicOverview(go2)

#maintenance information
mi <- ISOMaintenanceInformation$new()
mi$setMaintenanceFrequency("daily")
ident$setResourceMaintenance(mi)

#adding legal constraints
lc <- ISOLegalConstraints$new()
lc$addUseLimitation("limitation1")
lc$addUseLimitation("limitation2")
lc$addUseLimitation("limitation3")
lc$addAccessConstraint("copyright")
lc$addAccessConstraint("license")
lc$addUseConstraint("copyright")
lc$addUseConstraint("license")
ident$addResourceConstraints(lc)

#adding security constraints
sc <- ISOSecurityConstraints$new()
sc$setClassification("secret")
sc$setUserNote("ultra secret")
sc$setClassificationSystem("no classification in particular")
sc$setHandlingDescription("description")
ident$addResourceConstraints(sc)

#adding extent
extent <- ISOExtent$new()
bbox <- ISOGeographicBoundingBox$new(minx = -180, miny = -90, maxx = 180, maxy = 90)
extent$setGeographicElement(bbox)
ident$setExtent(extent)

#add keywords
kwds <- ISOKeywords$new()
kwds$addKeyword("keyword1")
kwds$addKeyword("keyword2")
kwds$setKeywordType("theme")
th <- ISOCitation$new()
th$setTitle("General")
th$addDate(d)
kwds$setThesaurusName(th)
ident$addKeywords(kwds)

#supplementalInformation
ident$setSupplementalInformation("some additional information")

#spatial representation type
ident$addSpatialRepresentationType("vector")

md$setIdentificationInfo(ident)

#Distribution
distrib <- ISODistribution$new()
dto <- ISODigitalTransferOptions$new()
for(i in 1:3){
   or <- ISOOnlineResource$new()
   or$setLinkage(paste0("http://somelink",i))
   or$setName(paste0("name",i))
   or$setDescription(paste0("description",i))
   or$setProtocol("WWW:LINK-1.0-http--link")
   dto$addOnlineResource(or)
}
distrib$setDigitalTransferOptions(dto)
md$setDistributionInfo(distrib)

#create dataQuality object with a 'dataset' scope
dq <- ISODataQuality$new()
scope <- ISOScope$new()
scope$setLevel("dataset")
dq$setScope(scope)
  
#add data quality reports...
  
#add a report the data quality
dc <- ISODomainConsistency$new()
result <- ISOConformanceResult$new()
spec <- ISOCitation$new()
spec$setTitle("Data Quality check")
spec$setAlternateTitle("This is is some data quality check report")
d <- ISODate$new()
d$setDate(ISOdate(2015, 1, 1, 1))
d$setDateType("publication")
spec$addDate(d)
result$setSpecification(spec)
result$setExplanation("some explanation about the conformance")
result$setPass(TRUE)
dc$addResult(result)
dq$addReport(dc)
  
#add INSPIRE reports?
#INSPIRE - interoperability of spatial data sets and services
dc_inspire1 <- ISODomainConsistency$new()
cr_inspire1 <- ISOConformanceResult$new()
cr_inspire_spec1 <- ISOCitation$new()
cr_inspire_spec1$setTitle("Commission Regulation (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability of spatial data sets and services")
cr_inspire1$setExplanation("See the referenced specification")
cr_inspire_date1 <- ISODate$new()
cr_inspire_date1$setDate(ISOdate(2010,12,8))
cr_inspire_date1$setDateType("publication")
cr_inspire_spec1$addDate(cr_inspire_date1)
cr_inspire1$setSpecification(cr_inspire_spec1)
cr_inspire1$setPass(TRUE)
dc_inspire1$addResult(cr_inspire1)
dq$addReport(dc_inspire1)
#INSPIRE - metadata
dc_inspire2 <- ISODomainConsistency$new()
cr_inspire2 <- ISOConformanceResult$new()
cr_inspire_spec2 <- ISOCitation$new()
cr_inspire_spec2$setTitle("COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 1205/2008 of 3 December 2008 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards metadata")
cr_inspire2$setExplanation("See the referenced specification")
cr_inspire_date2 <- ISODate$new()
cr_inspire_date2$setDate(ISOdate(2008,12,4))
cr_inspire_date2$setDateType("publication")
cr_inspire_spec2$addDate(cr_inspire_date2)
cr_inspire2$setSpecification(cr_inspire_spec2)
cr_inspire2$setPass(TRUE)
dc_inspire2$addResult(cr_inspire2)
dq$addReport(dc_inspire2)
  
#add lineage (more example of lineages in ISOLineage documentation)
lineage <- ISOLineage$new()
lineage$setStatement("statement")
dq$setLineage(lineage)

md$setDataQualityInfo(dq)

#XML representation of the ISOMetadata
xml <- md$encode()

For further examples, please use the standard R documentation available within the package, e.g. ?ISOMetadata

Write multi-lingual metadata

To write a multi-lingual metadata document, the pre-requisite is to define the locales that this metadata document will handle, and the default locale of the document. Let's assume that we want to have a metadata document written with all six UN official languages (English, French, Spanish, Chinese, Rusian, Arabic). The main metadata object will be writen as follows:

  md <- ISOMetadata$new()
  eng <- ISOLocale$new()
  eng$setId("EN")
  eng$setLanguage("EN")
  eng$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(eng)
  fr <- ISOLocale$new()
  fr$setId("FR")
  fr$setLanguage("FR")
  fr$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(fr)
  esp <- ISOLocale$new()
  esp$setLanguage("ES")
  esp$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(esp)
  chi <- ISOLocale$new()
  chi$setLanguage("ZH")
  chi$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(chi)
  ru <- ISOLocale$new()
  ru$setLanguage("RU")
  ru$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(ru)
  ar <- ISOLocale$new()
  ar$setLanguage("AR")
  ar$setCharacterSet("utf8")
  md$addLocale(ar)

Then, in order to add multi-language properties, for each R associated to a metadata property subject to multi-language, a locales parameter allows to define the language translations for this property. For a given class, to know if a property is subject to multi-language, you should check the R documentation of this class. The locales should be a list named with the language codes specified as locales in the metadata document (here EN, FR, ES, AR, ZH, and RU``). Here below is an example where we want to specify locales for the abstract of a metadata data identification block:

ident <- ISODataIdentification$new()
  ident$setAbstract(
    "abstract",
    locales = list(
      EN = "abstract",
      FR = "résumé",
      ES = "resumen",
      AR = "ملخص",
      RU = "резюме",
      ZH = "摘要"
    ))
4.2.3 Validate ISO 19139 XML metadata documents
ISO 19139 compliance

By default the function $encode() available in all geometa classes will perform validation against ISO 19139 XML schemas (parameter validate set to TRUE by default), as non-blocking in case the metadata produced is not valid. It is possible to make the non-validity blocking by specifying the parameter strict as TRUE).

The validity status will be reported as footer (as XML comments) of the XML Metadata document produced:

<gmd:MD_Metadata xmlns:gco="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gco" xmlns:gfc="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gfc" xmlns:gmd="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd" xmlns:gmi="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmi" xmlns:gmx="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmx" xmlns:gts="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gts" xmlns:srv="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/srv" xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2" xmlns:gmlcov="http://www.opengis.net/gmlcov/1.0" xmlns:gmlrgrid="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.3/rgrid" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">
  <gmd:characterSet>
    <gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/ML_gmxCodelists.xml#MD_CharacterSetCode" codeListValue="utf8">utf8</gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode>
  </gmd:characterSet>
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
    <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MX_ScopeCode" codeListValue="dataset" codeSpace="ISOTC211/19115">dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  <!--Metadata Creation date/time: 2019-01-17T19:02:42-->
  <!--ISO 19139 XML generated by geometa R package - Version 0.5-->
  <!--ISO 19139 XML compliance: NO-->
  <!--geometa R package information:	Contact: Emmanuel Blondel emmanuel.blondel1@gmail.com	URL: https://github.com/eblondel/geometa/wiki	BugReports: https://github.com/eblondel/geometa/issues-->
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
INSPIRE compliance

The INSPIRE metadata validator can be used in several ways:

  • directly using the validator and get the validation report
inspireValidator = INSPIREMetadataValidator$new()
inspireValidator$getValidationReport(md) #with md being the metadata object
  • using shortcuts, with the parameter inspire (TRUE/FALSE) available through methods $encode() and $save()
md$encode(inspire = TRUE)
md$save("mymetadata.xml", inspire = TRUE)

These two methods will add further XML comments targeting the INSPIRE validation as footer of the ISO 19139 XML. An example on an empty object ISOMetadata$new() would look like that:

<gmd:MD_Metadata xmlns:gco="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gco" xmlns:gfc="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gfc" xmlns:gmd="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd" xmlns:gmi="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmi" xmlns:gmx="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmx" xmlns:gts="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gts" xmlns:srv="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/srv" xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.2" xmlns:gmlcov="http://www.opengis.net/gmlcov/1.0" xmlns:gmlrgrid="http://www.opengis.net/gml/3.3/rgrid" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">
  <gmd:characterSet>
    <gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/ML_gmxCodelists.xml#MD_CharacterSetCode" codeListValue="utf8">utf8</gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode>
  </gmd:characterSet>
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
    <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeList="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/resources/Codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MX_ScopeCode" codeListValue="dataset" codeSpace="ISOTC211/19115">dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  <!--Metadata Creation date/time: 2019-01-17T19:02:42-->
  <!--ISO 19139 XML generated by geometa R package - Version 0.5-->
  <!--ISO 19139 XML compliance: NO-->
  <!--INSPIRE compliance: NO-->
  <!--INSPIRE completeness: 5.56%-->
  <!--INSPIRE Report: http://inspire-geoportal.ec.europa.eu/resources/sandbox/INSPIRE-14472bd2-1a82-11e9-9b61-52540023a883_20190117-190239/datasets/1/resourceReport-->
  <!--geometa R package information:	Contact: Emmanuel Blondel emmanuel.blondel1@gmail.com	URL: https://github.com/eblondel/geometa/wiki	BugReports: https://github.com/eblondel/geometa/issues-->
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Note: Although the INSPIRE report URL is useful for checking the INSPIRE compliance details after producing the metadata document, please note the this the INSPIRE geoportal administrators regularly purge the repository (which is a "sandbox") where your metadata has been tested. With time, the report URL will lead to a "Not found" page with the message: The page you were looking for appears to have been moved, deleted or does not exist in the INSPIRE Geoportal.).

4.3 Read ISO 19139 metadata documents (decoding)

With geometa, it is very easy to read an metadata XML into a ISOMetadata object, as illustrated in the below example:

require(XML)
xmlfile <- system.file("extdata", "metadata.xml", package = "geometa")

#read XML file
xml <- xmlParse(xmlfile)

#read XML as ISOMetadata object!
md <- ISOMetadata$new(xml = xml)
#... and then modify whatever you want in md with geometa ISO API!

4.3 Convert metadata objects from/to other metadata languages (mapping)

geometa offers the capacity to convert objects from/to other metadata languages. The object is to provide a generic interoperable mechanism to convert R metadata objects from one metadata standard to another.

At now the focus was given on the mapping between ISO/OGC metadata (modeled in R by geometa) covering core business metadata elements with two widely used metadata formats which are:

  • NetCDF-CF Conventions - Climate and Forecast conventions - (modeled in R with ncdf4)
  • EML (Ecological Metadata Language) (modeled in R with EML and emld)

The formats for which conversion is enabled can be listed with the R function getMappingFormats(pretty = TRUE). The column from indicates if conversion from the specified format can be operated (reading), and the column to indicates if conversion to the specified format can be operated (writing).

The conversion between one metadata object to another is done with the generic method as in this way:

target_object <- as(source_object, "format")

For example, to convert an object md of class ISOMetadata from geometa to an object of class emld (using EML and emld), we will run the below R code:

my_emld <- as(md, "emld")

Reversely, we can create an ISOMetadata object from an emld object:

my_geometa_object <- as(my_emld, "ISOMetadata")

For a NetCDF-CF object in package ncdf4, we can create an object of class ISOMetadata:

nc <- ncdf4::nc_open("http://gsics.eumetsat.int/thredds/dodsC/DemoLevel1B25Km/W_XX-EUMETSAT-Darmstadt,SURFACE+SATELLITE,METOPA+ASCAT_C_EUMP_20131231231800_37368_eps_o_125_l1.nc")
test_ogc_cf <- as(nc, "ISOMetadata")

5. Issue reporting


Issues can be reported at https://github.com/eblondel/geometa/issues

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