Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

Semantic Aspect Meta Model (SAMM)



The Semantic Aspect Meta Model (SAMM) allows the creation of models to describe the semantics of digital twins by defining their domain specific aspects. In this context, digital twins are the digital representation of a physical or virtual object that bundles and combines several aspects. SAMM provides a set of predefined objects (as depicted below) that allow a domain expert to define Aspect Models and complement a digital twin with a semantic foundation.

SAMM was previously known as BAMM (BAMM Aspect Meta Model).

This repository contains the detailed documentation of the SAMM specification as an Antora module, as well the formal specification parts as SHACL shapes.

The source files (AsciiDoc) are built using Maven and Antora, which generates the documentation as HTML files.

Semantic Aspect Meta Model (SAMM) Elements

Example Usage

SAMM standardizes the creation of domain specific Aspect Models and also makes them reusable. Therefore, the created aspects can be used in several different digital twins.

Imagine an automated guided vehicle (AGV) and its digital representation. The AGV digital twin could encompass aspects, such as its movement position or battery state. However, both aspects could also be part of other digital twins. This modularization and reusability simplifies the creation of highly complex use cases.

SAMM Versioning

SAMM and its SDKs evolve over time. While measures are taken to do this in a non-breaking manner, some changes cannot be carried out without the need to define a new, breaking version.

SAMM uses semantic versioning (major.minor.micro) with the following rules:

  • The major part designates major changes in the meta model and can imply breaking changes
  • A non-breaking change in the meta model or a change to the model elements that are part of SAMM (samm-c and samm-e) increases the minor part
  • Changes to existing features or bugfixes increase the minor part

Getting help

Are you having trouble with Semantic Aspect Meta Model? We want to help!

Build and contribute

Build the documentation

To build the Antora documentation locally, clone the repository and run

./mvnw generate-resources -pl documentation -Pantora

inside the repository folder.

Navigate to build > site and open the index.html page in your web browser to see the result. Repeat the steps everytime you make any changes in the documentation and want to inspect the final outcome.

Build diagrams

Diagrams are kept in the diagrams folder in GraphViz .dot or PlantUML .pu format. To render them into .svg, run

./mvnw generate-sources -pl documentation -Prender-diagrams

In order to render the diagrams and the Antora documentation in one step, run

./mvnw generate-resources -pl documentation -Prender-diagrams,antora

Note that for GraphViz .dot files, you can include a line like the following to choose the layout engine to use: // PRAGMA LAYOUT-ENGINE: neato. Allowed values are circo, dot, neato, osage, twopi, and fdp. If left out, the default is dot.

Build the SAMM artifact

To build the Semantic Aspect Meta Model Java artifact, run

./mvnw clean install -pl esmf-samm-build-plugin
./mvnw clean package -pl esmf-semantic-aspect-meta-model

This will compile the code and run all tests. The resulting JAR file can be found under esmf-semantic-aspect-meta-model > target. Please be aware, that you need JDK 11 to run build and tests.

Before making a contribution, please take a look at the contribution guidelines. Please keep in mind to create an issue first before opening a pull request.