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;;; -*- Mode: LISP; Syntax: COMMON-LISP; Package: CL-USER; Base: 10 -*-

;;; Copyright (c) 2004-2010, Dr. Edmund Weitz. All rights reserved.

;;; Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
;;; modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
;;; are met:

;;; * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
;;; notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

;;; * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
;;; copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
;;; disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
;;; provided with the distribution.


(in-package :hunchentoot)

(eval-when (:load-toplevel :compile-toplevel :execute)
  (defun default-document-directory (&optional sub-directory)
    (asdf:system-relative-pathname :hunchentoot (format nil "www/~@[~A~]" sub-directory))))

(defclass acceptor ()
  ((port :initarg :port
         :reader acceptor-port
         :documentation "The port the acceptor is listening on. The
default is 80. Note that depending on your operating system you might
need special privileges to listen on port 80.")
   (address :initarg :address
            :reader acceptor-address
            :documentation "The address the acceptor is listening on.
If address is a string denoting an IP address, then the server only
receives connections for that address. This must be one of the
addresses associated with the machine and allowed values are host
names such as \"\" and address strings such as
\"\". If address is NIL, then the server will receive
connections to all IP addresses on the machine. This is the default.")
   (name :initarg :name
         :accessor acceptor-name
         :documentation "The optional name of the acceptor, a symbol.
This name can be utilized when defining \"easy handlers\" - see
DEFINE-EASY-HANDLER. The default name is an uninterned symbol as
returned by GENSYM.")
   (request-class :initarg :request-class
                  :accessor acceptor-request-class
                  :documentation "Determines which class of request
objects is created when a request comes in and should be \(a symbol
naming) a class which inherits from REQUEST. The default is the
symbol REQUEST.")
   (reply-class :initarg :reply-class
                :accessor acceptor-reply-class
                  :documentation "Determines which class of reply
objects is created when a request is served in and should be \(a
symbol naming) a class which inherits from REPLY. The default is the
symbol REPLY.")
   (taskmaster :initarg :taskmaster
               :reader acceptor-taskmaster
               :documentation "The taskmaster \(i.e. an instance of a
subclass of TASKMASTER) that is responsible for scheduling the work
for this acceptor. The default depends on the MP capabilities of the
underlying Lisp.")
   (output-chunking-p :initarg :output-chunking-p
                      :accessor acceptor-output-chunking-p
                      :documentation "A generalized boolean denoting
whether the acceptor may use chunked encoding for output, i.e. when
sending data to the client. The default is T and there's usually no
reason to change this to NIL.")
   (input-chunking-p :initarg :input-chunking-p
                     :accessor acceptor-input-chunking-p
                      :documentation "A generalized boolean denoting
whether the acceptor may use chunked encoding for input, i.e. when
accepting request bodies from the client. The default is T and
there's usually no reason to change this to NIL.")
   (persistent-connections-p :initarg :persistent-connections-p
                             :accessor acceptor-persistent-connections-p
                             :documentation "A generalized boolean
denoting whether the acceptor supports persistent connections, which
is the default for threaded acceptors. If this property is NIL,
Hunchentoot closes each incoming connection after having processed one
request. This is the default for non-threaded acceptors.")
   (read-timeout :initarg :read-timeout
                 :reader acceptor-read-timeout
                 :documentation "The read timeout of the acceptor,
specified in \(fractional) seconds. The precise semantics of this
parameter is determined by the underlying Lisp's implementation of
socket timeouts. NIL means no timeout.")
   (write-timeout :initarg :write-timeout
                  :reader acceptor-write-timeout
                  :documentation "The write timeout of the acceptor,
specified in \(fractional) seconds. The precise semantics of this
parameter is determined by the underlying Lisp's implementation of
socket timeouts. NIL means no timeout.")
   (process :accessor acceptor-process
            :documentation "The Lisp process which accepts incoming
requests. This is the process started by COMM:START-UP-SERVER and no
matter what kind of taskmaster you are using this will always be a new
process different from the one where START was called.")
   (listen-socket :initform nil
                  :accessor acceptor-listen-socket
                  :documentation "The socket listening for incoming
   (listen-backlog :initarg :listen-backlog
:reader acceptor-listen-backlog
:documentation "Number of pending connections
allowed in the listen socket before the kernel rejects
further incoming connections.")
   (acceptor-shutdown-p :initform t
                        :accessor acceptor-shutdown-p
                        :documentation "A flag that makes the acceptor
shutdown itself when set to something other than NIL.")
   (requests-in-progress :initform 0
                         :accessor accessor-requests-in-progress
                         :documentation "The number of
requests currently in progress.")
   (shutdown-queue :initform (make-condition-variable)
                   :accessor acceptor-shutdown-queue
                   :documentation "A condition variable
used with soft shutdown, signaled when all requests
have been processed.")
   (shutdown-lock :initform (make-lock "hunchentoot-acceptor-shutdown")
                  :accessor acceptor-shutdown-lock
                  :documentation "The lock protecting the shutdown-queue
condition variable and the requests-in-progress counter.")
   (access-log-destination :initarg :access-log-destination
                        :accessor acceptor-access-log-destination
                        :documentation "Destination of the access log
which contains one log entry per request handled in a format similar
to Apache's access.log. Can be set to a pathname or string
designating the log file, to a open output stream or to NIL to
suppress logging.")
   (message-log-destination :initarg :message-log-destination
                         :accessor acceptor-message-log-destination
                         :documentation "Destination of the server
error log which is used to log informational, warning and error
messages in a free-text format intended for human inspection. Can be
set to a pathname or string designating the log file, to a open output
stream or to NIL to suppress logging.")
   (error-template-directory :initarg :error-template-directory
                             :accessor acceptor-error-template-directory
                             :documentation "Directory pathname that
contains error message template files for server-generated error
messages. Files must be named <return-code>.html with <return-code>
representing the HTTP return code that the file applies to,
i.e. 404.html would be used as the content for a HTTP 404 Not found
   (document-root :initarg :document-root
                  :accessor acceptor-document-root
                  :documentation "Directory pathname that points to
files that are served by the acceptor if no more specific
acceptor-dispatch-request method handles the request."))
   :address nil
   :port 80
   :name (gensym)
   :request-class 'request
   :reply-class 'reply
   #-lispworks :listen-backlog #-lispworks 50
   :taskmaster (make-instance (cond (*supports-threads-p* 'one-thread-per-connection-taskmaster)
                                    (t 'single-threaded-taskmaster)))
   :output-chunking-p t
   :input-chunking-p t
   :persistent-connections-p t
   :read-timeout *default-connection-timeout*
   :write-timeout *default-connection-timeout*
   :access-log-destination *error-output*
   :message-log-destination *error-output*
   :document-root (load-time-value (default-document-directory))
   :error-template-directory (load-time-value (default-document-directory "errors/")))
  (:documentation "To create a Hunchentoot webserver, you make an
instance of this class and use the generic function START to start it
\(and STOP to stop it). Use the :PORT initarg if you don't want to
listen on the default http port 80. There are other initargs most of
which you probably won't need very often. They are explained in
detail in the docstrings of the slot definitions for this class.

Unless you are in a Lisp without MP capabilities, you can have several
active instances of ACCEPTOR \(listening on different ports) at the
same time."))

(defmethod print-object ((acceptor acceptor) stream)
  (print-unreadable-object (acceptor stream :type t)
    (format stream "\(host ~A, port ~A)"
            (or (acceptor-address acceptor) "*") (acceptor-port acceptor))))

(defgeneric start (acceptor)
  (:documentation "Starts the ACCEPTOR so that it begins accepting
connections. Returns the acceptor."))

(defgeneric stop (acceptor &key soft)
  (:documentation "Stops the ACCEPTOR so that it no longer accepts
requests. If SOFT is true, and there are any requests in progress,
wait until all requests are fully processed, but meanwhile do
not accept new requests."))

(defgeneric start-listening (acceptor)
  (:documentation "Sets up a listen socket for the given ACCEPTOR and
enables it to listen to incoming connections. This function is called
from the thread that starts the acceptor initially and may return
errors resulting from the listening operation \(like 'address in use'
or similar)."))

(defgeneric accept-connections (acceptor)
  (:documentation "In a loop, accepts a connection and hands it over
to the acceptor's taskmaster for processing using
HANDLE-INCOMING-CONNECTION. On LispWorks, this function returns
immediately, on other Lisps it retusn only once the acceptor has been

(defgeneric initialize-connection-stream (acceptor stream)
 (:documentation "Can be used to modify the stream which is used to
communicate between client and server before the request is read. The
default method of ACCEPTOR does nothing, but see for example the
method defined for SSL-ACCEPTOR. All methods of this generic function
must return the stream to use."))

(defgeneric reset-connection-stream (acceptor stream)
  (:documentation "Resets the stream which is used to communicate
between client and server after one request has been served so that it
can be used to process the next request. This generic function is
called after a request has been processed and must return the

(defgeneric process-connection (acceptor socket)
  (:documentation "This function is called by the taskmaster when a
new client connection has been established. Its arguments are the
ACCEPTOR object and a LispWorks socket handle or a usocket socket
stream object in SOCKET. It reads the request headers, sets up the
request and reply objects, and hands over to PROCESS-REQUEST. This is
done in a loop until the stream has to be closed or until a connection
timeout occurs.

It is probably not a good idea to re-implement this method until you
really, really know what you're doing."))

(defgeneric handle-request (acceptor request)
  (:documentation "This function is called once the request has been
read and a REQUEST object has been created. Its job is to set up
standard error handling and request logging.

Might be a good place for around methods specialized for your subclass
of ACCEPTOR which bind or rebind special variables which can then be
accessed by your handlers."))

(defgeneric acceptor-dispatch-request (acceptor request)
  (:documentation "This function is called to actually dispatch the
request once the standard logging and error handling has been set up.
ACCEPTOR subclasses implement methods for this function in order to
perform their own request routing. If a method does not want to
handle the request, it is supposed to invoke CALL-NEXT-METHOD so that
the next ACCEPTOR in the inheritance chain gets a chance to handle the

(defgeneric acceptor-ssl-p (acceptor)
  (:documentation "Returns a true value if ACCEPTOR uses SSL
connections. The default is to unconditionally return NIL and
subclasses of ACCEPTOR must specialize this method to signal that
they're using secure connections - see the SSL-ACCEPTOR class."))

;; general implementation

(defmethod start ((acceptor acceptor))
  (setf (acceptor-shutdown-p acceptor) nil)
  (start-listening acceptor)
  (let ((taskmaster (acceptor-taskmaster acceptor)))
    (setf (taskmaster-acceptor taskmaster) acceptor)
    (execute-acceptor taskmaster))

(defmethod stop ((acceptor acceptor) &key soft)
  (setf (acceptor-shutdown-p acceptor) t)
  (shutdown (acceptor-taskmaster acceptor))
  (when soft
    (with-lock-held ((acceptor-shutdown-lock acceptor))
      (when (plusp (accessor-requests-in-progress acceptor))
        (condition-variable-wait (acceptor-shutdown-queue acceptor)
                                 (acceptor-shutdown-lock acceptor)))))
  (usocket:socket-close (acceptor-listen-socket acceptor))
  (setf (acceptor-listen-socket acceptor) nil)
  (mp:process-kill (acceptor-process acceptor))

(defmethod initialize-connection-stream ((acceptor acceptor) stream)
 ;; default method does nothing

(defmethod reset-connection-stream ((acceptor acceptor) stream)
  ;; turn chunking off at this point
  (cond ((typep stream 'chunked-stream)
         ;; flush the stream first and check if there's unread input
         ;; which would be an error
         (setf (chunked-stream-output-chunking-p stream) nil
               (chunked-stream-input-chunking-p stream) nil)
         ;; switch back to bare socket stream
         (chunked-stream-stream stream))
        (t stream)))

(defmethod process-connection :around ((*acceptor* acceptor) (socket t))
  ;; this around method is used for error handling
  ;; note that this method also binds *ACCEPTOR*
  (handler-bind ((error
                  ;; abort if there's an error which isn't caught inside
                  (lambda (cond)
                    (log-message* *lisp-errors-log-level*
                                  "Error while processing connection: ~A" cond)
                    (return-from process-connection)))
                  ;; log all warnings which aren't caught inside
                  (lambda (cond)
                    (log-message* *lisp-warnings-log-level*
                                  "Warning while processing connection: ~A" cond))))
    (with-mapped-conditions ()

(defun do-with-acceptor-request-count-incremented (*acceptor* function)
  (with-lock-held ((acceptor-shutdown-lock *acceptor*))
    (incf (accessor-requests-in-progress *acceptor*)))
       (funcall function)
    (with-lock-held ((acceptor-shutdown-lock *acceptor*))
      (decf (accessor-requests-in-progress *acceptor*))
      (when (acceptor-shutdown-p *acceptor*)
        (condition-variable-signal (acceptor-shutdown-queue *acceptor*))))))

(defmacro with-acceptor-request-count-incremented ((acceptor) &body body)
incremented by one. If the ACCEPTOR-SHUTDOWN-P returns true after
the BODY has been executed, the ACCEPTOR-SHUTDOWN-QUEUE condition
variable of the ACCEPTOR is signalled in order to finish shutdown
  `(do-with-acceptor-request-count-incremented ,acceptor (lambda () ,@body)))

(defmethod process-connection ((*acceptor* acceptor) (socket t))
  (let ((*hunchentoot-stream*
         (initialize-connection-stream *acceptor* (make-socket-stream socket *acceptor*))))
        ;; process requests until either the acceptor is shut down,
        ;; *CLOSE-HUNCHENTOOT-STREAM* has been set to T by the
        ;; handler, or the peer fails to send a request
          (let ((*close-hunchentoot-stream* t))
            (when (acceptor-shutdown-p *acceptor*)
            (multiple-value-bind (headers-in method url-string protocol)
                (get-request-data *hunchentoot-stream*)
              ;; check if there was a request at all
              (unless method
              ;; bind per-request special variables, then process the
              ;; request - note that *ACCEPTOR* was bound above already
              (let ((*reply* (make-instance (acceptor-reply-class *acceptor*)))
                    (*session* nil)
                    (transfer-encodings (cdr (assoc* :transfer-encoding headers-in))))
                (when transfer-encodings
                  (setq transfer-encodings
                        (split "\\s*,\\s*" transfer-encodings))
                  (when (member "chunked" transfer-encodings :test #'equalp)
                    (cond ((acceptor-input-chunking-p *acceptor*)
                           ;; turn chunking on before we read the request body
                           (setf *hunchentoot-stream* (make-chunked-stream *hunchentoot-stream*)
                                 (chunked-stream-input-chunking-p *hunchentoot-stream*) t))
                          (t (hunchentoot-error "Client tried to use ~
chunked encoding, but acceptor is configured to not use it.")))))
                (multiple-value-bind (remote-addr remote-port)
                    (get-peer-address-and-port socket)
                  (with-acceptor-request-count-incremented (*acceptor*)
                    (process-request (make-instance (acceptor-request-class *acceptor*)
                                                    :acceptor *acceptor*
                                                    :remote-addr remote-addr
                                                    :remote-port remote-port
                                                    :headers-in headers-in
                                                    :content-stream *hunchentoot-stream*
                                                    :method method
                                                    :uri url-string
                                                    :server-protocol protocol)))))
              (finish-output *hunchentoot-stream*)
              (setq *hunchentoot-stream* (reset-connection-stream *acceptor* *hunchentoot-stream*))
              (when *close-hunchentoot-stream*
      (when *hunchentoot-stream*
        ;; as we are at the end of the request here, we ignore all
        ;; errors that may occur while flushing and/or closing the
        ;; stream.
          (finish-output *hunchentoot-stream*))
          (close *hunchentoot-stream* :abort t))))))

(defmethod acceptor-ssl-p ((acceptor t))
  ;; the default is to always answer "no"

(defgeneric acceptor-log-access (acceptor &key return-code)
   "Function to call to log access to the acceptor. The RETURN-CODE,
CONTENT and CONTENT-LENGTH keyword arguments contain additional
information about the request to log. In addition, it can use the
standard request accessor functions that are available to handler
functions to find out more information about the request."))

(defmethod acceptor-log-access ((acceptor acceptor) &key return-code)
  "Default method for access logging. It logs the information to the
\(unless that value is NIL) in a format that can be parsed by most
Apache log analysis tools.)"

  (with-log-stream (stream (acceptor-access-log-destination acceptor) *access-log-lock*)
    (format stream "~:[-~@[ (~A)~]~;~:*~A~@[ (~A)~]~] ~:[-~;~:*~A~] [~A] \"~A ~A~@[?~A~] ~
~A\" ~D ~:[-~;~:*~D~] \"~:[-~;~:*~A~]\" \"~:[-~;~:*~A~]\"~%"
            (header-in* :x-forwarded-for)

(defgeneric acceptor-log-message (acceptor log-level format-string &rest format-arguments)
   "Function to call to log messages by the ACCEPTOR. It must accept
a severity level for the message, which will be one of :ERROR, :INFO,
or :WARNING, a format string and an arbitary number of formatting

(defmethod acceptor-log-message ((acceptor acceptor) log-level format-string &rest format-arguments)
  "Default function to log server messages. Sends a formatted message
to the destination denoted by (ACCEPTOR-MESSAGE-LOG-DESTINATION
keyword denoting the log level or NIL in which case it is ignored."
  (with-log-stream (stream (acceptor-message-log-destination acceptor) *message-log-lock*)
        (format stream "[~A~@[ [~A]~]] ~?~%"
                (iso-time) log-level
                format-string format-arguments)
      (error (e)
         (format *trace-output* "error ~A while writing to error log, error not logged~%" e))))))

(defun log-message* (log-level format-string &rest format-arguments)
  "Convenience function which calls the message logger of the current
acceptor \(if there is one) with the same arguments it accepts.

This is the function which Hunchentoot itself uses to log errors it
catches during request processing."
  (apply 'acceptor-log-message *acceptor* log-level format-string format-arguments))

;; usocket implementation

(defmethod start-listening ((acceptor acceptor))
  (when (acceptor-listen-socket acceptor)
    (hunchentoot-error "acceptor ~A is already listening" acceptor))
  (setf (acceptor-listen-socket acceptor)
        (usocket:socket-listen (or (acceptor-address acceptor)
                               (acceptor-port acceptor)
                               :reuseaddress t
:backlog (acceptor-listen-backlog acceptor)
                               :element-type '(unsigned-byte 8)))

(defmethod accept-connections ((acceptor acceptor))
  (usocket:with-server-socket (listener (acceptor-listen-socket acceptor))
     (when (acceptor-shutdown-p acceptor)
     (when (usocket:wait-for-input listener :ready-only t :timeout +new-connection-wait-time+)
       (when-let (client-connection
                  (handler-case (usocket:socket-accept listener)
                    ;; ignore condition
                    (usocket:connection-aborted-error ())))
         (set-timeouts client-connection
                       (acceptor-read-timeout acceptor)
                       (acceptor-write-timeout acceptor))
         (handle-incoming-connection (acceptor-taskmaster acceptor)

;; LispWorks implementation

(defmethod start-listening ((acceptor acceptor))
  (multiple-value-bind (listener-process startup-condition)
      (comm:start-up-server :service (acceptor-port acceptor)
                            :address (acceptor-address acceptor)
                            :process-name (format nil "Hunchentoot listener \(~A:~A)"
                                                  (or (acceptor-address acceptor) "*")
                                                  (acceptor-port acceptor))
                            ;; this function is called once on startup - we
                            ;; use it to check for errors
                            :announce (lambda (socket &optional condition)
                                        (declare (ignore socket))
                                        (when condition
                                          (error condition)))
                            ;; this function is called whenever a connection
                            ;; is made
                            :function (lambda (handle)
                                        (unless (acceptor-shutdown-p acceptor)
                                           (acceptor-taskmaster acceptor) handle)))
                            ;; wait until the acceptor was successfully started
                            ;; or an error condition is returned
                            :wait t)
    (when startup-condition
      (error startup-condition))
    (mp:process-stop listener-process)
    (setf (acceptor-process acceptor) listener-process)

(defmethod accept-connections ((acceptor acceptor))
  (mp:process-unstop (acceptor-process acceptor))

(defmethod acceptor-dispatch-request ((acceptor acceptor) request)
  "Detault implementation of the request dispatch method, generates an
+http-not-found+ error."
  (if (acceptor-document-root acceptor)
      (let ((path (request-pathname request)))
(if (not path)
(setf (return-code *reply*) +http-forbidden+)
(merge-pathnames (if (equal "/" (script-name request)) #p"index.html" path)
(acceptor-document-root acceptor)))))
      (setf (return-code *reply*) +http-not-found+)))

(defmethod handle-request ((*acceptor* acceptor) (*request* request))
  "Standard method for request handling. Calls the request dispatcher
of *ACCEPTOR* to determine how the request should be handled. Also
sets up standard error handling which catches any errors within the
  (handler-bind ((error
                  (lambda (cond)
                    ;; if the headers were already sent, the error
                    ;; happened within the body and we have to close
                    ;; the stream
                    (when *headers-sent*
                      (setq *close-hunchentoot-stream* t))
                    (throw 'handler-done
                      (values nil cond (get-backtrace)))))
                  (lambda (cond)
                    (when *log-lisp-warnings-p*
                      (log-message* *lisp-warnings-log-level* "~A" cond)))))
      (acceptor-dispatch-request *acceptor* *request*))))

(defgeneric acceptor-status-message (acceptor http-status-code &key &allow-other-keys)
   "This function is called after the request's handler has been
invoked to convert the HTTP-STATUS-CODE to a HTML message to be
displayed to the user. If this function returns a string, that
string is sent to the client instead of the content produced by the
handler, if any.

If an ERROR-TEMPLATE-DIRECTORY is set in the current acceptor and
the directory contains a file corresponding to HTTP-STATUS-CODE
named <code>.html, that file is sent to the client after variable
substitution. Variables are referenced by ${<variable-name>}.

Additional keyword arguments may be provided which are made
available to the templating logic as substitution variables. These
variables can be interpolated into error message templates in,
which contains the current URL relative to the server and without
GET parameters.

In addition to the variables corresponding to keyword arguments,
the script-name, lisp-implementation-type,
lisp-implementation-version and hunchentoot-version variables are

(defun make-cooked-message (http-status-code &key error backtrace)
  (labels ((cooked-message (format &rest arguments)
             (setf (content-type*) "text/html; charset=iso-8859-1")
             (format nil "<html><head><title>~D ~A</title></head><body><h1>~:*~A</h1>~?<p><hr>~A</p></body></html>"
                     http-status-code (reason-phrase http-status-code)
                     format (mapcar (lambda (arg)
                                      (if (stringp arg)
                                          (escape-for-html arg)
    (case http-status-code
       (cooked-message "The document has moved <a href='~A'>here</a>" (header-out :location)))
       (cooked-message "The server could not verify that you are authorized to access the document requested. ~
Either you supplied the wrong credentials \(e.g., bad password), or your browser doesn't ~
understand how to supply the credentials required."))
       (cooked-message "You don't have permission to access ~A on this server."
                       (script-name *request*)))
       (cooked-message "The requested URL ~A was not found on this server."
                       (script-name *request*)))
       (cooked-message "Your browser sent a request that this server could not understand."))
       (if *show-lisp-errors-p*
           (cooked-message "<pre>~A~@[~%~%Backtrace:~%~%~A~]</pre>"
                           (escape-for-html (princ-to-string error))
                           (when *show-lisp-backtraces-p*
                             (escape-for-html (princ-to-string backtrace))))
           (cooked-message "An error has occurred")))
         (when (<= 400 http-status-code)
           (cooked-message "An error has occurred"))))))

(defmethod acceptor-status-message ((acceptor t) http-status-code &rest args &key &allow-other-keys)
  (apply 'make-cooked-message http-status-code args))

(defmethod acceptor-status-message :around ((acceptor acceptor) http-status-code &rest args &key &allow-other-keys)
    (error (e)
      (log-message* :error "error ~A during error processing, sending cooked message to client" e)
      (apply 'make-cooked-message http-status-code args))))

(defun string-as-keyword (string)
  "Intern STRING as keyword using the reader so that case conversion is done with the reader defaults."
  (let ((*package* (find-package :keyword)))
    (read-from-string string)))

(defmethod acceptor-status-message ((acceptor acceptor) http-status-code &rest properties &key &allow-other-keys)
  "Default function to generate error message sent to the client."
      ((substitute-request-context-variables (string)
         (let ((properties (append `(:script-name ,(script-name*)
                                     :lisp-implementation-type ,(lisp-implementation-type)
                                     :lisp-implementation-version ,(lisp-implementation-version)
                                     :hunchentoot-version ,*hunchentoot-version*)
           (cl-ppcre:regex-replace-all "(?i)\\$\\{([a-z0-9-_]+)\\}"
                                       (lambda (target-string start end match-start match-end reg-starts reg-ends)
                                         (declare (ignore start end match-start match-end))
                                         (let ((variable-name (string-as-keyword (subseq target-string
                                                                                         (aref reg-starts 0)
                                                                                         (aref reg-ends 0)))))
                                           (escape-for-html (princ-to-string (getf properties variable-name variable-name))))))))
       (file-contents (file)
         (let ((buf (make-string (file-length file))))
           (read-sequence buf file)
       (error-contents-from-template ()
         (let ((error-file-template-pathname (and (acceptor-error-template-directory acceptor)
                                                  (probe-file (make-pathname :name (princ-to-string http-status-code)
                                                                             :type "html"
                                                                             :defaults (acceptor-error-template-directory acceptor))))))
           (when error-file-template-pathname
             (with-open-file (file error-file-template-pathname :if-does-not-exist nil :element-type 'character)
               (when file
                 (setf (content-type*) "text/html")
                 (substitute-request-context-variables (file-contents file))))))))
    (or (unless (< 300 http-status-code)
          (call-next-method)) ; don't ever try template for positive return codes
        (error-contents-from-template) ; try template
        (call-next-method)))) ; fall back to cooked message

(defgeneric acceptor-remove-session (acceptor session)
   "This function is called whenever a session in ACCEPTOR is being
destroyed because of a session timout or an explicit REMOVE-SESSION

(defmethod acceptor-remove-session ((acceptor acceptor) (session t))
  "Default implementation for the session removal hook function. This
function is called whenever a session is destroyed."

(defgeneric acceptor-server-name (acceptor)
  (:documentation "Returns a string which can be used for 'Server' headers.")
  (:method ((acceptor acceptor))
    (format nil "Hunchentoot ~A" *hunchentoot-version*)))
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