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Introducción párrafo 4

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fauno authored and mauriciopasquier committed Aug 31, 2013
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@@ -187,8 +187,7 @@ afinidades entre varias formas de colaboración y ayuda a validar sus
dinámicas sociales distintivas en tanto fuerzas significativas en la
producción económica y cultural [@bollier-2010].

The
term “peer production” or “peer-to-peer production” originates from
The term “peer production” or “peer-to-peer production” originates from
the innovative nature of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking architecture
that enabled the advent of the Internet. The introduction of P2P
architecture in the social relations of production and exchange of
@@ -197,25 +196,58 @@ just like every networked node, becomes a “server” to satisfy the needs
of other communities, as well as a “client” to satisfy its own. Peer
production operates on a non-competitive, synergetic basis leading
to an optimal distribution of resources (Benkler 2006; Bauwens 2005,
2009). The traditional market approach with its pricing mechanism
has mostly been unable to achieve such optimal allocations due to
productive information asymmetry whereas peer production maximises the
access to information. Contrary to the traditional economic thought, in
peer production we become witnesses of consumer/producer dichotomy's
collapse towards a new understanding in the form of the “multitude”
(Hardt and Negri 2001), “prosumers” (Toffler and Toffler 2006),
“produsers” (Bruns 2008), or “user-innovation communities” (von Hippel
2005). Further, it has been shown (Benkler 2002, 2006; Bauwens 2005)
how peer production, given certain resources, optimally exploits the
skills and abilities of the producers involving participatory ownership
structures, participatory learning and decision-making (Fuchs 2013).
Whereas the firm binds by contract only a fraction of capabilities,
which considers appropriate for realising a certain goal. In a peer
production project the motive emerges when a full set of capabilities
is accessing a given amount of resources. Peer production achieves
the optimal allocation of resources being a more productive system
for information than the market-based or the bureaucratic-state ones
(Bauwens 2005; Kostakis 2012). This article begins with a brief outline
2009). The traditional market approach with its pricing mechanism has
mostly been unable to achieve such optimal allocations due to productive
information asymmetry whereas peer production maximises the access to
information. Contrary to the traditional economic thought, in peer
production we become witnesses of consumer/producer dichotomy's collapse
towards a new understanding in the form of the “multitude” (Hardt
and Negri 2001), “prosumers” (Toffler and Toffler 2006), “produsers”
(Bruns 2008), or “user-innovation communities” (von Hippel 2005).
Further, it has been shown (Benkler 2002, 2006; Bauwens 2005) how peer
production, given certain resources, optimally exploits the skills and
abilities of the producers involving participatory ownership structures,
participatory learning and decision-making (Fuchs 2013). Whereas the
firm binds by contract only a fraction of capabilities, which considers
appropriate for realising a certain goal. In a peer production project
the motive emerges when a full set of capabilities is accessing a given
amount of resources. Peer production achieves the optimal allocation
of resources being a more productive system for information than the
market-based or the bureaucratic-state ones (Bauwens 2005; Kostakis
2012).

El término "producción de pares" o "producción P2P" se origina en la
naturaleza innovativa de la arquitectura de redes de pares (P2P) que
posibilitaron el advenimiento de Internet. La introducción de la
arquitectura P2P en las relaciones sociales de producción e intercambio
de bienes y servicios se basa en la idea que cada comunidad de red, tal
como cada nodo en la red, se vuelve "servidora" para satisfacer las
necesidades de otras comunidades, así como en "cliente" para satisfacer
las propias. La producción de pares opera sobre una base no
competitiva, sinergética, llevando a una distribución óptima de los
recursos [@benkler-2006; @bauwens-2005; @bauwens-2009]. El abordaje
tradicional de mercado con su mecanismo de precios ha sido incapaz de
lograr tales asignaciones de recursos debido a la asimetría en la
información productiva mientras que la producción de pares maximiza el
acceso a la información. En contra del pensamiento económico
tradicional, en la producción de pares nos volvemos testigos del colapso
de la dicotomía consumidor/productor hacia una nueva comprensión bajo la
forma de la "multitud" [@hardt-negri-2001], "prosumidores"
[@toffler-2006], "produsuarios" [@bruns-2008] o "comunidades de
innovación de los usuarios" [@hippel-2005]. Además, se ha demostrado
[@benkler-2002; @benkler-2006; @bauwens-2005] cómo la producción de
pares, dados ciertos recursos, explota óptimamente las capacidades y
habilidades de los productores al involucrar estructuras de propiedad,
aprendizaje y toma de decisiones participativas [@fuchs-2013]. Mientras
que la empresa enlaza por contrato sólo una fracción de las capacidades,
a las que considera apropiadas para realizar cierto objetivo, en un
proyecto de pares el motivo emerge cuando el conjunto completo de las
capacidades accede una cantidad determinada de recursos. La producción
de pares alcanza la asignación óptima de recursos al ser un sistema más
productivo de información que los mercados o las burocracias estatales
[@bauwens-2005; @kostakis-2012].

This article begins with a brief outline
of how the initial architecture of the Internet is being distorted
into a client-server format as observed in proprietary social networks
managed by the cognitive capitalists of the web. We, then, address

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