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The figure module provides the top-level
:class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist`, the :class:`Figure`, which
contains all the plot elements. The following classes are defined
control the default spacing of the subplots
top level container for all plot elements
from __future__ import print_function
import warnings
from operator import itemgetter
import numpy as np
from matplotlib import rcParams
from matplotlib import docstring
from matplotlib import __version__ as _mpl_version
import matplotlib.artist as martist
from matplotlib.artist import Artist, allow_rasterization
import matplotlib.cbook as cbook
from matplotlib.cbook import Stack, iterable
from matplotlib import _image
from matplotlib.image import FigureImage
import matplotlib.colorbar as cbar
from matplotlib.axes import Axes, SubplotBase, subplot_class_factory
from matplotlib.blocking_input import BlockingMouseInput, BlockingKeyMouseInput
from matplotlib.legend import Legend
from matplotlib.patches import Rectangle
from matplotlib.projections import (get_projection_names,
from matplotlib.text import Text, _process_text_args
from matplotlib.transforms import (Affine2D, Bbox, BboxTransformTo,
from matplotlib.backend_bases import NonGuiException
docstring.interpd.update(projection_names = get_projection_names())
class AxesStack(Stack):
Specialization of the Stack to handle all tracking of Axes in a Figure.
This stack stores ``key, (ind, axes)`` pairs, where:
* **key** should be a hash of the args and kwargs
used in generating the Axes.
* **ind** is a serial number for tracking the order
in which axes were added.
The AxesStack is a callable, where ``ax_stack()`` returns
the current axes. Alternatively the :meth:`current_key_axes` will
return the current key and associated axes.
def __init__(self):
self._ind = 0
def as_list(self):
Return a list of the Axes instances that have been added to the figure
ia_list = [a for k, a in self._elements]
return [a for i, a in ia_list]
def get(self, key):
Return the Axes instance that was added with *key*.
If it is not present, return None.
item = dict(self._elements).get(key)
if item is None:
return None
return item[1]
def _entry_from_axes(self, e):
ind, k = dict([(a, (ind, k)) for (k, (ind, a)) in self._elements])[e]
return (k, (ind, e))
def remove(self, a):
"""Remove the axes from the stack."""
Stack.remove(self, self._entry_from_axes(a))
def bubble(self, a):
Move the given axes, which must already exist in the
stack, to the top.
return Stack.bubble(self, self._entry_from_axes(a))
def add(self, key, a):
Add Axes *a*, with key *key*, to the stack, and return the stack.
If *a* is already on the stack, don't add it again, but
return *None*.
# All the error checking may be unnecessary; but this method
# is called so seldom that the overhead is negligible.
if not isinstance(a, Axes):
raise ValueError("second argument, %s, is not an Axes" % a)
except TypeError:
raise ValueError("first argument, %s, is not a valid key" % key)
a_existing = self.get(key)
if a_existing is not None:
Stack.remove(self, (key, a_existing))
"key %s already existed; Axes is being replaced" % key)
# I don't think the above should ever happen.
if a in self:
return None
self._ind += 1
return Stack.push(self, (key, (self._ind, a)))
def current_key_axes(self):
Return a tuple of ``(key, axes)`` for the active axes.
If no axes exists on the stack, then returns ``(None, None)``.
if not len(self._elements):
return self._default, self._default
key, (index, axes) = self._elements[self._pos]
return key, axes
def __call__(self):
return self.current_key_axes()[1]
def __contains__(self, a):
return a in self.as_list()
class SubplotParams:
A class to hold the parameters for a subplot
def __init__(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None,
wspace=None, hspace=None):
All dimensions are fraction of the figure width or height.
All values default to their rc params
The following attributes are available
*left* : 0.125
The left side of the subplots of the figure
*right* : 0.9
The right side of the subplots of the figure
*bottom* : 0.1
The bottom of the subplots of the figure
*top* : 0.9
The top of the subplots of the figure
*wspace* : 0.2
The amount of width reserved for blank space between subplots
*hspace* : 0.2
The amount of height reserved for white space between subplots
self.validate = True
self.update(left, bottom, right, top, wspace, hspace)
def update(self,left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None,
wspace=None, hspace=None):
Update the current values. If any kwarg is None, default to
the current value, if set, otherwise to rc
thisleft = getattr(self, 'left', None)
thisright = getattr(self, 'right', None)
thistop = getattr(self, 'top', None)
thisbottom = getattr(self, 'bottom', None)
thiswspace = getattr(self, 'wspace', None)
thishspace = getattr(self, 'hspace', None)
self._update_this('left', left)
self._update_this('right', right)
self._update_this('bottom', bottom)
self._update_this('top', top)
self._update_this('wspace', wspace)
self._update_this('hspace', hspace)
def reset():
self.left = thisleft
self.right = thisright = thistop
self.bottom = thisbottom
self.wspace = thiswspace
self.hspace = thishspace
if self.validate:
if self.left>=self.right:
raise ValueError('left cannot be >= right')
if self.bottom>
raise ValueError('bottom cannot be >= top')
def _update_this(self, s, val):
if val is None:
val = getattr(self, s, None)
if val is None:
key = 'figure.subplot.' + s
val = rcParams[key]
setattr(self, s, val)
class Figure(Artist):
The Figure instance supports callbacks through a *callbacks*
attribute which is a :class:`matplotlib.cbook.CallbackRegistry`
instance. The events you can connect to are 'dpi_changed', and
the callback will be called with ``func(fig)`` where fig is the
:class:`Figure` instance.
The figure patch is drawn by a
:class:`matplotlib.patches.Rectangle` instance
For multiple figure images, the figure will make composite
images depending on the renderer option_image_nocomposite
function. If suppressComposite is True|False, this will
override the renderer.
def __str__(self):
return "Figure(%gx%g)" % tuple(self.bbox.size)
def __init__(self,
figsize = None, # defaults to rc figure.figsize
dpi = None, # defaults to rc figure.dpi
facecolor = None, # defaults to rc figure.facecolor
edgecolor = None, # defaults to rc figure.edgecolor
linewidth = 0.0, # the default linewidth of the frame
frameon = True, # whether or not to draw the figure frame
subplotpars = None, # default to rc
tight_layout = None, # default to rc figure.autolayout
w,h tuple in inches
Dots per inch
The figure patch facecolor; defaults to rc ``figure.facecolor``
The figure patch edge color; defaults to rc ``figure.edgecolor``
The figure patch edge linewidth; the default linewidth of the frame
If *False*, suppress drawing the figure frame
A :class:`SubplotParams` instance, defaults to rc
If *False* use *subplotpars*; if *True* adjust subplot
parameters using :meth:`tight_layout`. Defaults to
rc ``figure.autolayout``.
self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry()
if figsize is None : figsize = rcParams['figure.figsize']
if dpi is None : dpi = rcParams['figure.dpi']
if facecolor is None: facecolor = rcParams['figure.facecolor']
if edgecolor is None: edgecolor = rcParams['figure.edgecolor']
self.dpi_scale_trans = Affine2D()
self.dpi = dpi
self.bbox_inches = Bbox.from_bounds(0, 0, *figsize)
self.bbox = TransformedBbox(self.bbox_inches, self.dpi_scale_trans)
self.frameon = frameon
self.transFigure = BboxTransformTo(self.bbox)
# the figurePatch name is deprecated
self.patch = self.figurePatch = Rectangle(
xy=(0,0), width=1, height=1,
facecolor=facecolor, edgecolor=edgecolor,
self._hold = rcParams['axes.hold']
self.canvas = self._setup_canvas()
if subplotpars is None:
subplotpars = SubplotParams()
self.subplotpars = subplotpars
self._axstack = AxesStack() # track all figure axes and current axes
self._cachedRenderer = None
def _setup_canvas(self):
Return the FigureCanvas instance defined by the currently loaded backend.
import matplotlib.backends as mbackends # lazy import
backend_mod = mbackends.pylab_setup()[0]
return backend_mod.FigureCanvas(self)
def show(self, warn=True):
If using a GUI backend, display the figure window.
For non-GUI backends, this does nothing, in which case
a warning will be issued if *warn* is True.
manager = getattr(self.canvas, 'manager')
if manager is not None:
except NonGuiException:
if warn:
import warnings
"matplotlib is currently using a non-GUI backend, "
"so cannot show the figure")
def _get_axes(self):
return self._axstack.as_list()
axes = property(fget=_get_axes, doc="Read-only: list of axes in Figure")
def _get_dpi(self):
return self._dpi
def _set_dpi(self, dpi):
self._dpi = dpi
self.dpi_scale_trans.clear().scale(dpi, dpi)
self.callbacks.process('dpi_changed', self)
dpi = property(_get_dpi, _set_dpi)
def get_tight_layout(self):
Return the Boolean flag, True to use :meth`tight_layout` when drawing.
return self._tight
def set_tight_layout(self, tight):
Set whether :meth:`tight_layout` is used upon drawing.
If None, the rcParams['figure.autolayout'] value will be set.
ACCEPTS: [True | False | None]
if tight is None:
tight = rcParams['figure.autolayout']
tight = bool(tight)
self._tight = tight
def autofmt_xdate(self, bottom=0.2, rotation=30, ha='right'):
Date ticklabels often overlap, so it is useful to rotate them
and right align them. Also, a common use case is a number of
subplots with shared xaxes where the x-axis is date data. The
ticklabels are often long, and it helps to rotate them on the
bottom subplot and turn them off on other subplots, as well as
turn off xlabels.
The bottom of the subplots for :meth:`subplots_adjust`
The rotation of the xtick labels
The horizontal alignment of the xticklabels
allsubplots = np.alltrue([hasattr(ax, 'is_last_row') for ax in self.axes])
if len(self.axes)==1:
for label in self.axes[0].get_xticklabels():
if allsubplots:
for ax in self.get_axes():
if ax.is_last_row():
for label in ax.get_xticklabels():
for label in ax.get_xticklabels():
if allsubplots:
def get_children(self):
'get a list of artists contained in the figure'
children = [self.patch]
return children
def contains(self, mouseevent):
Test whether the mouse event occurred on the figure.
Returns True,{}
if callable(self._contains): return self._contains(self,mouseevent)
#inside = mouseevent.x >= 0 and mouseevent.y >= 0
inside = self.bbox.contains(mouseevent.x,mouseevent.y)
return inside,{}
def get_window_extent(self, *args, **kwargs):
'get the figure bounding box in display space; kwargs are void'
return self.bbox
def suptitle(self, t, **kwargs):
Add a centered title to the figure.
kwargs are :class:`matplotlib.text.Text` properties. Using figure
coordinates, the defaults are:
*x* : 0.5
The x location of the text in figure coords
*y* : 0.98
The y location of the text in figure coords
*horizontalalignment* : 'center'
The horizontal alignment of the text
*verticalalignment* : 'top'
The vertical alignment of the text
A :class:`matplotlib.text.Text` instance is returned.
fig.suptitle('this is the figure title', fontsize=12)
x = kwargs.pop('x', 0.5)
y = kwargs.pop('y', 0.98)
if ('horizontalalignment' not in kwargs) and ('ha' not in kwargs):
kwargs['horizontalalignment'] = 'center'
if ('verticalalignment' not in kwargs) and ('va' not in kwargs):
kwargs['verticalalignment'] = 'top'
t = self.text(x, y, t, **kwargs)
return t
def set_canvas(self, canvas):
Set the canvas the contains the figure
ACCEPTS: a FigureCanvas instance
self.canvas = canvas
def hold(self, b=None):
Set the hold state. If hold is None (default), toggle the
hold state. Else set the hold state to boolean value b.
hold() # toggle hold
hold(True) # hold is on
hold(False) # hold is off
if b is None: self._hold = not self._hold
else: self._hold = b
def figimage(self, X,
Adds a non-resampled image to the figure.
call signatures::
figimage(X, **kwargs)
adds a non-resampled array *X* to the figure.
figimage(X, xo, yo)
with pixel offsets *xo*, *yo*,
*X* must be a float array:
* If *X* is MxN, assume luminance (grayscale)
* If *X* is MxNx3, assume RGB
* If *X* is MxNx4, assume RGBA
Optional keyword arguments:
========= ==========================================================
Keyword Description
========= ==========================================================
xo or yo An integer, the *x* and *y* image offset in pixels
cmap a :class:`matplotlib.colors.Colormap` instance, eg cm.jet.
If *None*, default to the rc ``image.cmap`` value
norm a :class:`matplotlib.colors.Normalize` instance. The
default is normalization(). This scales luminance -> 0-1
vmin|vmax are used to scale a luminance image to 0-1. If either is
*None*, the min and max of the luminance values will be
used. Note if you pass a norm instance, the settings for
*vmin* and *vmax* will be ignored.
alpha the alpha blending value, default is *None*
origin [ 'upper' | 'lower' ] Indicates where the [0,0] index of
the array is in the upper left or lower left corner of
the axes. Defaults to the rc image.origin value
========= ==========================================================
figimage complements the axes image
(:meth:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.imshow`) which will be resampled
to fit the current axes. If you want a resampled image to
fill the entire figure, you can define an
:class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` with size [0,1,0,1].
An :class:`matplotlib.image.FigureImage` instance is returned.
.. plot:: mpl_examples/pylab_examples/
Additional kwargs are Artist kwargs passed on to
if not self._hold: self.clf()
im = FigureImage(self, cmap, norm, xo, yo, origin, **kwargs)
if norm is None:
im.set_clim(vmin, vmax)
return im
def set_size_inches(self, *args, **kwargs):
set_size_inches(w,h, forward=False)
Set the figure size in inches
fig.set_size_inches(w,h) # OR
fig.set_size_inches((w,h) )
optional kwarg *forward=True* will cause the canvas size to be
automatically updated; eg you can resize the figure window
from the shell
ACCEPTS: a w,h tuple with w,h in inches
forward = kwargs.get('forward', False)
if len(args)==1:
w,h = args[0]
w,h = args
dpival = self.dpi
self.bbox_inches.p1 = w, h
if forward:
dpival = self.dpi
canvasw = w*dpival
canvash = h*dpival
manager = getattr(self.canvas, 'manager', None)
if manager is not None:
manager.resize(int(canvasw), int(canvash))
def get_size_inches(self):
return self.bbox_inches.p1
def get_edgecolor(self):
'Get the edge color of the Figure rectangle'
return self.patch.get_edgecolor()
def get_facecolor(self):
'Get the face color of the Figure rectangle'
return self.patch.get_facecolor()
def get_figwidth(self):
'Return the figwidth as a float'
return self.bbox_inches.width
def get_figheight(self):
'Return the figheight as a float'
return self.bbox_inches.height
def get_dpi(self):
'Return the dpi as a float'
return self.dpi
def get_frameon(self):
'get the boolean indicating frameon'
return self.frameon
def set_edgecolor(self, color):
Set the edge color of the Figure rectangle
ACCEPTS: any matplotlib color - see help(colors)
def set_facecolor(self, color):
Set the face color of the Figure rectangle
ACCEPTS: any matplotlib color - see help(colors)
def set_dpi(self, val):
Set the dots-per-inch of the figure
ACCEPTS: float
self.dpi = val
def set_figwidth(self, val):
Set the width of the figure in inches
ACCEPTS: float
self.bbox_inches.x1 = val
def set_figheight(self, val):
Set the height of the figure in inches
ACCEPTS: float
self.bbox_inches.y1 = val
def set_frameon(self, b):
Set whether the figure frame (background) is displayed or invisible
ACCEPTS: boolean
self.frameon = b
def delaxes(self, a):
'remove a from the figure and update the current axes'
for func in self._axobservers: func(self)
def _make_key(self, *args, **kwargs):
'make a hashable key out of args and kwargs'
def fixitems(items):
#items may have arrays and lists in them, so convert them
# to tuples for the key
ret = []
for k, v in items:
if iterable(v): v = tuple(v)
return tuple(ret)
def fixlist(args):
ret = []
for a in args:
if iterable(a): a = tuple(a)
return tuple(ret)
key = fixlist(args), fixitems(kwargs.iteritems())
return key
def add_axes(self, *args, **kwargs):
Add an axes at position *rect* [*left*, *bottom*, *width*,
*height*] where all quantities are in fractions of figure
width and height. kwargs are legal
:class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` kwargs plus *projection* which
sets the projection type of the axes. (For backward
compatibility, ``polar=True`` may also be provided, which is
equivalent to ``projection='polar'``). Valid values for
*projection* are: %(projection_names)s. Some of these
projections support additional kwargs, which may be provided
to :meth:`add_axes`. Typical usage::
rect = l,b,w,h
fig.add_axes(rect, frameon=False, axisbg='g')
fig.add_axes(rect, polar=True)
fig.add_axes(rect, projection='polar')
If the figure already has an axes with the same parameters,
then it will simply make that axes current and return it. If
you do not want this behavior, e.g. you want to force the
creation of a new Axes, you must use a unique set of args and
kwargs. The axes :attr:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.label`
attribute has been exposed for this purpose. Eg., if you want
two axes that are otherwise identical to be added to the
figure, make sure you give them unique labels::
fig.add_axes(rect, label='axes1')
fig.add_axes(rect, label='axes2')
In rare circumstances, add_axes may be called with a single
argument, an Axes instance already created in the present
figure but not in the figure's list of axes. For example,
if an axes has been removed with :meth:`delaxes`, it can
be restored with::
In all cases, the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` instance
will be returned.
In addition to *projection*, the following kwargs are supported:
if not len(args): return
# shortcut the projection "key" modifications later on, if an axes
# with the exact args/kwargs exists, return it immediately.
key = self._make_key(*args, **kwargs)
ax = self._axstack.get(key)
if ax is not None:
return ax
if isinstance(args[0], Axes):
a = args[0]
assert(a.get_figure() is self)
rect = args[0]
projection_class, kwargs, key = \
process_projection_requirements(self, *args, **kwargs)
# check that an axes of this type doesn't already exist, if it
# does, set it as active and return it
ax = self._axstack.get(key)
if ax is not None and isinstance(ax, projection_class):
return ax
# create the new axes using the axes class given
a = projection_class(self, rect, **kwargs)
self._axstack.add(key, a)
return a
def add_subplot(self, *args, **kwargs):
Add a subplot. Examples::
# equivalent but more general
# add subplot with red background
fig.add_subplot(212, axisbg='r')
# add a polar subplot
fig.add_subplot(111, projection='polar')
# add Subplot instance sub
*kwargs* are legal :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` kwargs plus
*projection*, which chooses a projection type for the axes.
(For backward compatibility, *polar=True* may also be
provided, which is equivalent to *projection='polar'*). Valid
values for *projection* are: %(projection_names)s. Some of
these projections
support additional *kwargs*, which may be provided to
The :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` instance will be returned.
If the figure already has a subplot with key (*args*,
*kwargs*) then it will simply make that subplot current and
return it.
The following kwargs are supported:
if not len(args): return
if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], int):
args = tuple([int(c) for c in str(args[0])])
if isinstance(args[0], SubplotBase):
a = args[0]
assert(a.get_figure() is self)
# make a key for the subplot (which includes the axes object id
# in the hash)
key = self._make_key(*args, **kwargs)
projection_class, kwargs, key = \
process_projection_requirements(self, *args, **kwargs)
# try to find the axes with this key in the stack
ax = self._axstack.get(key)
if ax is not None:
if isinstance(ax, projection_class):
# the axes already existed, so set it as active & return
return ax
# Undocumented convenience behavior:
# subplot(111); subplot(111, projection='polar')
# will replace the first with the second.
# Without this, add_subplot would be simpler and
# more similar to add_axes.
a = subplot_class_factory(projection_class)(self, *args, **kwargs)
self._axstack.add(key, a)
return a
def clf(self, keep_observers=False):
Clear the figure.
Set *keep_observers* to True if, for example,
a gui widget is tracking the axes in the figure.
self.suppressComposite = None
self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry()
for ax in tuple(self.axes): # Iterate over the copy.
self.delaxes(ax) # removes ax from self._axstack
toolbar = getattr(self.canvas, 'toolbar', None)
if toolbar is not None:
self.artists = []
self.lines = []
self.patches = []
self.images = []
self.legends = []
if not keep_observers:
self._axobservers = []
def clear(self):
Clear the figure -- synonym for :meth:`clf`.
def draw(self, renderer):
Render the figure using :class:`matplotlib.backend_bases.RendererBase`
instance *renderer*.
# draw the figure bounding box, perhaps none for white figure
if not self.get_visible(): return
if self.get_tight_layout() and self.axes:
except ValueError:
# ValueError can occur when resizing a window.
if self.frameon: self.patch.draw(renderer)
# a list of (zorder, func_to_call, list_of_args)
dsu = []
for a in self.patches:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
for a in self.lines:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
for a in self.artists:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
# override the renderer default if self.suppressComposite
# is not None
not_composite = renderer.option_image_nocomposite()
if self.suppressComposite is not None:
not_composite = self.suppressComposite
if len(self.images)<=1 or not_composite or \
not cbook.allequal([im.origin for im in self.images]):
for a in self.images:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
# make a composite image blending alpha
# list of (_image.Image, ox, oy)
mag = renderer.get_image_magnification()
ims = [(im.make_image(mag), im.ox, im.oy)
for im in self.images]
im = _image.from_images(self.bbox.height * mag,
self.bbox.width * mag,
im.is_grayscale = False
l, b, w, h = self.bbox.bounds
def draw_composite():
gc = renderer.new_gc()
renderer.draw_image(gc, l, b, im)
dsu.append((self.images[0].get_zorder(), self.images[0], draw_composite, []))
# render the axes
for a in self.axes:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
# render the figure text
for a in self.texts:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
for a in self.legends:
dsu.append( (a.get_zorder(), a, a.draw, [renderer]))
dsu = [row for row in dsu if not row[1].get_animated()]
for zorder, a, func, args in dsu:
self._cachedRenderer = renderer
def draw_artist(self, a):
draw :class:`matplotlib.artist.Artist` instance *a* only --
this is available only after the figure is drawn
assert self._cachedRenderer is not None
def get_axes(self):
return self.axes
def legend(self, handles, labels, *args, **kwargs):
Place a legend in the figure. Labels are a sequence of
strings, handles is a sequence of
:class:`~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` or
:class:`~matplotlib.patches.Patch` instances, and loc can be a
string or an integer specifying the legend location
legend( (line1, line2, line3),
('label1', 'label2', 'label3'),
'upper right')
The *loc* location codes are::
'best' : 0, (currently not supported for figure legends)
'upper right' : 1,
'upper left' : 2,
'lower left' : 3,
'lower right' : 4,
'right' : 5,
'center left' : 6,
'center right' : 7,
'lower center' : 8,
'upper center' : 9,
'center' : 10,
*loc* can also be an (x,y) tuple in figure coords, which
specifies the lower left of the legend box. figure coords are
(0,0) is the left, bottom of the figure and 1,1 is the right,
Keyword arguments:
*prop*: [ *None* | FontProperties | dict ]
A :class:`matplotlib.font_manager.FontProperties`
instance. If *prop* is a dictionary, a new instance will be
created with *prop*. If *None*, use rc settings.
*numpoints*: integer
The number of points in the legend line, default is 4
*scatterpoints*: integer
The number of points in the legend line, default is 4
*scatteroffsets*: list of floats
a list of yoffsets for scatter symbols in legend
*markerscale*: [ *None* | scalar ]
The relative size of legend markers vs. original. If *None*, use rc
*fancybox*: [ *None* | *False* | *True* ]
if *True*, draw a frame with a round fancybox. If *None*, use rc
*shadow*: [ *None* | *False* | *True* ]
If *True*, draw a shadow behind legend. If *None*, use rc settings.
*ncol* : integer
number of columns. default is 1
*mode* : [ "expand" | *None* ]
if mode is "expand", the legend will be horizontally expanded
to fill the axes area (or *bbox_to_anchor*)
*title* : string
the legend title
Padding and spacing between various elements use following keywords
parameters. The dimensions of these values are given as a fraction
of the fontsize. Values from rcParams will be used if None.
================ ==================================================================
Keyword Description
================ ==================================================================
borderpad the fractional whitespace inside the legend border
labelspacing the vertical space between the legend entries
handlelength the length of the legend handles
handletextpad the pad between the legend handle and text
borderaxespad the pad between the axes and legend border
columnspacing the spacing between columns
================ ==================================================================
.. Note:: Not all kinds of artist are supported by the legend.
See LINK (FIXME) for details.
.. plot:: mpl_examples/pylab_examples/
l = Legend(self, handles, labels, *args, **kwargs)
return l
def text(self, x, y, s, *args, **kwargs):
Add text to figure.
Call signature::
text(x, y, s, fontdict=None, **kwargs)
Add text to figure at location *x*, *y* (relative 0-1
coords). See :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.text` for the meaning
of the other arguments.
kwargs control the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text` properties:
override = _process_text_args({}, *args, **kwargs)
t = Text(
x=x, y=y, text=s,
return t
def _set_artist_props(self, a):
if a!= self:
def gca(self, **kwargs):
Return the current axes, creating one if necessary
The following kwargs are supported for ensuring the returned axes
adheres to the given projection etc., and for axes creation if
the active axes does not exist:
ckey, cax = self._axstack.current_key_axes()
# if there exists an axes on the stack see if it maches
# the desired axes configuration
if cax is not None:
# if no kwargs are given just return the current axes
# this is a convenience for gca() on axes such as polar etc.
if not kwargs:
return cax
# if the user has specified particular projection detail
# then build up a key which can represent this
# we don't want to modify the original kwargs
# so take a copy so that we can do what we like to it
kwargs_copy = kwargs.copy()
projection_class, _, key = \
process_projection_requirements(self, **kwargs_copy)
# let the returned axes have any gridspec by removing it from the key
ckey = ckey[1:]
key = key[1:]
# if the cax matches this key then return the axes, otherwise
# continue and a new axes will be created
if key == ckey and isinstance(cax, projection_class):
return cax
# no axes found, so create one which spans the figure
return self.add_subplot(1, 1, 1, **kwargs)
def sca(self, a):
'Set the current axes to be a and return a'
for func in self._axobservers: func(self)
return a
def _gci(self):
helper for :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.gci`;
do not use elsewhere.
for ax in reversed(self.axes):
im = ax._gci()
if im is not None:
return im
return None
def __getstate__(self):
state = self.__dict__.copy()
# the axobservers cannot currently be pickled.
# Additionally, the canvas cannot currently be pickled, but this has
# the benefit of meaning that a figure can be detached from one canvas,
# and re-attached to another.
for attr_to_pop in ('_axobservers', 'show', 'canvas', '_cachedRenderer') :
state.pop(attr_to_pop, None)
# add version information to the state
state['__mpl_version__'] = _mpl_version
# check to see if the figure has a manager and whether it is registered
# with pyplot
if getattr(self.canvas, 'manager', None) is not None:
manager = self.canvas.manager
import matplotlib._pylab_helpers
if manager in matplotlib._pylab_helpers.Gcf.figs.values():
state['_restore_to_pylab'] = True
return state
def __setstate__(self, state):
version = state.pop('__mpl_version__')
restore_to_pylab = state.pop('_restore_to_pylab', False)
if version != _mpl_version:
import warnings
warnings.warn("This figure was saved with matplotlib version %s "
"and is unlikely to function correctly." %
(version, ))
self.__dict__ = state
# re-initialise some of the unstored state information
self._axobservers = []
self.canvas = None
if restore_to_pylab:
# lazy import to avoid circularity
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib._pylab_helpers as pylab_helpers
allnums = plt.get_fignums()
num = max(allnums) + 1 if allnums else 1
mgr = plt._backend_mod.new_figure_manager_given_figure(num, self)
# XXX The following is a copy and paste from pyplot. Consider
# factoring to pylab_helpers
if self.get_label():
# make this figure current on button press event
def make_active(event):
mgr._cidgcf = mgr.canvas.mpl_connect('button_press_event',
self.number = num
def add_axobserver(self, func):
'whenever the axes state change, ``func(self)`` will be called'
def savefig(self, *args, **kwargs):
Save the current figure.
Call signature::
savefig(fname, dpi=None, facecolor='w', edgecolor='w',
orientation='portrait', papertype=None, format=None,
transparent=False, bbox_inches=None, pad_inches=0.1)
The output formats available depend on the backend being used.
A string containing a path to a filename, or a Python
file-like object, or possibly some backend-dependent object
such as :class:`~matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfPages`.
If *format* is *None* and *fname* is a string, the output
format is deduced from the extension of the filename. If
the filename has no extension, the value of the rc parameter
``savefig.format`` is used.
If *fname* is not a string, remember to specify *format* to
ensure that the correct backend is used.
Keyword arguments:
*dpi*: [ *None* | ``scalar > 0`` ]
The resolution in dots per inch. If *None* it will default to
the value ``savefig.dpi`` in the matplotlibrc file.
*facecolor*, *edgecolor*:
the colors of the figure rectangle
*orientation*: [ 'landscape' | 'portrait' ]
not supported on all backends; currently only on postscript output
One of 'letter', 'legal', 'executive', 'ledger', 'a0' through
'a10', 'b0' through 'b10'. Only supported for postscript
One of the file extensions supported by the active
backend. Most backends support png, pdf, ps, eps and svg.
If *True*, the axes patches will all be transparent; the
figure patch will also be transparent unless facecolor
and/or edgecolor are specified via kwargs.
This is useful, for example, for displaying
a plot on top of a colored background on a web page. The
transparency of these patches will be restored to their
original values upon exit of this function.
Bbox in inches. Only the given portion of the figure is
saved. If 'tight', try to figure out the tight bbox of
the figure.
Amount of padding around the figure when bbox_inches is
A list of extra artists that will be considered when the
tight bbox is calculated.
kwargs.setdefault('dpi', rcParams['savefig.dpi'])
transparent = kwargs.pop('transparent', False)
if transparent:
kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', 'none')
kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', 'none')
original_axes_colors = []
for ax in self.axes:
patch = ax.patch
kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', rcParams['savefig.facecolor'])
kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', rcParams['savefig.edgecolor'])
self.canvas.print_figure(*args, **kwargs)
if transparent:
for ax, cc in zip(self.axes, original_axes_colors):
def colorbar(self, mappable, cax=None, ax=None, **kw):
Create a colorbar for a ScalarMappable instance, *mappable*.
Documentation for the pylab thin wrapper:
if ax is None:
ax = self.gca()
use_gridspec = kw.pop("use_gridspec", True)
if cax is None:
if use_gridspec and isinstance(ax, SubplotBase):
cax, kw = cbar.make_axes_gridspec(ax, **kw)
cax, kw = cbar.make_axes(ax, **kw)
cb = cbar.colorbar_factory(cax, mappable, **kw)
return cb
def subplots_adjust(self, *args, **kwargs):
Call signature::
subplots_adjust(left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None,
wspace=None, hspace=None)
Update the :class:`SubplotParams` with *kwargs* (defaulting to rc when
*None*) and update the subplot locations
self.subplotpars.update(*args, **kwargs)
import matplotlib.axes
for ax in self.axes:
if not isinstance(ax, matplotlib.axes.SubplotBase):
# Check if sharing a subplots axis
if ax._sharex is not None and isinstance(ax._sharex, matplotlib.axes.SubplotBase):
elif ax._sharey is not None and isinstance(ax._sharey, matplotlib.axes.SubplotBase):
def ginput(self, n=1, timeout=30, show_clicks=True, mouse_add=1, mouse_pop=3, mouse_stop=2):
Call signature::
ginput(self, n=1, timeout=30, show_clicks=True,
mouse_add=1, mouse_pop=3, mouse_stop=2)
Blocking call to interact with the figure.
This will wait for *n* clicks from the user and return a list of the
coordinates of each click.
If *timeout* is zero or negative, does not timeout.
If *n* is zero or negative, accumulate clicks until a middle click
(or potentially both mouse buttons at once) terminates the input.
Right clicking cancels last input.
The buttons used for the various actions (adding points, removing
points, terminating the inputs) can be overriden via the
arguments *mouse_add*, *mouse_pop* and *mouse_stop*, that give
the associated mouse button: 1 for left, 2 for middle, 3 for
The keyboard can also be used to select points in case your mouse
does not have one or more of the buttons. The delete and backspace
keys act like right clicking (i.e., remove last point), the enter key
terminates input and any other key (not already used by the window
manager) selects a point.
blocking_mouse_input = BlockingMouseInput(self, mouse_add =mouse_add,
mouse_pop =mouse_pop,
return blocking_mouse_input(n=n, timeout=timeout,
def waitforbuttonpress(self, timeout=-1):
Call signature::
waitforbuttonpress(self, timeout=-1)
Blocking call to interact with the figure.
This will return True is a key was pressed, False if a mouse
button was pressed and None if *timeout* was reached without
either being pressed.
If *timeout* is negative, does not timeout.
blocking_input = BlockingKeyMouseInput(self)
return blocking_input(timeout=timeout)
def get_default_bbox_extra_artists(self):
bbox_extra_artists = [t for t in self.texts if t.get_visible()]
for ax in self.axes:
if ax.get_visible():
return bbox_extra_artists
def get_tightbbox(self, renderer):
Return a (tight) bounding box of the figure in inches.
It only accounts axes title, axis labels, and axis
ticklabels. Needs improvement.
bb = []
for ax in self.axes:
if ax.get_visible():
_bbox = Bbox.union([b for b in bb if b.width!=0 or b.height!=0])
bbox_inches = TransformedBbox(_bbox,
return bbox_inches
def tight_layout(self, renderer=None, pad=1.08, h_pad=None, w_pad=None, rect=None):
Adjust subplot parameters to give specified padding.
*pad* : float
padding between the figure edge and the edges of subplots,
as a fraction of the font-size.
*h_pad*, *w_pad* : float
padding (height/width) between edges of adjacent subplots.
Defaults to `pad_inches`.
*rect* : if rect is given, it is interpreted as a rectangle
(left, bottom, right, top) in the normalized figure
coordinate that the whole subplots area (including
labels) will fit into. Default is (0, 0, 1, 1).
from tight_layout import (get_renderer, get_tight_layout_figure,
subplotspec_list = get_subplotspec_list(self.axes)
if None in subplotspec_list:
warnings.warn("This figure includes Axes that are not "
"compatible with tight_layout, so its "
"results might be incorrect.")
if renderer is None:
renderer = get_renderer(self)
kwargs = get_tight_layout_figure(self, self.axes, subplotspec_list,
pad=pad, h_pad=h_pad, w_pad=w_pad,
def figaspect(arg):
Create a figure with specified aspect ratio. If *arg* is a number,
use that aspect ratio. If *arg* is an array, figaspect will
determine the width and height for a figure that would fit array
preserving aspect ratio. The figure width, height in inches are
returned. Be sure to create an axes with equal with and height,
Example usage::
# make a figure twice as tall as it is wide
w, h = figaspect(2.)
fig = Figure(figsize=(w,h))
ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8])
ax.imshow(A, **kwargs)
# make a figure with the proper aspect for an array
A = rand(5,3)
w, h = figaspect(A)
fig = Figure(figsize=(w,h))
ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8])
ax.imshow(A, **kwargs)
Thanks to Fernando Perez for this function
isarray = hasattr(arg, 'shape')
# min/max sizes to respect when autoscaling. If John likes the idea, they
# could become rc parameters, for now they're hardwired.
figsize_min = np.array((4.0,2.0)) # min length for width/height
figsize_max = np.array((16.0,16.0)) # max length for width/height
#figsize_min = rcParams['figure.figsize_min']
#figsize_max = rcParams['figure.figsize_max']
# Extract the aspect ratio of the array
if isarray:
nr,nc = arg.shape[:2]
arr_ratio = float(nr)/nc
arr_ratio = float(arg)
# Height of user figure defaults
fig_height = rcParams['figure.figsize'][1]
# New size for the figure, keeping the aspect ratio of the caller
newsize = np.array((fig_height/arr_ratio,fig_height))
# Sanity checks, don't drop either dimension below figsize_min
newsize /= min(1.0,*(newsize/figsize_min))
# Avoid humongous windows as well
newsize /= max(1.0,*(newsize/figsize_max))
# Finally, if we have a really funky aspect ratio, break it but respect
# the min/max dimensions (we don't want figures 10 feet tall!)
newsize = np.clip(newsize,figsize_min,figsize_max)
return newsize
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