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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
#
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
#
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# For data circa 1899, a common source is:
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
# std dst
# LMT Local Mean Time
# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern European Time
# 2:00 IST IDT Israel
# 3:00 AST ADT Arabia*
# 3:30 IRST IRDT Iran
# 4:00 GST Gulf*
# 5:30 IST India
# 7:00 ICT Indochina*
# 7:00 WIB west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
# 8:00 WITA central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
# 8:00 CST China
# 8:00 JWST Western Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)*
# 9:00 JCST Central Standard Time (Japan, 1896/1937)
# 9:00 WIT east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
# 9:00 JST JDT Japan
# 9:00 KST KDT Korea
# 9:30 ACST Australian Central Standard Time
#
# See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.

# From Guy Harris:
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
# Worldwide Edition). The names for time zones are guesses.

###############################################################################

# These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule EUAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EUAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule EUAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule E-EurAsia 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
Rule E-EurAsia 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule E-EurAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule RussiaAsia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule RussiaAsia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule RussiaAsia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
Rule RussiaAsia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
Rule RussiaAsia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule RussiaAsia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule RussiaAsia 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -

# Afghanistan
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kabul 4:36:48 - LMT 1890
4:00 - AFT 1945
4:30 - AFT

# Armenia
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
# in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
# readopting Russian DST in 1997. Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
# when they disagree with others. Edgar Der-Danieliantz
# reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995. IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.

# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
# While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
# follow Russia's "old" rules.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
# According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
# http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
#
# The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
# Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
# Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
# or
# (brief)
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Yerevan 2:58:00 - LMT 1924 May 2
3:00 - YERT 1957 Mar # Yerevan Time
4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
3:00 1:00 YERST 1991 Sep 23 # independence
3:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 1995 Sep 24 2:00s
4:00 - AMT 1997
4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 2012 Mar 25 2:00s
4:00 - AMT

# Azerbaijan
# From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
# According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
# Resolution available at: http://aif.az/docs/daylight_res.pdf
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Azer 1997 max - Mar lastSun 4:00 1:00 S
Rule Azer 1997 max - Oct lastSun 5:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
3:00 - BAKT 1957 Mar # Baku Time
4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
3:00 1:00 BAKST 1991 Aug 30 # independence
3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT 1992 Sep lastSat 23:00
4:00 - AZT 1996 # Azerbaijan time
4:00 EUAsia AZ%sT 1997
4:00 Azer AZ%sT

# Bahrain
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Bahrain 3:22:20 - LMT 1920 # Manamah
4:00 - GST 1972 Jun
3:00 - AST

# Bangladesh
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
# According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
# Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
#
# Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
# http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
#
# "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
# June
# 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
# crippling power crisis. "
#
# The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
# implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
# They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
# the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
#
# Some sources:
# http://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
# http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
#
# Our wrap-up:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html

# From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
# Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
# time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
# Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
#
# No DST end date has been announced yet.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
# Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
# instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
#
# Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
# "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
# IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
# Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
# maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
# "continue for an indefinite period."
#
# One of many places where it is published:
# http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
# Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
#
# Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
#
# "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
# on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
# 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
# Minister's Office last night..."

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
# According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
# Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
# http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Jun 19 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Dhaka 2009 only - Dec 31 23:59 0 -

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Dhaka 6:01:40 - LMT 1890
5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time?
6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time
5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
6:30 - BURT 1951 Sep 30
6:00 - DACT 1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
6:00 - BDT 2009
6:00 Dhaka BD%sT

# Bhutan
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Thimphu 5:58:36 - LMT 1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
5:30 - IST 1987 Oct
6:00 - BTT # Bhutan Time

# British Indian Ocean Territory
# Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
# 1997 and later maps say 6:00. Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
# We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
# assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
# then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Chagos 4:49:40 - LMT 1907
5:00 - IOT 1996 # BIOT Time
6:00 - IOT

# Brunei
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Brunei 7:39:40 - LMT 1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
7:30 - BNT 1933
8:00 - BNT

# Burma / Myanmar

# Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Rangoon 6:24:40 - LMT 1880 # or Yangon
6:24:40 - RMT 1920 # Rangoon Mean Time?
6:30 - BURT 1942 May # Burma Time
9:00 - JST 1945 May 3
6:30 - MMT # Myanmar Time

# Cambodia
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
7:00 - ICT 1912 May
8:00 - ICT 1931 May
7:00 - ICT

# China

# From Guy Harris:
# People's Republic of China. Yes, they really have only one time zone.

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# No they don't. See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52. Even though
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
# Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized. Since that date, China
# has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
# the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). I don't know about DST for it.
#
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
# painful to suck in another copy. So, here is what I have for
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
#
# 1986 May 4 - Sept 14
# 1987 mid-April - ??

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
# CHINA 8 H AHEAD OF UTC ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
# CHINA 9 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 17 - SEP 10

# From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
# Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
# time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
# observing daylight saving time in 1986.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
# Shanks & Pottenger have China switching to a single time zone in 1980, but
# this doesn't seem to be correct. They also write that China observed summer
# DST from 1986 through 1991, which seems to match the above commentary, so
# go with them for DST rules as follows:
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Shang 1941 only - Mar 16 0:00 1:00 D
Rule PRC 1986 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 D
Rule PRC 1986 1991 - Sep Sun>=11 0:00 0 S
Rule PRC 1987 1991 - Apr Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D

# From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
# BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
# historic timezones from some Taiwan websites. And yes, there are official
# Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
#
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
# I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
# http://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
# boundaries summarized below].... A few other exceptions were two
# counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
# counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
# therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
# county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
# (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
# counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
# Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
#
# (1)
# Guo Qingsheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
# Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
# China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
# (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料), Vol. 24, No. 1 (2003)
# It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
# officially apparent solar time! However, Guo also says that the
# evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
# been taken over by the PRC yet. It's plausible that apparent solar
# time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
# to use UT+8. As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
# observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
# could well have ignored any such mandate.
#
# (2)
# Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
# A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
# [undated and unknown publication location]
# It says several things:
# * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
# * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
# the official calendar book of 1914.
# * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
# French docks in the 1890s, controled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
# Obervatory and set to local mean time.
# * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
# * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
# eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
# became used by railways as well.
# * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
# five time zones (see below for details). This caught on
# at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
# * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7. In practice
# this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
# Japanese-occupied territory.
# * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
# * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
# place (with some modifications) in March 1948. It's not clear
# how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
# * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
#
# An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
# Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
# different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
# ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai." Guess that the
# Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT+8.
#
# In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
# this was based on what was apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
# This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
# Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
# Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
# mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
#
# Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT+8.5
# Asia/Harbin (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
# Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
#
# Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT+8
# Asia/Shanghai
# most of China
# This currently represents most other zones as well,
# as apparently these regions have been the same since 1970.
# Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
# Guo says Shanghai switched to UT+8 "from the end of the 19th century".
#
# Long-shu Time (probably due to Long and Shu being two names of that area) UT+7
# Asia/Chongqing (currently a link to Asia/Shanghai)
# Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
# most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; west Qinghai; and the Guangdong
# counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
# Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
#
# Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT+6
# Asia/Urumqi
# This currently represents Kunlun Time as well,
# as apparently the two regions have been the same since 1970.
# The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
# the Guangdong counties Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
# Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
# east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
# east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
# Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
# Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
# Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
#
# Kunlun Time UT+5.5
# Asia/Kashgar (currently a link to Asia/Urumqi)
# West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
# West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
# Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
# and Yarkand.

# From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
# Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
# Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
# but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
# what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
# they implicitly use Beijing time.
#
# On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
# population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
# hours behind Beijing time, or UTC +0600. The government of the Xinjiang
# Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
# local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
# publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
# "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
# they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
#
# (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
# widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
# Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
#
# (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
# or 1991 when summer time was in use. The confusion was severe, with
# the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
# time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
# others moving their clocks ahead.)

# From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
# With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
# English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
#
# 1. Wulumuqi...
# 2. Kashi...
# 3. Urumqi...
# 4. Kashgar...
# ...
# 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
# 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
# countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
#
# 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
# start date for Xinjiang time.
#
# Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
# publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
# Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
# not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)

# From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
# Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
# http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html

# From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
# I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
# different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
# report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
# Cochrane. Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
# recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
# the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
# and Beijing Time. There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
# to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
# population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other. The only
# problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
# having the same time as Beijing.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
# In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT+6) but
# this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
# Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
# 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
# As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
#
# Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized. E.g., see
# "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
# <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
# Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
# During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dyansty,
# the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
# Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
# China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
# quite a trick. Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
# XJT at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
# which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
# guess) as the transition from LMT. Ignore the usage of UT+8 before
# 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to UT+8 is unknown and
# that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
# UT+8 mandate back then.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
Zone Asia/Shanghai 8:05:43 - LMT 1901
8:00 Shang C%sT 1949
8:00 PRC C%sT
# Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
# / Wulumuqi. (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
Zone Asia/Urumqi 5:50:20 - LMT 1928
6:00 - XJT


# Hong Kong (Xianggang)

# Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.

# From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
# I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
# Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
# it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
# and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
# and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
# think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
# obtained from
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm

# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
# Here are the dates given at
# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
# as of 2009-10-28:
# Year Period
# 1941 1 Apr to 30 Sep
# 1942 Whole year
# 1943 Whole year
# 1944 Whole year
# 1945 Whole year
# 1946 20 Apr to 1 Dec
# 1947 13 Apr to 30 Dec
# 1948 2 May to 31 Oct
# 1949 3 Apr to 30 Oct
# 1950 2 Apr to 29 Oct
# 1951 1 Apr to 28 Oct
# 1952 6 Apr to 25 Oct
# 1953 5 Apr to 1 Nov
# 1954 21 Mar to 31 Oct
# 1955 20 Mar to 6 Nov
# 1956 18 Mar to 4 Nov
# 1957 24 Mar to 3 Nov
# 1958 23 Mar to 2 Nov
# 1959 22 Mar to 1 Nov
# 1960 20 Mar to 6 Nov
# 1961 19 Mar to 5 Nov
# 1962 18 Mar to 4 Nov
# 1963 24 Mar to 3 Nov
# 1964 22 Mar to 1 Nov
# 1965 18 Apr to 17 Oct
# 1966 17 Apr to 16 Oct
# 1967 16 Apr to 22 Oct
# 1968 21 Apr to 20 Oct
# 1969 20 Apr to 19 Oct
# 1970 19 Apr to 18 Oct
# 1971 18 Apr to 17 Oct
# 1972 16 Apr to 22 Oct
# 1973 22 Apr to 21 Oct
# 1973/74 30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
# 1975 20 Apr to 19 Oct
# 1976 18 Apr to 17 Oct
# 1977 Nil
# 1978 Nil
# 1979 13 May to 21 Oct
# 1980 to Now Nil
# The page does not give start or end times of day.
# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule HK 1941 only - Apr 1 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1941 only - Sep 30 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1946 only - Apr 20 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1946 only - Dec 1 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1947 only - Apr 13 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1947 only - Dec 30 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1948 only - May 2 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1948 1951 - Oct lastSun 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1952 only - Oct 25 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1949 1953 - Apr Sun>=1 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1953 only - Nov 1 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1954 1964 - Mar Sun>=18 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1954 only - Oct 31 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1955 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1965 1976 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1965 1976 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
Rule HK 1973 only - Dec 30 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1979 only - May Sun>=8 3:30 1:00 S
Rule HK 1979 only - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:42 - LMT 1904 Oct 30
8:00 HK HK%sT 1941 Dec 25
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 15
8:00 HK HK%sT

###############################################################################

# Taiwan

# From smallufo (2010-04-03):
# According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
# http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
# Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.

# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
# On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
# Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
# Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
# (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
# 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
# found on Wikisource:
# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
# ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
# during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
# declared officially.
#
# Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
# Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
# revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
# time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
# western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
# territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
# (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
# be found on Wikisource:
# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
#
# That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UTC+9 on Oct 1, 1937.

# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
# I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UTC+9
# back to UTC+8 after WW2. I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945. In a document
# during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
# zone back to Western Standard Time (UTC+8) on Sep 21. And in another
# history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
# note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time". From these two
# materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21. And
# today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
# from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
# that:
#
# 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
# the time at 135E (GMT+9)
#
# 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
# 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
# as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
# Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
#
# 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
# territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
# Time.
#
# [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
# http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
# [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
# http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
# [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
# http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf

# Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
# I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
# Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan. It's Taiwan Governor-General
# Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
# [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
# bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
# Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21. I think this bulletin is much more
# official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
# top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
# would be a good one.
# [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
# http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener

# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
# In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
# Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
#
# Original Bulletin:
# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF>
# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0> (cont.)
#
# In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
# telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
#
# <http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431>
#
# Here is a brief translation:
#
# The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
# midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
# adption till Oct 31 midnight.
#
# The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
# be found from historical government announcement database.

# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
# As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT+9 from 1937-10-01
# until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
# Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Taiwan 1946 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1947 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1948 1951 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1952 only - Mar 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1952 1954 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1953 1959 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1955 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1960 1961 - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1974 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Taiwan 1979 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 S

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
Zone Asia/Taipei 8:06:00 - LMT 1896 Jan 1
8:00 - JWST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 21 01:00
8:00 Taiwan C%sT

# Macau (Macao, Aomen)
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Macau 1961 1962 - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1961 1964 - Nov Sun>=1 3:30 0 -
Rule Macau 1963 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1964 only - Mar Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1965 only - Mar Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1965 only - Oct 31 0:00 0 -
Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Apr Sun>=16 3:30 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1966 1971 - Oct Sun>=16 3:30 0 -
Rule Macau 1972 1974 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1972 1973 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
Rule Macau 1974 1977 - Oct Sun>=15 3:30 0 -
Rule Macau 1975 1977 - Apr Sun>=15 3:30 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Apr Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Macau 1978 1980 - Oct Sun>=15 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Macau 7:34:20 - LMT 1912
8:00 Macau MO%sT 1999 Dec 20 # return to China
8:00 PRC C%sT


###############################################################################

# Cyprus
#
# Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00. Stick with LMT.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Apr 13 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Cyprus 1975 only - Oct 12 0:00 0 -
Rule Cyprus 1976 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Cyprus 1976 only - Oct 11 0:00 0 -
Rule Cyprus 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Cyprus 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -
Rule Cyprus 1978 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Cyprus 1979 1997 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Cyprus 1981 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Nicosia 2:13:28 - LMT 1921 Nov 14
2:00 Cyprus EE%sT 1998 Sep
2:00 EUAsia EE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.

# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
Link Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia

# Georgia
# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
#
# From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
#
# From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
#
# Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday... The former Soviet
# republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow. As a result it
# is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
# ahead. The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
# Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
# of integration into Europe.

# From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
# Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
# [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
# Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
# +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
# about it. As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
# because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
# I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
# DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.

# Milne says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7; round to nearest.)

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Tbilisi 2:59:06 - LMT 1880
2:59:06 - TBMT 1924 May 2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
3:00 - TBIT 1957 Mar # Tbilisi Time
4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
3:00 1:00 TBIST 1991 Apr 9 # independence
3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 1992 # Georgia Time
3:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1994 Sep lastSun
4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 1996 Oct lastSun
4:00 1:00 GEST 1997 Mar lastSun
4:00 E-EurAsia GE%sT 2004 Jun 27
3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT 2005 Mar lastSun 2:00
4:00 - GET

# East Timor

# See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.

# From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
# East Timor may be late for its millennium
# <http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
# conflicts with their way of life.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.

# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
# http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
# (2000-08-16):
# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour. The time change,
# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
# midnight on Saturday, September 16.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Dili 8:22:20 - LMT 1912
8:00 - TLT 1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
9:00 - TLT 1976 May 3
8:00 - WITA 2000 Sep 17 00:00
9:00 - TLT

# India
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kolkata 5:53:28 - LMT 1880 # Kolkata
5:53:20 - HMT 1941 Oct # Howrah Mean Time?
6:30 - BURT 1942 May 15 # Burma Time
5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15
5:30 - IST
# The following are like Asia/Kolkata:
# Andaman Is
# Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
# Nicobar Is

# Indonesia
#
# From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
# <http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime>
# says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01. Looking at some
# time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
# and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
# Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
# JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
# Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
# other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
# September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
# These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
# Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
# Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
# from JST to UTC+07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
# (Hollandia). For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
# switched on 1945-09-23.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
# Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
# Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
# when writing in English. For example, see the English-language
# summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
# Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
# Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
# The abbreviations are:
#
# WIB - UTC+7 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
# WITA - UTC+8 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
# WIT - UTC+9 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Java, Sumatra
Zone Asia/Jakarta 7:07:12 - LMT 1867 Aug 10
# Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
# but this must be a typo.
7:07:12 - BMT 1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
7:20 - JAVT 1932 Nov # Java Time
7:30 - WIB 1942 Mar 23
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
7:30 - WIB 1948 May
8:00 - WIB 1950 May
7:30 - WIB 1964
7:00 - WIB
# west and central Borneo
Zone Asia/Pontianak 7:17:20 - LMT 1908 May
7:17:20 - PMT 1932 Nov # Pontianak MT
7:30 - WIB 1942 Jan 29
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
7:30 - WIB 1948 May
8:00 - WIB 1950 May
7:30 - WIB 1964
8:00 - WITA 1988 Jan 1
7:00 - WIB
# Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
Zone Asia/Makassar 7:57:36 - LMT 1920
7:57:36 - MMT 1932 Nov # Macassar MT
8:00 - WITA 1942 Feb 9
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 23
8:00 - WITA
# Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov
9:00 - WIT 1944 Sep 1
9:30 - ACST 1964
9:00 - WIT

# Iran

# From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
# This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
# The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
#
# Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
# No. 16760/T233 H 1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
#
# The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
#
# The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
# based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
# of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
# and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
# and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
# for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
#
# The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
# at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
# to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
# Shahrivar.
#
# First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
#
# From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
# for at least the last 5 years. Before that, for a few years, the
# date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
# Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
# I have also changed the abbreviations to what is considered correct
# here in Iran, IRST for regular time and IRDT for daylight saving time.
#
# From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
# The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
# that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
# leap year calculation involved. There has never been any serious
# plan to change that law....
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
#
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
# discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
# For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
# the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
# Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
# known exactly, amongst other factors. 2157 is even closer:
# 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT. But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
# no interpretation problem whatsoever. By the way, another instant
# in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
# arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
# vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT. The Java version of
# Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
# 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
# Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
# http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
#
# From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
# ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
# daylight saving time ...
# http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
#
# From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
# This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
# Iran, Volume 63, Number 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
# [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
# The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
# on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
# be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
# thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Iran 1978 1980 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 1978 only - Oct 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 1979 only - Sep 19 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 1980 only - Sep 23 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 1991 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 1992 1995 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 1991 1995 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 1996 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 1996 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 1997 1999 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2000 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2000 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2001 2003 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2004 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2004 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2005 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2005 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2008 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2008 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2009 2011 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2012 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2012 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2013 2015 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2016 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2016 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2017 2019 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2020 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2020 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2021 2023 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2024 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2024 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2025 2027 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2028 2029 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2030 2031 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2032 2033 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2034 2035 - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iran 2036 2037 - Sep 21 0:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Tehran 3:25:44 - LMT 1916
3:25:44 - TMT 1946 # Tehran Mean Time
3:30 - IRST 1977 Nov
4:00 Iran IR%sT 1979
3:30 Iran IR%sT


# Iraq
#
# From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
#
# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time. They referred
# to daylight saving as Saddam time. But, as of today, the time zone
# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
#
# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
# The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
# news sources (in Arabic):
# http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
# http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
#
# We have published a short article in English about the change:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Iraq 1982 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1982 1984 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Iraq 1983 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1984 1985 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1985 1990 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 S
Rule Iraq 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 D
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
# Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
#
Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Apr 1 3:00s 1:00 D
Rule Iraq 1991 2007 - Oct 1 3:00s 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Baghdad 2:57:40 - LMT 1890
2:57:36 - BMT 1918 # Baghdad Mean Time?
3:00 - AST 1982 May
3:00 Iraq A%sT


###############################################################################

# Israel

# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
#
# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988. Until then there were three
# different abbreviations in use:
#
# JST Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
# IZT Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
#
# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
# I ruled out JST. As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
# EEST was equally unacceptable. Since "zonal" was not compatible with
# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
# settings in Israeli computers.
#
# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
# family is from India).

# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1940 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1942 1944 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1943 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1944 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1945 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1945 only - Nov 1 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1946 only - Apr 16 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1946 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1948 only - May 23 0:00 2:00 DD
Rule Zion 1948 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1948 1949 - Nov 1 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1949 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1950 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1950 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1951 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1951 only - Nov 11 3:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1952 only - Apr 20 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1952 only - Oct 19 3:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1953 only - Apr 12 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1953 only - Sep 13 3:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1954 only - Jun 13 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1954 only - Sep 12 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1955 only - Jun 11 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1955 only - Sep 11 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1956 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1956 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1957 only - Apr 29 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1957 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1974 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1974 only - Oct 13 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1975 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1975 only - Aug 31 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1985 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1985 only - Sep 15 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1986 only - May 18 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1986 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1987 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1987 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S

# From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
# I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
# [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
# ends and changes to Sunday.
Rule Zion 1988 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1988 only - Sep 4 0:00 0 S

# From Ephraim Silverberg
# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
# and 2005-02-17):

# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
# days of daylight savings time annually. From 1993-1998, the change to
# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
# time. 1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
# conflicts with the Jewish New Year. In 1999, the change to
# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
# 1999 only. In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST. Starting in 2001, all
# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1989 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1989 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1990 only - Mar 25 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1990 only - Aug 26 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1991 only - Mar 24 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1991 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1992 only - Mar 29 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1992 only - Sep 6 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1993 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1993 only - Sep 5 0:00 0 S

# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel. The spokeswoman can be reached by
# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1994 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1994 only - Aug 28 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1995 only - Mar 31 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1995 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S

# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
# time, Haim Ramon. The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
#
# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
#
# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
#
# where YYYY is the relevant year.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1996 only - Mar 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1996 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1997 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1997 only - Sep 14 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1998 only - Mar 20 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1998 only - Sep 6 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1999 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1999 only - Sep 3 2:00 0 S

# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
# years 2001-2004 as well.
#
# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
#
# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 2000 only - Apr 14 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2000 only - Oct 6 1:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2001 only - Apr 9 1:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2001 only - Sep 24 1:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2002 only - Mar 29 1:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2002 only - Oct 7 1:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2003 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2003 only - Oct 3 1:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2004 only - Apr 7 1:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2004 only - Sep 22 1:00 0 S

# The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
# 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
# last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
# 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
# night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
#
# Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
#
# ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps

# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
#
# Rule Zion 2005 2012 - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
#
# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
# springtime transitions explicitly.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 2005 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2005 only - Oct 9 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2006 2010 - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2006 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2007 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2008 only - Oct 5 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2009 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2010 only - Sep 12 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2011 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2011 only - Oct 2 2:00 0 S
Rule Zion 2012 only - Mar Fri>=26 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2012 only - Sep 23 2:00 0 S

# From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
# On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
# Time Decree Law. The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
# in the Knesset. The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
# (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
#
# As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
# in March. DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 2013 max - Mar Fri>=23 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 2013 max - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Jerusalem 2:20:54 - LMT 1880
2:20:40 - JMT 1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
2:00 Zion I%sT



###############################################################################

# Japan

# '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."

# From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times
# <http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm>:
# Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
# [1948-05-01].... But lack of prior debate and the execution of
# daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
# deep hatred of the concept.... The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
# dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
# Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
# of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
# wanted to keep it.)

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger write that DST in Japan during those years was as follows:
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Japan 1948 only - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Japan 1948 1951 - Sep Sat>=8 2:00 0 S
Rule Japan 1949 only - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Japan 1950 1951 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
# but the only locations using it (for birth certificates, presumably, since
# their audience is astrologers) were US military bases. For now, assume
# that for most purposes daylight-saving time was observed; otherwise, what
# would have been the point of the 1951 poll?

# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
# Observatory: 139 degrees 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35 degrees 39' 16.0" N.
# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.

# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
# which stands for the time on 135 degrees E.
# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
# standard time". And the same ordinance also established "western standard
# time", which stands for the time on 120 degrees E.... But "western standard
# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937). In the ordinance No.
# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
# standard....
#
# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.

# From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
# ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
# about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
#
# ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
# means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
# Central Time (UTC+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
# http://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Tokyo 9:18:59 - LMT 1887 Dec 31 15:00u
9:00 - JST 1896 Jan 1
9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 Japan J%sT
# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.

# The following region has been like Asia/Tokyo since at least 1970.
Link Asia/Tokyo Pacific/Palau

# Jordan
#
# From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
# all year round.
#
# From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
# by one hour. This is the latest government decision and it's final!
# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
# government's departments from six to seven hours.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
# Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
# For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
# about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
# http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
# "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
#

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
# This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
# http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
#
# Google's translation:
#
# > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
# > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
# > of the month of March of each year.
#
# So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.

# From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
# We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
# Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
# switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
# until about the same time next year (at least).
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950

# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
# Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
# UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
# http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
# Official, in Arabic:
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
# ... Our background/permalink about it
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
# ...
# http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
# ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
# (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).

# From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
# As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Jordan 1973 only - Jun 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1973 1975 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1974 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1976 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1977 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1978 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1978 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1985 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1985 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1986 1988 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1986 1990 - Oct Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1989 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1990 only - Apr 27 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1991 only - Apr 17 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1991 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1992 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1992 1993 - Oct Fri>=1 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1993 1998 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1994 only - Sep Fri>=15 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 1995 1998 - Sep Fri>=15 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 1999 only - Jul 1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 1999 2002 - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 2000 2001 - Mar lastThu 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 2002 2012 - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 2003 only - Oct 24 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 2004 only - Oct 15 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 2005 only - Sep lastFri 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 2006 2011 - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 -
Rule Jordan 2013 only - Dec 20 0:00 0 -
Rule Jordan 2014 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
Rule Jordan 2014 max - Oct lastFri 0:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Amman 2:23:44 - LMT 1931
2:00 Jordan EE%sT


# Kazakhstan

# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# Andrew Evtichov (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# German Iofis, ELSI, Almaty (2001-10-09) reports that Kazakhstan uses
# RussiaAsia rules, instead of switching at 00:00 as the IATA has it.
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger, who have them always using RussiaAsia rules.
# Also go with the following claims of Shanks & Pottenger:
#
# - Kazakhstan did not observe DST in 1991.
# - Qyzylorda switched from +5:00 to +6:00 on 1992-01-19 02:00.
# - Oral switched from +5:00 to +4:00 in spring 1989.

# From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin #11
# <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
# The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
# daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
# complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
#
# From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
# ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
# was "blended" with the Central zone. Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
# two time zones, and difference between them is one hour. The zone
# closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
# same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtobe, Atyrau,
# Mangghystau, and West Kazakhstan. The other zone encompasses
# everything else.... I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
# de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.

#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
#
# Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
Zone Asia/Almaty 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Alma-Ata
5:00 - ALMT 1930 Jun 21 # Alma-Ata Time
6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 1991
6:00 - ALMT 1992
6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 2005 Mar 15
6:00 - ALMT
# Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.)
Zone Asia/Qyzylorda 4:21:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
4:00 - KIZT 1930 Jun 21 # Kizilorda Time
5:00 - KIZT 1981 Apr 1
5:00 1:00 KIZST 1981 Oct 1
6:00 - KIZT 1982 Apr 1
5:00 RussiaAsia KIZ%sT 1991
5:00 - KIZT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
5:00 - QYZT 1992 Jan 19 2:00
6:00 RussiaAsia QYZ%sT 2005 Mar 15
6:00 - QYZT
# Aqtobe (aka Aktobe, formerly Akt'ubinsk)
Zone Asia/Aqtobe 3:48:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
4:00 - AKTT 1930 Jun 21 # Aktyubinsk Time
5:00 - AKTT 1981 Apr 1
5:00 1:00 AKTST 1981 Oct 1
6:00 - AKTT 1982 Apr 1
5:00 RussiaAsia AKT%sT 1991
5:00 - AKTT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Aqtobe Time
5:00 - AQTT
# Mangghystau
# Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
# so include time stamps before 1963.
Zone Asia/Aqtau 3:21:04 - LMT 1924 May 2
4:00 - FORT 1930 Jun 21 # Fort Shevchenko T
5:00 - FORT 1963
5:00 - SHET 1981 Oct 1 # Shevchenko Time
6:00 - SHET 1982 Apr 1
5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT 1991
5:00 - SHET 1991 Dec 16 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 1995 Mar lastSun 2:00 # Aqtau Time
4:00 RussiaAsia AQT%sT 2005 Mar 15
5:00 - AQTT
# West Kazakhstan
Zone Asia/Oral 3:25:24 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ural'sk
4:00 - URAT 1930 Jun 21 # Ural'sk time
5:00 - URAT 1981 Apr 1
5:00 1:00 URAST 1981 Oct 1
6:00 - URAT 1982 Apr 1
5:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00
4:00 RussiaAsia URA%sT 1991
4:00 - URAT 1991 Dec 16 # independence
4:00 RussiaAsia ORA%sT 2005 Mar 15 # Oral Time
5:00 - ORAT

# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
# According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
# <http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml>
# Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system. I take the article
# to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
# From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
# Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
# From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Apr Sun>=7 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Kyrgyz 1992 1996 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2005 - Mar lastSun 2:30 1:00 S
Rule Kyrgyz 1997 2004 - Oct lastSun 2:30 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Bishkek 4:58:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
5:00 - FRUT 1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 1:00 FRUST 1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
5:00 Kyrgyz KG%sT 2005 Aug 12 # Kyrgyzstan Time
6:00 - KGT

###############################################################################

# Korea (North and South)

# From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10) in
# <http://www.koreaherald.co.kr/SITE/data/html_dir/2006/07/10/200607100012.asp>:
# The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has already
# commissioned a research project [to reintroduce DST] and has said
# the system may begin as early as 2008.... Korea ran a daylight
# saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it during the 1950-53 Korean War.

# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule ROK 1960 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule ROK 1960 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
Rule ROK 1987 1988 - May Sun>=8 0:00 1:00 D
Rule ROK 1987 1988 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 0 S

# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-01):
# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger, except that I
# guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
# rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
# when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Seoul 8:27:52 - LMT 1890
8:30 - KST 1904 Dec
9:00 - JCST 1928
8:30 - KST 1932
9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 8
9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21
8:00 ROK K%sT 1961 Aug 10
8:30 - KST 1968 Oct
9:00 ROK K%sT
Zone Asia/Pyongyang 8:23:00 - LMT 1890
8:30 - KST 1904 Dec
9:00 - JCST 1928
8:30 - KST 1932
9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 24
9:00 - KST 1954 Mar 21
8:00 - KST 1961 Aug 10
9:00 - KST

###############################################################################

# Kuwait
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# From the Arab Times (2007-03-14):
# The Civil Service Commission (CSC) has approved a proposal forwarded
# by MP Ahmad Baqer on implementing the daylight saving time (DST) in
# Kuwait starting from April until the end of Sept this year, reports Al-Anba.
# <http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=9950>.
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
# We don't know the details, or whether the approval means it'll happen,
# so for now we assume no DST.
Zone Asia/Kuwait 3:11:56 - LMT 1950
3:00 - AST

# Laos
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Vientiane 6:50:24 - LMT 1906 Jun 9 # or Viangchan
7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
7:00 - ICT 1912 May
8:00 - ICT 1931 May
7:00 - ICT

# Lebanon
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1923 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1957 1961 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1957 1961 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1972 only - Jun 22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1972 1977 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1973 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1978 only - Apr 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1978 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1984 1987 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1984 1991 - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1988 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1989 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1990 1992 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1992 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1993 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Lebanon 1993 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Lebanon 1999 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Beirut 2:22:00 - LMT 1880
2:00 Lebanon EE%sT

# Malaysia
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Sep 14 0:00 0:20 TS # one-Third Summer
Rule NBorneo 1935 1941 - Dec 14 0:00 0 -
#
# peninsular Malaysia
# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur 6:46:46 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T.
7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time
7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1
7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1
7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
7:30 - MALT 1982 Jan 1
8:00 - MYT # Malaysia Time
# Sabah & Sarawak
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# The data here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945 and 1982
# transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kuching 7:21:20 - LMT 1926 Mar
7:30 - BORT 1933 # Borneo Time
8:00 NBorneo BOR%sT 1942 Feb 16
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
8:00 - BORT 1982 Jan 1
8:00 - MYT

# Maldives
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
4:54:00 - MMT 1960 # Male Mean Time
5:00 - MVT # Maldives Time

# Mongolia

# Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
# The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
# (2005-03) both say that it has just one.

# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
# General Information Mongolia
# <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
# Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
# eight hours."

# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
# being the last year it was implemented. The dates of implementation I am
# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
# of implementation may have been different....
# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
# Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
# is good enough for our purposes.

# From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
# In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
# (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
# there are three time zones.
#
# Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
# Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
# Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
# Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
#
# [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]

# From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
# Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
# It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
# September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
# For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
# Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
# We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
# Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
# there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
# Windows XP as the source. Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
# travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UTC+7, UTC+8) with no DST.
# Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
# Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
# He also found
# <http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&>
# which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
# (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
# The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
# and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
# The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
# parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
# For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.

# From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
# Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
# They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
# http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742

# From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
# We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
# Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
# +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
# database on this, e.g.:
#
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
# http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
#
# both say GMT+08:00.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
# eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
# schedule here:
# http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
# (click the English flag for English)
#
# There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
# about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
# direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
# direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
# in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
# Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).

# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
# Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
# XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
# was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
# this is almost surely wrong.

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Mongol 1983 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Mongol 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
# but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00. Also, IATA SSIM
# (1996-09) says 1996-10-25. Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
#
# Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
# in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
# at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
# the country. That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
# correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
# in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.

Rule Mongol 1985 1998 - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Mongol 1984 1998 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
Rule Mongol 2001 only - Apr lastSat 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Mongol 2001 2006 - Sep lastSat 2:00 0 -
Rule Mongol 2002 2006 - Mar lastSat 2:00 1:00 S

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
Zone Asia/Hovd 6:06:36 - LMT 1905 Aug
6:00 - HOVT 1978 # Hovd Time
7:00 Mongol HOV%sT
# Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
Zone Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 - LMT 1905 Aug
7:00 - ULAT 1978 # Ulaanbaatar Time
8:00 Mongol ULA%sT
# Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tuemen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
# Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
Zone Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 - LMT 1905 Aug
7:00 - ULAT 1978
8:00 - ULAT 1983 Apr
9:00 Mongol CHO%sT 2008 Mar 31 # Choibalsan Time
8:00 Mongol CHO%sT

# Nepal
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kathmandu 5:41:16 - LMT 1920
5:30 - IST 1986
5:45 - NPT # Nepal Time

# Oman

# Milne says 3:54:24 was the meridian of the Muscat Tidal Observatory.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Muscat 3:54:24 - LMT 1920
4:00 - GST

# Pakistan

# From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
# I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
# TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
# and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002. This is what I was
# told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
# 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.

# From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
# Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
# http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
# (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
# advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
# Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
# 15th October each year". This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
# but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
# it's not on a trial basis. Also, the "between the first Saturday
# and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
# transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.

# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
# DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
# that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight. Go with McDow for now.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
# According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
# there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
#
# ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
# Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
# decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
# one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
#
# The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
# shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.

# From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
#
# Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
# on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
#
# "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to help
# reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at 9pm and
# moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months.
# ...."
#
# http://www.worldtimezone.net/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
# http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4

# From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
# XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
# Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
# for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
# instead of August 31.
#
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
# http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
# Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
# advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
# to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
# official working."
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
#
# recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
# introduce DST from April 15, 2009
#
# FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
# April 08, 2009
# Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
#
# ....
# The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
# advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
# conserve energy"

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
# "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
# Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
# clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
# this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
# this regard."
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
# According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
# Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
# 1, 2009.
#
# "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
# Alexander Krivenyshev wrote:
# > According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
# > Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from October
# > 1, 2009.
#
# Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
# http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
# "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
# Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
# Monday."
#
# And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
# "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
# on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
# obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
#
# We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
# Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html

# From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
# [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
# will go back to standard time on 1st of November.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
# Steffen Thorsen wrote:
# > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
# > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
# >
# > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
# > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
# > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
# > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
# Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
#
# "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
# http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
#
# "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
# http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Apr Sun>=2 0:01 1:00 S
Rule Pakistan 2002 only - Oct Sun>=2 0:01 0 -
Rule Pakistan 2008 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Pakistan 2008 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Pakistan 2009 only - Apr 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Pakistan 2009 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
5:30 - IST 1942 Sep
5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 15
5:30 - IST 1951 Sep 30
5:00 - KART 1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
5:00 Pakistan PK%sT # Pakistan Time

# Palestine

# From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
#
# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
#
# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
# time zone was affected then). It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
# though.
#
# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
# Trans-Jordan"). So the rules for Jordan for that time apply. Major
# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
# East Jerusalem.
#
# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
# for East Jerusalem). They were on Israel time since then; there might
# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
#
# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995. I know that in order to
# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
# Jordanian one).
#
# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
#
# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
# Israel | Zion | Zion | Zion | Zion
# West bank | Zion | Jordan | Zion | Jordan
# Gaza | Zion | Egypt | Zion | Jordan
#
# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
# have one).

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
# to Palestine's rules.

# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
#
# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
# one-hour forward at this time. As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
# Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
# <http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html>
# (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
# Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
# A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
# the Ramadan. Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
# there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
# earlier - the same goes for Jordan.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
# I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
# same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
# was informed that they started DST one day after Israel. I was not
# able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
# Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
# the West Bank.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
# according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
# http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
# > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
# > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday. It is also time to turn
# > back the clocks for winter. Friday will begin an hour late this week.
# I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
# because of the Ramadan.

# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
# According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
# Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.

# From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
# My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
# the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
# surprised if they agreed about DST. But for now, assume they agree.
# For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
# the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
# Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
#
# Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
# the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
#
# http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
# http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
# According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
# government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
# 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
#
# (in Arabic)
# http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
#
# (English translation)
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
# Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
# winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
#
# One news source:
# http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
# (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
# Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
# headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
# 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
# minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
#
# We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
# end date, we will keep this page updated:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
# Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
#
# According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
# to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
#
# "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
# (from Palestinian National Authority):
# http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
# According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
# 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
# (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
#
# http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
# (in Arabic)
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
# ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
# start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
# noon though:
#
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
# (Ma'an News Agency)
# "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
# 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."

# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
# According to several sources, including
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
# the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
# Gaza and the West Bank.
# Some more background info:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
# Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
# August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
# 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
# Ramadan.
#
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
# Additional info:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html

# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
# According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
# "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
# move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
# Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
# The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
# the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
# ...
# http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
# West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
# 00:00).
# So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
#
# Many sources, including:
# http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808

# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
# Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
# on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
# Some of many sources in Arabic:
# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
#
# http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
#
# Our brief summary:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
# The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
# time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
# [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
# http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
# http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
# The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
# (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
# This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
# at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
# http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
# official source...:
# http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252

# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-24):
# For future dates, guess the last Thursday in March at 24:00 through
# the first Friday on or after September 21 at 00:00. This is consistent with
# the predictions in today's editions of the following URLs,
# which are for Gaza and Hebron respectively:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=702
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=2364

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule EgyptAsia 1957 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
Rule EgyptAsia 1957 1958 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule EgyptAsia 1958 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1967 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1965 - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
Rule EgyptAsia 1966 only - Oct 1 3:00 0 -

Rule Palestine 1999 2005 - Apr Fri>=15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 1999 2003 - Oct Fri>=15 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2004 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2005 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2006 2007 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2007 only - Sep Thu>=8 2:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2008 2009 - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2008 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2009 only - Sep Fri>=1 1:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2010 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2010 only - Aug 11 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2011 only - Apr 1 0:01 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2011 only - Aug 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2011 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2012 max - Mar lastThu 24:00 1:00 S
Rule Palestine 2012 only - Sep 21 1:00 0 -
Rule Palestine 2013 max - Sep Fri>=21 0:00 0 -

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Gaza 2:17:52 - LMT 1900 Oct
2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15
2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5
2:00 Zion I%sT 1996
2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999
2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2008 Aug 29 0:00
2:00 - EET 2008 Sep
2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2010
2:00 - EET 2010 Mar 27 0:01
2:00 Palestine EE%sT 2011 Aug 1
2:00 - EET 2012
2:00 Palestine EE%sT

Zone Asia/Hebron 2:20:23 - LMT 1900 Oct
2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15
2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5
2:00 Zion I%sT 1996
2:00 Jordan EE%sT 1999
2:00 Palestine EE%sT

# Paracel Is
# no information

# Philippines
# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
# History of the International Date Line
# <http://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm>.
# The rest of the data are from Shanks & Pottenger.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
# Tomorrow's Manila Standard reports that the Philippines Department of
# Trade and Industry is considering adopting DST this June when the
# rainy season begins. See
# <http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006>.
# For now, we'll ignore this, since it's not definite and we lack details.
#
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
# ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
# http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
# [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
# but no details]

# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Phil 1936 only - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Phil 1937 only - Feb 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Phil 1954 only - Apr 12 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Phil 1954 only - Jul 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Phil 1978 only - Mar 22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Phil 1978 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Manila -15:56:00 - LMT 1844 Dec 31
8:04:00 - LMT 1899 May 11
8:00 Phil PH%sT 1942 May
9:00 - JST 1944 Nov
8:00 Phil PH%sT

# Qatar
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Qatar 3:26:08 - LMT 1920 # Al Dawhah / Doha
4:00 - GST 1972 Jun
3:00 - AST

# Saudi Arabia
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Riyadh 3:06:52 - LMT 1950
3:00 - AST

# Singapore
# The data here are taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
# <http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html>.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:25 - LMT 1901 Jan 1
6:55:25 - SMT 1905 Jun 1 # Singapore M.T.
7:00 - MALT 1933 Jan 1 # Malaya Time
7:00 0:20 MALST 1936 Jan 1
7:20 - MALT 1941 Sep 1
7:30 - MALT 1942 Feb 16
9:00 - JST 1945 Sep 12
7:30 - MALT 1965 Aug 9 # independence
7:30 - SGT 1982 Jan 1 # Singapore Time
8:00 - SGT

# Spratly Is
# no information

# Sri Lanka

# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
# Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898. Prior to this Colombo
# mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used." But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
# from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
# Shanks and Pottenger.

# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
# (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
# reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
#
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
# by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
# <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.

# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
# <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
# 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
# at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).

# From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
# <http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML>
# [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
# kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
# Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
# People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
# as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.

# From K Sethu (2006-04-25):
# I think the abbreviation LKT originated from the world of computers at
# the time of or subsequent to the time zone changes by SL Government
# twice in 1996 and probably SL Government or its standardization
# agencies never declared an abbreviation as a national standard.
#
# I recollect before the recent change the government announcements
# mentioning it as simply changing Sri Lanka Standard Time or Sri Lanka
# Time and no mention was made about the abbreviation.
#
# If we look at Sri Lanka Department of Government's "Official News
# Website of Sri Lanka" ... http://www.news.lk/ we can see that they
# use SLT as abbreviation in time stamp at the beginning of each news
# item....
#
# Within Sri Lanka I think LKT is well known among computer users and
# administrators. In my opinion SLT may not be a good choice because the
# nation's largest telcom / internet operator Sri Lanka Telcom is well
# known by that abbreviation - simply as SLT (there IP domains are
# slt.lk and sltnet.lk).
#
# But if indeed our government has adopted SLT as standard abbreviation
# (that we have not known so far) then it is better that it be used for
# all computers.

# From Paul Eggert (2006-04-25):
# One possibility is that we wait for a bit for the dust to settle down
# and then see what people actually say in practice.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Colombo 5:19:24 - LMT 1880
5:19:32 - MMT 1906 # Moratuwa Mean Time
5:30 - IST 1942 Jan 5
5:30 0:30 IHST 1942 Sep
5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 16 2:00
5:30 - IST 1996 May 25 0:00
6:30 - LKT 1996 Oct 26 0:30
6:00 - LKT 2006 Apr 15 0:30
5:30 - IST

# Syria
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1920 1923 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1962 only - Apr 29 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1962 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1963 1965 - May 1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1963 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1964 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1965 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1966 only - Apr 24 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1966 1976 - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1967 1978 - May 1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1977 1978 - Sep 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1983 1984 - Apr 9 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1983 1984 - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1986 only - Feb 16 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1986 only - Oct 9 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1987 only - Mar 1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1987 1988 - Oct 31 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1988 only - Mar 15 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1989 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1989 only - Oct 1 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1990 only - Apr 1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1990 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1991 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1991 1992 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1992 only - Apr 8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1993 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1993 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -
# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
# (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
# for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
# except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
Rule Syria 1994 1996 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1994 2005 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1997 1998 - Mar lastMon 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1999 2006 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
# From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
# According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
# this year [only].... This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
Rule Syria 2006 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 -
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
# Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
# http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
Rule Syria 2007 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
# From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
# The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
# not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
# rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
# having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
# weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
# it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
# Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
#
# > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
# > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
#
# I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
# http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
#
# which using Google's translate tools says:
# Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
# identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
# minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
Rule Syria 2007 only - Nov Fri>=1 0:00 0 -

# From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
# For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
# this month (March 2008) in the last day or so...This is the data IATA
# are now using:
# Country Time Standard --- DST Start --- --- DST End --- DST
# Name Zone Variation Time Date Time Date
# Variation
# Syrian Arab
# Republic SY +0200 2200 03APR08 2100 30SEP08 +0300
# 2200 02APR09 2100 30SEP09 +0300
# 2200 01APR10 2100 30SEP10 +0300

# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
# Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
# Agency (SANA)...
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
# ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
# Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
# 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
# Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
# shown above match up with midnight in Syria.

# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
# My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
# coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
# compilers can't handle or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
# For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
# Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
# according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
#
# The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
# winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
# clocks back 60 minutes).
#
# http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
# Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
# two examples:
#
# http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
# (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
# http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
# (Arabic, gov-site)
#
# We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
#
# Our summary
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html

# From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
# The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
# revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
# 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)

# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
# We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
# Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
# something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.

# From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
# The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
# Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
# 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
# http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)

# From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
# Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
# (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
#
# From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
# http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
#
# Our brief summary:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html

# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
# Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.

Rule Syria 2008 only - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 2008 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Syria 2009 only - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 2010 2011 - Apr Fri>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 2012 max - Mar lastFri 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 2009 max - Oct lastFri 0:00 0 -

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Damascus 2:25:12 - LMT 1920 # Dimashq
2:00 Syria EE%sT

# Tajikistan
# From Shanks & Pottenger.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Dushanbe 4:35:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
5:00 - DUST 1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 1:00 DUSST 1991 Sep 9 2:00s
5:00 - TJT # Tajikistan Time

# Thailand
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Bangkok 6:42:04 - LMT 1880
6:42:04 - BMT 1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
7:00 - ICT

# Turkmenistan
# From Shanks & Pottenger.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Ashgabat 3:53:32 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ashkhabad
4:00 - ASHT 1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00
4:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Oct 27 # independence
4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00
5:00 - TMT

# United Arab Emirates
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Dubai 3:41:12 - LMT 1920
4:00 - GST

# Uzbekistan
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
4:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
5:00 - SAMT 1981 Apr 1
5:00 1:00 SAMST 1981 Oct 1
6:00 - TAST 1982 Apr 1 # Tashkent Time
5:00 RussiaAsia SAM%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992
5:00 - UZT
# Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:11 - LMT 1924 May 2
5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00
5:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Sep 1 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1992
5:00 - UZT

# Vietnam

# From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
# Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
# used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam. But this is quite a ways
# from Saigon's location. For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
# and Pottenger.

# From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
# The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
# City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.

# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh 7:06:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
7:06:20 - SMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
7:00 - ICT 1912 May
8:00 - ICT 1931 May
7:00 - ICT

# Yemen

# Milne says 2:59:54 was the meridian of the saluting battery at Aden,
# and that Yemen was at 1:55:56, the meridian of the Hagia Sophia.

# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Aden 2:59:54 - LMT 1950
3:00 - AST
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