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# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
# This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@iana.org for general use in the future). For more, please see
# the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-31):
#
# Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
# Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
#
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990. Except where otherwise noted,
# IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
# entries through 1991, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Other sources occasionally used include:
#
# Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
# which I found in the UCLA library.
#
# William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
# <http://cs.ucla.edu/~eggert/The-Waste-of-Daylight-19th.pdf>
# [PDF] (1914-03)
#
# Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94
# <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359>. He writes:
# "It is requested that corrections and additions to these tables
# may be sent to Mr. John Milne, Royal Geographical Society,
# Savile Row, London." Nowadays please email them to tz@iana.org.
#
# Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
# This Russian-language source was consulted by Vladimir Karpinsky; see
# http://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-August/021320.html
# The full Russian citation is:
# Бялокоз, Евгений Людвигович. Новый счет времени в течении суток
# введенный декретом Совета народных комиссаров для всей России с 1-го
# июля 1919 г. / Изд. 2-е Междуведомственной комиссии. - Петроград:
# Десятая гос. тип., 1919.
# http://resolver.gpntb.ru/purl?docushare/dsweb/Get/Resource-2011/Byalokoz__E.L.__Novyy__schet__vremeni__v__techenie__sutok__izd__2(1).pdf
#
# Brazil's Divisão Serviço da Hora (DSHO),
# History of Summer Time
# <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm>
# (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked '*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
# std dst 2dst
# LMT Local Mean Time
# -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic
# -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*
# -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
# 0:00 GMT BST BDST Greenwich, British Summer
# 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
# 0:00 WET WEST WEMT Western Europe
# 0:19:32.13 AMT NST Amsterdam, Netherlands Summer (1835-1937)*
# 0:20 NET NEST Netherlands (1937-1940)*
# 1:00 BST British Standard (1968-1971)
# 1:00 CET CEST CEMT Central Europe
# 1:00:14 SET Swedish (1879-1899)*
# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
# 3:00 FET Further-eastern Europe (2011-2014)*
# 3:00 MSK MSD MSM* Minsk, Moscow
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-12-04),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
# ...
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
# ...
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.
###############################################################################
# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
# of the text said:
#
# 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
# position is 51 degrees 28' 30" N, 0 degrees 18' 45" W. The longitude should
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
# From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-19):
# The ancients had no need for daylight saving, as they kept time
# informally or via hours whose length depended on the time of year.
# Daylight saving time in its modern sense was invented by the
# New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson (1867-1946),
# whose day job as a postal clerk led him to value
# after-hours daylight in which to pursue his research.
# In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society
# that proposed a two-hour daylight-saving shift. See:
# Hudson GV. On seasonal time-adjustment in countries south of lat. 30 deg.
# Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1895;28:734
# http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_28/rsnz_28_00_006110.html
# Although some interest was expressed in New Zealand, his proposal
# did not find its way into law and eventually it was almost forgotten.
#
# In England, DST was independently reinvented by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
# who circulated a pamphlet "The Waste of Daylight" (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
# Later editions of the pamphlet proposed one-hour summer time, and
# it was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
# See: Summer Time Arrives Early, The Times (2000-05-18).
# A monument to Willett was unveiled on 1927-05-21, in an open space in
# a 45-acre wood near Chislehurst, Kent that was purchased by popular
# subscription and open to the public. On the south face of the monolith,
# designed by G. W. Miller, is the William Willett Memorial Sundial,
# which is permanently set to Summer Time.
# From Winston Churchill (1934-04-28):
# It is one of the paradoxes of history that we should owe the boon of
# summer time, which gives every year to the people of this country
# between 160 and 170 hours more daylight leisure, to a war which
# plunged Europe into darkness for four years, and shook the
# foundations of civilization throughout the world.
# -- "A Silent Toast to William Willett", Pictorial Weekly;
# republished in Finest Hour (Spring 2002) 1(114):26
# http://www.winstonchurchill.org/images/finesthour/Vol.01%20No.114.pdf
# From Paul Eggert (2015-08-08):
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said "Daylight Saving"
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using "Summer".
# The term "Summer Time" was introduced by Herbert Samuel, Home Secretary; see:
# Viscount Samuel. Leisure in a Democracy. Cambridge University Press
# ISBN 978-1-107-49471-8 (1949, reissued 2015), p 8.
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
# From: Jonathan Leffler
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.
# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-14):
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
# From Joseph S. Myers (2000-10-03):
# On 18th April 1941, Sir Stephen Tallents of the BBC wrote to Sir
# Alexander Maxwell of the Home Office asking whether there was any
# official designation; the reply of the 21st was that there wasn't
# but he couldn't think of anything better than the "Double British
# Summer Time" that the BBC had been using informally.
# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/bbc-19410418.png
# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/ho-19410421.png
# From Sir Alexander Maxwell in the above-mentioned letter (1941-04-21):
# [N]o official designation has as far as I know been adopted for the time
# which is to be introduced in May....
# I cannot think of anything better than "Double British Summer Time"
# which could not be said to run counter to any official description.
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Howse writes (p 157) 'DBST' too, but 'BDST' seems to have been common
# and follows the more usual convention of putting the location name first,
# so we use 'BDST'.
# Peter Ilieve (1998-04-19) described at length
# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers has been updating
# and extending this list, which can be found in
# http://www.polyomino.org.uk/british-time/
# From Joseph S. Myers (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
# http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo970611/text/70611-10.htm#70611-10_head0
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976).
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
#
# For lack of other data, follow Shanks & Pottenger for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks & Pottenger
# are incorrect:
# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
# * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
# It actually just had one transition.
# * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
# * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
#
# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks & Pottenger:
# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
# to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
# conform with Great Britain.
# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
#
# The following claim by Shanks & Pottenger is possible though doubtful;
# we'll ignore it for now.
# * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
#
#
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than
# Shanks & Pottenger.
# Perhaps this was Dunsink Observatory Time, as Dunsink Observatory
# (8 km NW of Dublin's center) seemingly was to Dublin as Greenwich was
# to London. For example:
#
# "Timeball on the ballast office is down. Dunsink time."
# -- James Joyce, Ulysses
# "Countess Markievicz ... claimed that the [1916] abolition of Dublin Mean Time
# was among various actions undertaken by the 'English' government that
# would 'put the whole country into the SF (Sinn Féin) camp'. She claimed
# Irish 'public feeling (was) outraged by forcing of English time on us'."
# -- Parsons M. Dublin lost its time zone - and 25 minutes - after 1916 Rising.
# Irish Times 2014-10-27.
# http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/dublin-lost-its-time-zone-and-25-minutes-after-1916-rising-1.1977411
# From Joseph S. Myers (2005-01-26):
# Irish laws are available online at <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie>.
# These include various relating to legal time, for example:
#
# ZZA13Y1923.html ZZA12Y1924.html ZZA8Y1925.html ZZSIV20PG1267.html
#
# ZZSI71Y1947.html ZZSI128Y1948.html ZZSI23Y1949.html ZZSI41Y1950.html
# ZZSI27Y1951.html ZZSI73Y1952.html
#
# ZZSI11Y1961.html ZZSI232Y1961.html ZZSI182Y1962.html
# ZZSI167Y1963.html ZZSI257Y1964.html ZZSI198Y1967.html
# ZZA23Y1968.html ZZA17Y1971.html
#
# ZZSI67Y1981.html ZZSI212Y1982.html ZZSI45Y1986.html
# ZZSI264Y1988.html ZZSI52Y1990.html ZZSI371Y1992.html
# ZZSI395Y1994.html ZZSI484Y1997.html ZZSI506Y2001.html
#
# [These are all relative to the root, e.g., the first is
# <http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZA13Y1923.html>.]
#
# (These are those I found, but there could be more. In any case these
# should allow various updates to the comments in the europe file to cover
# the laws applicable in Ireland.)
#
# (Note that the time in the Republic of Ireland since 1968 has been defined
# in terms of standard time being GMT+1 with a period of winter time when it
# is GMT, rather than standard time being GMT with a period of summer time
# being GMT+1.)
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
# and Frethun run in CT.
# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive No. 94/21/EC.
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Summer Time Act, 1916
Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1947
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
# (no summer time)
# The Summer Time Act, 1972
Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
#
# Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1 0:00s
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
0:00 EU GMT/BST
Link Europe/London Europe/Jersey
Link Europe/London Europe/Guernsey
Link Europe/London Europe/Isle_of_Man
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:00 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
-0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00
-0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
0:00 1:00 IST 1947 Nov 2 2:00
0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
1:00 - IST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
0:00 EU GMT/IST
###############################################################################
# Europe
# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
# Common Market, etc.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
# The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002. See:
# Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
# of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.
# http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0084:EN:NOT
# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1944 1945 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-07-13):
#
# I found what is probably a typo of 2:00 which should perhaps be 2:00s
# in the C-Eur rule from tz database version 2008d (this part was
# corrected in version 2008d). The circumstantial evidence is simply the
# tz database itself, as seen below:
#
# Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
#
# Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
# 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
#
# Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
# 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
#
# Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
# Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
# Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
#
# The rule line to be changed is:
#
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00 0 -
#
# It seems that Paris, Monaco, Rule France, Rule Belgium all agree on
# 2:00 standard time, e.g. 3:00 local time. However there are no
# countries that use C-Eur rules in September 1945, so the only items
# affected are apparently these fictitious zones that translate acronyms
# CET and MET:
#
# Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
# Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
#
# It this is right then the corrected version would look like:
#
# Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
#
# A small step for mankind though 8-)
Rule C-Eur 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
Rule E-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule E-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule E-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule E-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 0:00 1:00 S
Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST
Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 MSD
Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 MSK
Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 MSD
Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 MSM # Midsummer
Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 MSD
Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
# Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
#
Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
Rule Russia 1993 2010 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1993 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule Russia 1996 2010 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# As described below, Russia's 2014 change affects Zone data, not Rule data.
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
# According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
# signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
# According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
#
# Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
# http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
#
# Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
# http://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
# From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
# Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
# to be standard.
# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT
Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
# From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
# The official German names ... are
#
# Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
# Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
#
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
#
# Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
# Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
# Postfach 3345
# D-38023 Braunschweig
# phone: +49 531 592-0
#
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
# department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
#
# Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00
# Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
# Albania
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Andorra
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Austria
# Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
# 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
# Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
# date of 1945-04-12 with no time. For the 1980-04-06 transition
# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV,
# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:21 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1920
1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00s
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Apr 12 2:00s
1:00 - CET 1946
1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Belarus
# From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
# By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
# GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
#
# Sources (Russian language):
# http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
# http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
# http://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
#
# From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
# Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
# http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
# From Paul Eggert (2014-10-08):
# Hence Belarus can share time zone abbreviations with Moscow again.
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 1:00s
3:00 - MSK
# Belgium
#
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
# pp 8-9.
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
# Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Belgium 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1918 1919 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1922 1927 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1928 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8
1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 20 2:00s
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 3
1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Bosnia and Herzegovina
# See Europe/Belgrade.
# Bulgaria
#
# From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
# EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
# EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat>=1 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1:00 - CET 1945 Apr 2 3:00
2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 3:00
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Croatia
# See Europe/Belgrade.
# Cyprus
# Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
# Czech Republic
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
# Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
# http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
# [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
# The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
# confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
#
# The EU treaty with effect from 1973:
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
#
# This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
# in subsequent decrees with the law
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
#
# It seems however that no decree was set forward until 1980. I have
# not found any decree, but in another related law, the effecting DST
# changes are stated explicitly to be from 1980-04-06 at 02:00 to
# 1980-09-28 at 02:00. If this is true, this differs slightly from
# the EU rule in that DST runs to 02:00, not 03:00. We don't know
# when Denmark began using the EU rule correctly, but we have only
# confirmation of the 1980-time, so I presume it was correct in 1981:
# The law is about the management of the extra hour, concerning
# working hours reported and effect on obligatory-rest rules (which
# was suspended on that night):
# http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/C19801120554-REGL
# From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-06-11):
# The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
# Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
# From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
# Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
# wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Jan 1 # Copenhagen MT
1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Faroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
0:00 - WET 1981
0:00 EU WE%sT
#
# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
# During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
# East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
# My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
# and left the EU on 1985-02-01. It therefore should have been using EU
# rules at least through 1984. Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
# rules since at least 1991. Assume EU rules since 1980.
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-06), citing
# <http://www.statkart.no/efs/efshefter/2001/efs5-2001.pdf> (2001-03-15),
# and with translations corrected by Steffen Thorsen:
#
# Greenland has four local times, and the relation to UTC
# is according to the following time line:
#
# The military zone near Thule UTC-4
# Standard Greenland time UTC-3
# Scoresbysund UTC-1
# Danmarkshavn UTC
#
# In the military area near Thule and in Danmarkshavn DST will not be
# introduced.
# From Rives McDow (2001-11-01):
#
# I correspond regularly with the Dansk Polarcenter, and wrote them at
# the time to clarify the situation in Thule. Unfortunately, I have
# not heard back from them regarding my recent letter. [But I have
# info from earlier correspondence.]
#
# According to the center, a very small local time zone around Thule
# Air Base keeps the time according to UTC-4, implementing daylight
# savings using North America rules, changing the time at 02:00 local time....
#
# The east coast of Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund
# uses UTC in the same way as in Iceland, year round, with no dst.
# There are just a few stations on this coast, including the
# Danmarkshavn ICAO weather station mentioned in your September 29th
# email. The other stations are two sledge patrol stations in
# Mestersvig and Daneborg, the air force base at Station Nord, and the
# DPC research station at Zackenberg.
#
# Scoresbysund and two small villages nearby keep time UTC-1 and use
# the same daylight savings time period as in West Greenland (Godthåb).
#
# The rest of Greenland, including Godthåb (this area, although it
# includes central Greenland, is known as west Greenland), keeps time
# UTC-3, with daylight savings methods according to European rules.
#
# It is common procedure to use UTC 0 in the wilderness of East and
# North Greenland, because it is mainly Icelandic aircraft operators
# maintaining traffic in these areas. However, the official status of
# this area is that it sticks with Godthåb time. This area might be
# considered a dual time zone in some respects because of this.
# From Rives McDow (2001-11-19):
# I heard back from someone stationed at Thule; the time change took place
# there at 2:00 AM.
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# From 1997 on the CIA map shows Danmarkshavn on GMT;
# the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
# For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
# startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
# so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
# For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Thule 1991 1992 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Thule 1993 2006 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
Rule Thule 2007 max - Mar Sun>=8 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Thule 2007 max - Nov Sun>=1 2:00 0 S
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
-3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
-3:00 EU WG%sT 1996
0:00 - GMT
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
-2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
-2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29
-1:00 EU EG%sT
Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
-3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
-3:00 EU WG%sT
Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
-4:00 Thule A%sT
# Estonia
# From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
#
# From Peter Ilieve (1996-10-28):
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
# "I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
# human physiology. It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
# summer time next spring."
# From Peter Ilieve (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
# http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22-27, 120).
#
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
# From The Baltic Times <http://www.baltictimes.com/> (1999-09-09)
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
# Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
# for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
# after that.
# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
# Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
# No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
# the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
# From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
# The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
# Now we are using again EU rules.
#
# From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
# The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul
1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22
2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Oct 31 4:00
2:00 - EET 2002 Feb 21
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Finland
# From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
# From Janne Snabb (2010-07-15):
#
# I noticed that the Finland data is not accurate for years 1981 and 1982.
# During these two first trial years the DST adjustment was made one hour
# earlier than in forthcoming years. Starting 1983 the adjustment was made
# according to the central European standards.
#
# This is documented in Heikki Oja: Aikakirja 2007, published by The Almanac
# Office of University of Helsinki, ISBN 952-10-3221-9, available online (in
# Finnish) at
# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/aikakirja/Aikakirja2007kokonaan.pdf
#
# Page 105 (56 in PDF version) has a handy table of all past daylight savings
# transitions. It is easy enough to interpret without Finnish skills.
#
# This is also confirmed by Finnish Broadcasting Company's archive at:
# http://www.yle.fi/elavaarkisto/?s=s&g=1&ag=5&t=&a=3401
#
# The news clip from 1981 says that "the time between 2 and 3 o'clock does not
# exist tonight."
# From Konstantin Hyppönen (2014-06-13):
# [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
# http://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
# pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
# say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
# 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
# mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
# On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
# Go with Oja over Shanks.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 2 24:00 1:00 S
Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 4 1:00 0 -
Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Finland 1981 1982 - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
# Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
# round to nearest.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 - LMT 1878 May 31
1:39:49 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
2:00 Finland EE%sT 1983
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Åland Is
Link Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
# France
# From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
#
# Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
# Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
#
# Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
# Paris, 1991
#
# Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,
# Guy Trédaniel, Paris 1987
#
# Shank & Pottenger seem to use '24:00' ambiguously; resolve it with Whitman.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
# were Apr 12 and Oct 5. Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris, but Shanks & Pottenger
# write that they were used in Monaco and in many French locations.
# Le Corre writes that the upper limit of the free zone was Arnéguy, Orthez,
# Mont-de-Marsan, Bazas, Langon, Lamothe-Montravel, Marœuil, La
# Rochefoucauld, Champagne-Mouton, La Roche-Posay, La Haye-Descartes,
# Loches, Montrichard, Vierzon, Bourges, Moulins, Digoin,
# Paray-le-Monial, Montceau-les-Mines, Chalon-sur-Saône, Arbois,
# Dole, Morez, St-Claude, and Collonges (Haute-Savoie).
Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
# Shanks & Pottenger say this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
# but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
# who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
# Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S
Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Paris MT
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
# Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Germany
# From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
# [See tz-link.htm for the URL.]
# From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
# In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by
# http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/BersarinNikolai/
# General [Nikolai] Bersarin.
# From Paul Eggert (2003-03-08):
# http://www.parlament-berlin.de/pds-fraktion.nsf/727459127c8b66ee8525662300459099/defc77cb784f180ac1256c2b0030274b/$FILE/bersarint.pdf
# says that Bersarin issued an order to use Moscow time on May 20.
# However, Moscow did not observe daylight saving in 1945, so
# this was equivalent to CEMT (GMT+3), not GMT+4.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
# http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
# occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
# Go with the PTB.
Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 3:00s 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M
Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule SovietZone 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
Rule SovietZone 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 24 2:00
1:00 SovietZone CE%sT 1946
1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
# From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
# Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
# Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
# (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
# DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
# which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
#
# Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
# http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
# Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Busingen
# Georgia
# Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
# Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
# is in Europe. Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
# Gibraltar
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2 0:00s
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
1:00 - CET 1982
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Greece
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30
1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4
2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
# Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
# go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Hungary
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
# Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
# Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
# National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
# http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
# This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
# & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1919 only - Nov 24 3:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 8
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Iceland
#
# From Adam David (1993-11-06):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
# (1993-12-05):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
#
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
# (1993-12-10):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
# the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???).
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-11-22):
# The information below is taken from the 1988 Almanak; see
# http://www.almanak.hi.is/klukkan.html
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Iceland 1917 1919 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -
Rule Iceland 1918 1919 - Nov 16 1:00 0 -
Rule Iceland 1921 only - Mar 19 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Iceland 1921 only - Jun 23 1:00 0 -
Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Iceland 1939 only - Oct 29 2:00 0 -
Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Iceland 1940 1941 - Nov Sun>=2 1:00s 0 -
Rule Iceland 1941 1942 - Mar Sun>=2 1:00s 1:00 S
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Iceland 1942 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
# 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -
Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908
-1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
0:00 - GMT
# Italy
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
# Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
# called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
# During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
# But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
# so record only the time in Rome.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks & Pottenger, Whitman, and
# F. Pollastri
# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (2006-02-03)
# http://toi.iriti.cnr.it/uk/ienitlt.html
# ('FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
# year FP Shanks&P. (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
# 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W
# 09-30 09-30 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1917 04-01 03-31 24:00 03-31 00:00 FP & S
# 09-30 09-29 24:00 09-30 01:00 FP & W
# 1918 03-09 03-09 24:00 03-09 00:00 FP & S
# 10-06 10-05 24:00 10-06 01:00 FP & W
# 1919 03-01 03-01 24:00 03-01 00:00 FP & S
# 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S
# 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur)
# 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S
# 09-20 09-27 00:00 S
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov 1 0:00s # Rome Mean
1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul
1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# Latvia
# From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
#
# Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
# according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
#
# Act No. 592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
# according to the Act No. 967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
#
# Act No. 81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
# according to the Act No. 227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
#
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
# 29-Feb-2000 (No. 79) <http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm>,
# in Latvian for subscribers only).
# From RFE/RL Newsline
# http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/01/3-CEE/cee-030101.html
# (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
# The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
# institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
# Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
# clocks one hour in the spring....
# Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
# daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
# Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
# time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
# urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
# appears that they will not do so....
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
# Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
# Go with Byalokoz.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880
1:36:34 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 # Riga MT
1:36:34 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 # Latvian ST
1:36:34 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
1:36:34 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
1:36:34 - RMT 1926 May 11
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
2:00 - EET 2001 Jan 2
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Liechtenstein
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
# http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
# ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
# I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
# ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
# introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on
# central European time was in force throughout the year.
# From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
# regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
# Lithuania
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
# From Marius Gedminas (1998-08-07):
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
# From ELTA No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29) <http://www.elta.lt/>,
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
# to be valid here starting from October 31,
# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
# already done by Estonia.
# From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
# <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
# Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
# From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
# As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
# observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
# down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
# neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
# 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
# http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12
2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
2:00 - EET 2003 Jan 1
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00
1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Macedonia
# See Europe/Belgrade.
# Malta
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 0:00s # Valletta
1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Moldova
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
# that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.
# However, this is most likely an error, as Moldova declared independence
# on 1991-08-27 (the 1992-01-19 date is that of a Russian decree).
# In early 1992 there was large-scale interethnic violence in the area
# and it's possible that some Russophones continued to observe Moscow time.
# But [two people] separately reported via
# Jesper Nørgaard that as of 2001-01-24 Tiraspol was like Chisinau.
# The Tiraspol entry has therefore been removed for now.
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-17):
# Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, also known as
# "Pridnestrovie") has abolished seasonal clock change (no transition
# to the Winter Time).
#
# News (in Russian):
# http://www.kyivpost.ua/russia/news/pridnestrove-otkazalos-ot-perehoda-na-zimnee-vremya-30954.html
# http://www.allmoldova.com/moldova-news/1249064116.html
#
# The substance of this change (reinstatement of the Tiraspol entry)
# is from a patch from Petr Machata (2011-10-17)
#
# From Tim Parenti (2011-10-19)
# In addition, being situated at +4651+2938 would give Tiraspol
# a pre-1880 LMT offset of 1:58:32.
#
# (which agrees with the earlier entry that had been removed)
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-26)
# NO need to divide Moldova into two timezones at this point.
# As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
# decision to abolish DST this winter.
# Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
# Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
# News from Moldova (in russian):
# http://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
# From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
# http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
# From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
# The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
# 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time. Also,
# http://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
# says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
# Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Moldova 1997 max - Mar lastSun 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Moldova 1997 max - Oct lastSun 3:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880
1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
2:00 - EET 1991
2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
2:00 Moldova EE%sT
# Monaco
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
# more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Montenegro
# See Europe/Belgrade.
# Netherlands
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
# Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
# Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
# the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
# (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
# common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was
# not until 1909 when the Dutch government finally defined this by law.
# On 1937-07-01 this was changed to 20 minutes (exactly) ahead of GMT and
# was generally known as Dutch Time ("Nederlandse Tijd").
#
# (2001-04-08):
# 1892-05-01 was the date when the Dutch railways were by law required to
# observe GMT while the remainder of the Netherlands adhered to the common
# practice of following Amsterdam mean time.
#
# (2001-04-09):
# In 1835 the authorities of the province of North Holland requested the
# municipal authorities of the towns and cities in the province to observe
# Amsterdam mean time but I do not know in how many cases this request was
# actually followed.
#
# From 1852 onwards the Dutch telegraph offices were by law required to
# observe Amsterdam mean time. As the time signals from the observatory of
# Leiden were also distributed by the telegraph system, I assume that most
# places linked up with the telegraph (and railway) system automatically
# adopted Amsterdam mean time.
#
# Although the early Dutch railway companies initially observed a variety
# of times, most of them had adopted Amsterdam mean time by 1858 but it
# was not until 1866 when they were all required by law to observe
# Amsterdam mean time.
# The data entries before 1945 are taken from
# http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wettijd.htm
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep lastMon 2:00s 0 AMT
Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun Fri>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
# From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
# in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
#
# Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13 exactly, but the .13 is omitted
# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:32 - LMT 1835
0:19:32 Neth %s 1937 Jul 1
0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:00 # Dutch Time
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Norway
# http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
# Pottenger.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895 Jan 1
1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
# From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
# Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
# Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
# time they were declared as parts of Norway. Svalbard was declared
# as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
# Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>). The law/regulation
# for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
# into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
# part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
# <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been
# able to find if Jan Mayen used a different time zone (e.g. -0100)
# before 1930. Jan Mayen has only been "inhabited" since 1921 by
# Norwegian meteorologists and maybe used the same time as Norway ever
# since 1921. Svalbard (Arctic/Longyearbyen) has been inhabited since
# before 1895, and therefore probably changed the local time somewhere
# between 1895 and 1925 (inclusive).
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-04):
#
# Actually, Jan Mayen was never occupied by Germany during World War II,
# so it must have diverged from Oslo time during the war, as Oslo was
# keeping Berlin time.
#
# <http://home.no.net/janmayen/history.htm> says that the meteorologists
# burned down their station in 1940 and left the island, but returned in
# 1941 with a small Norwegian garrison and continued operations despite
# frequent air attacks from Germans. In 1943 the Americans established a
# radiolocating station on the island, called "Atlantic City". Possibly
# the UT offset changed during the war, but I think it unlikely that
# Jan Mayen used German daylight-saving rules.
#
# Svalbard is more complicated, as it was raided in August 1941 by an
# Allied party that evacuated the civilian population to England (says
# <http://www.bartleby.com/65/sv/Svalbard.html>). The Svalbard FAQ
# <http://www.svalbard.com/SvalbardFAQ.html> says that the Germans were
# expelled on 1942-05-14. However, small parties of Germans did return,
# and according to Wilhelm Dege's book "War North of 80" (1954)
# http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP/1-55238/1-55238-110-2.html
# the German armed forces at the Svalbard weather station code-named
# Haudegen did not surrender to the Allies until September 1945.
#
# All these events predate our cutoff date of 1970, so use Europe/Oslo
# for these regions.
Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
# Poland
# The 1919 dates and times can be found in Tygodnik Urzędowy nr 1 (1919-03-20),
# <http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/publication/32156> pp 1-2.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
# For 1946 on the source is Kazimierz Borkowski,
# Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
# http://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
# Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
# He also gives these further references:
# Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
# Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977
1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1988
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Portugal
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
# According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
# http://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
# Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
# Round the old offset to -0:36:45. This agrees with Willett but disagrees
# with Shanks, who says the transition occurred on 1911-05-24 at 00:00 for
# Europe/Lisbon, Atlantic/Azores, and Atlantic/Madeira.
#
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
#
# Martin Bruckmann (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u. Assume that these are typos.
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
# Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
# Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
# Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:45 - LMT 1884
-0:36:45 - LMT 1912 Jan 1 # Lisbon Mean Time
0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00
1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
0:00 W-Eur WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
0:00 EU WE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
-1:54:32 - HMT 1912 Jan 1 # Horta Mean Time
-2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time
-1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
-1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
0:00 EU WE%sT 1993 Mar 28 1:00u
-1:00 EU AZO%sT
Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
-1:07:36 - FMT 1912 Jan 1 # Funchal Mean Time
-1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time
0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
0:00 EU WE%sT
# Romania
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
# Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
# (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
# the same year as Bulgaria.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1991 1993 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Russia
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
# Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
# (Government document
# http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
# in Russian)
# there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
# All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
# by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm
# From Sanjeev Gupta (2011-09-27):
# Scans of [Decree No. 23 of January 8, 1992] are available at:
# http://government.consultant.ru/page.aspx?1223966
# They are in Cyrillic letters (presumably Russian).
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Regarding the instant when clocks in time-zone-shifting parts of Russia
# changed in September 2011:
#
# One source is
# http://government.ru/gov/results/16355/
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Decree of August 31,
# 2011 No. 725" and contains no other dates or "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
# http://www.rg.ru/2011/09/06/chas-zona-dok.html
# which, according to translate.google.com, begins "Resolution of the
# Government of the Russian Federation on August 31, 2011 N 725" and also
# contains "Date first official publication: September 6, 2011 Posted on:
# in the 'RG' - Federal Issue No. 5573 September 6, 2011" but which
# does not contain any "effective date" information.
#
# Another source is
# http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oymyakonsky_District#cite_note-RuTime-7
# which, in note 8, contains "Resolution No. 725 of August 31, 2011...
# Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
# but which does not contain any reference to September 6, 2011.
#
# The Wikipedia article refers to
# http://base.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=LAW;n=118896
# which seems to copy the text of the government.ru page.
#
# Tobias Conradi combines Wikipedia's
# "as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication"
# with www.rg.ru's "Date of first official publication: September 6, 2011" to
# get September 13, 2011 as the cutover date (unusually, a Tuesday, as Tobias
# Conradi notes).
#
# None of the sources indicates a time of day for changing clocks.
#
# Go with 2011-09-13 0:00s.
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-01):
# According to the Russian news (ITAR-TASS News Agency)
# http://en.itar-tass.com/russia/738562
# the State Duma has approved ... the draft bill on returning to
# winter time standard and return Russia 11 time zones. The new
# regulations will come into effect on October 26, 2014 at 02:00 ...
# http://asozd2.duma.gov.ru/main.nsf/%28Spravka%29?OpenAgent&RN=431985-6&02
# Here is a link where we put together table (based on approved Bill N
# 431985-6) with proposed 11 Russian time zones and corresponding
# areas/cities/administrative centers in the Russian Federation (in English):
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia65.html
#
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-22):
# Putin signed the Federal Law 431985-6 ... (in Russian)
# http://itar-tass.com/obschestvo/1333711
# http://www.pravo.gov.ru:8080/page.aspx?111660
# http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/46279
# From October 26, 2014 the new Russian time zone map will looks like this:
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-map-2014-07.html
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks & Pottenger,
# except we follow Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat
# 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
#
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
#
# From Andrey A. Chernov (1996-10-04):
# 'MSK' and 'MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
# UNIX-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
#
# From Chris Carrier (1996-10-30):
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
#
# For Grozny, Chechnya, we have the following story from
# John Daniszewski, "Scavengers in the Rubble", Los Angeles Times (2001-02-07):
# News - often false - is spread by word of mouth. A rumor that it was
# time to move the clocks back put this whole city out of sync with
# the rest of Russia for two weeks - even soldiers stationed here began
# enforcing curfew at the wrong time.
#
# From Gwillim Law (2001-06-05):
# There's considerable evidence that Sakhalin Island used to be in
# UTC+11, and has changed to UTC+10, in this decade. I start with the
# SSIM, which listed Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk in zone RU10 along with Magadan
# until February 1997, and then in RU9 with Khabarovsk and Vladivostok
# since September 1997.... Although the Kuril Islands are
# administratively part of Sakhalin oblast', they appear to have
# remained on UTC+11 along with Magadan.
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# The comments detailing the coverage of each Russian zone are meant to assist
# with maintenance only and represent our best guesses as to which regions
# are covered by each zone. They are not meant to be taken as an authoritative
# listing. The region codes listed come from
# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Federal_subjects_of_Russia&oldid=611810498
# and are used for convenience only; no guarantees are made regarding their
# future stability. ISO 3166-2:RU codes are also listed for first-level
# divisions where available.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
# 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
3:00 - FET 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
2:00 - EET
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Europe/Moscow covers...
# 01 RU-AD Adygea, Republic of
# 05 RU-DA Dagestan, Republic of
# 06 RU-IN Ingushetia, Republic of
# 07 RU-KB Kabardino-Balkar Republic
# 08 RU-KL Kalmykia, Republic of
# 09 RU-KC Karachay-Cherkess Republic
# 10 RU-KR Karelia, Republic of
# 11 RU-KO Komi Republic
# 12 RU-ME Mari El Republic
# 13 RU-MO Mordovia, Republic of
# 15 RU-SE North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of
# 16 RU-TA Tatarstan, Republic of
# 20 RU-CE Chechen Republic
# 21 RU-CU Chuvash Republic
# 23 RU-KDA Krasnodar Krai
# 26 RU-STA Stavropol Krai
# 29 RU-ARK Arkhangelsk Oblast
# 31 RU-BEL Belgorod Oblast
# 32 RU-BRY Bryansk Oblast
# 33 RU-VLA Vladimir Oblast
# 35 RU-VLG Vologda Oblast
# 36 RU-VOR Voronezh Oblast
# 37 RU-IVA Ivanovo Oblast
# 40 RU-KLU Kaluga Oblast
# 44 RU-KOS Kostroma Oblast
# 46 RU-KRS Kursk Oblast
# 47 RU-LEN Leningrad Oblast
# 48 RU-LIP Lipetsk Oblast
# 50 RU-MOS Moscow Oblast
# 51 RU-MUR Murmansk Oblast
# 52 RU-NIZ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
# 53 RU-NGR Novgorod Oblast
# 57 RU-ORL Oryol Oblast
# 58 RU-PNZ Penza Oblast
# 60 RU-PSK Pskov Oblast
# 61 RU-ROS Rostov Oblast
# 62 RU-RYA Ryazan Oblast
# 67 RU-SMO Smolensk Oblast
# 68 RU-TAM Tambov Oblast
# 69 RU-TVE Tver Oblast
# 71 RU-TUL Tula Oblast
# 73 RU-ULY Ulyanovsk Oblast
# 76 RU-YAR Yaroslavl Oblast
# 77 RU-MOW Moscow
# 78 RU-SPE Saint Petersburg
# 83 RU-NEN Nenets Autonomous Okrug
# From Vladimir Karpinsky (2014-07-08):
# LMT in Moscow (before Jul 3, 1916) is 2:30:17, that was defined by Moscow
# Observatory (coordinates: 55 deg. 45'29.70", 37 deg. 34'05.30")....
# LMT in Moscow since Jul 3, 1916 is 2:31:01 as a result of new standard.
# (The info is from the book by Byalokoz ... p. 18.)
# The time in St. Petersburg as capital of Russia was defined by
# Pulkov observatory, near St. Petersburg. In 1916 LMT Moscow
# was synchronized with LMT St. Petersburg (+30 minutes), (Pulkov observatory
# coordinates: 59 deg. 46'18.70", 30 deg. 19'40.70") so 30 deg. 19'40.70" >
# 2h01m18.7s = 2:01:19. LMT Moscow = LMT St.Petersburg + 30m 2:01:19 + 0:30 =
# 2:31:19 ...
#
# From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
# Milne does not list Moscow, but suggests that its time might be listed in
# Résumés mensuels et annuels des observations météorologiques (1895).
# Presumably this is OCLC 85825704, a journal published with parallel text in
# Russian and French. This source has not been located; go with Karpinsky.
Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:17 - LMT 1880
2:30:17 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
2:31:19 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
3:00 Russia %s 1921 Oct
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
3:00 - MSK
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Europe/Simferopol covers...
# ** **** Crimea, Republic of
# ** **** Sevastopol
Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2:00 - EET 1992
# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
# Shanks (1999) says "date of change uncertain", but implies that it happened
# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. Shanks & Pottenger simply say
# 1994-09-25 03:00, but that can't be right. For now, guess it
# changed in May.
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 0:00s
3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997
3:00 - MSK 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-03-17):
# time change at 2:00 (2am) on March 30, 2014
# http://vz.ru/news/2014/3/17/677464.html
# From Paul Eggert (2014-03-30):
# Simferopol and Sevastopol reportedly changed their central town clocks
# late the previous day, but this appears to have been ceremonial
# and the discrepancies are small enough to not worry about.
2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 2:00
4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
3:00 - MSK
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Europe/Volgograd covers...
# 30 RU-AST Astrakhan Oblast
# 34 RU-VGG Volgograd Oblast
# 43 RU-KIR Kirov Oblast
# 64 RU-SAR Saratov Oblast
# From Paul Eggert (2006-05-09):
# Shanks & Pottenger say Kirov is still at +0400 but Wikipedia says +0300.
# Perhaps it switched after the others? But we have no data.
Zone Europe/Volgograd 2:57:40 - LMT 1920 Jan 3
3:00 - TSAT 1925 Apr 6 # Tsaritsyn Time
3:00 - STAT 1930 Jun 21 # Stalingrad Time
4:00 - STAT 1961 Nov 11
4:00 Russia VOL%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Volgograd T
3:00 Russia VOL%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
4:00 - VOLT 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
4:00 - MSK 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
3:00 - MSK
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Europe/Samara covers...
# 18 RU-UD Udmurt Republic
# 63 RU-SAM Samara Oblast
# Byalokoz 1919 says Samara was 3:20:20.
Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:20 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
3:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21
4:00 - SAMT 1935 Jan 27
4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s # Kuybyshev
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
4:00 Russia SAM%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s # Samara Time
3:00 Russia SAM%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
4:00 - SAMT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Yekaterinburg covers...
# 02 RU-BA Bashkortostan, Republic of
# 90 RU-PER Perm Krai
# 45 RU-KGN Kurgan Oblast
# 56 RU-ORE Orenburg Oblast
# 66 RU-SVE Sverdlovsk Oblast
# 72 RU-TYU Tyumen Oblast
# 74 RU-CHE Chelyabinsk Oblast
# 86 RU-KHM Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra
# 89 RU-YAN Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
#
# Note: Effective 2005-12-01, (59) Perm Oblast and (81) Komi-Permyak
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (90, RU-PER) Perm Krai.
# Milne says Yekaterinburg was 4:02:32.9; round to nearest.
# Byalokoz 1919 says its provincial time was based on Perm, at 3:45:05.
# Assume it switched on 1916-07-03, the time of the new standard.
# The 1919 and 1930 transitions are from Shanks.
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:33 - LMT 1916 Jul 3
3:45:05 - PMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
5:00 Russia YEK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
6:00 - YEKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
5:00 - YEKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Omsk covers...
# 04 RU-AL Altai Republic
# 22 RU-ALT Altai Krai
# 55 RU-OMS Omsk Oblast
# Byalokoz 1919 says Omsk was 4:53:30.
Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:30 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk Time
6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
6:00 Russia OMS%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
7:00 - OMST 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
6:00 - OMST
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Novosibirsk covers...
# 54 RU-NVS Novosibirsk Oblast
# 70 RU-TOM Tomsk Oblast
# From Paul Eggert (2006-08-19): I'm guessing about Tomsk here; it's
# not clear when it switched from +7 to +6.
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # say Shanks & P.
6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
6:00 - NOVT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Novokuznetsk covers...
# 42 RU-KEM Kemerovo Oblast
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-10-13):
# Kemerovo oblast' (Kemerovo region) in Russia will change current time zone on
# March 28, 2010:
# from current Russia Zone 6 - Krasnoyarsk Time Zone (KRA) UTC +0700
# to Russia Zone 5 - Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOV) UTC +0600
#
# This is according to Government of Russia decree No. 740, on September
# 14, 2009 "Application in the territory of the Kemerovo region the Fifth
# time zone." ("Russia Zone 5" or old "USSR Zone 5" is GMT +0600)
#
# Russian Government web site (Russian language)
# http://www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/rfgovernmentdecisions/archive/2009/09/14/991633.htm
# or Russian-English translation by WorldTimeZone.com with reference
# map to local region and new Russia Time Zone map after March 28, 2010
# http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia03.html
#
# Thus, when Russia will switch to DST on the night of March 28, 2010
# Kemerovo region (Kemerovo oblast') will not change the clock.
#
# As a result, Kemerovo oblast' will be in the same time zone as
# Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul and Altai Republic.
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# The Kemerovo region will remain at UTC+7 through the 2014-10-26 change, thus
# realigning itself with KRAT.
Zone Asia/Novokuznetsk 5:48:48 - LMT 1924 May 1
6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
6:00 Russia NOV%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s # Novosibirsk
7:00 - NOVT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
7:00 - KRAT # Krasnoyarsk Time
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Krasnoyarsk covers...
# 17 RU-TY Tuva Republic
# 19 RU-KK Khakassia, Republic of
# 24 RU-KYA Krasnoyarsk Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2007-01-01, (88) Evenk Autonomous Okrug and (84) Taymyr
# Autonomous Okrug were merged into (24, RU-KYA) Krasnoyarsk Krai.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Krasnoyarsk was 6:11:26.
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:26 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
8:00 - KRAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
7:00 - KRAT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Irkutsk covers...
# 03 RU-BU Buryatia, Republic of
# 38 RU-IRK Irkutsk Oblast
#
# Note: Effective 2008-01-01, (85) Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was
# merged into (38, RU-IRK) Irkutsk Oblast.
# Milne 1899 says Irkutsk was 6:57:15.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Irkutsk was 6:57:05.
# Go with Byalokoz.
Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:05 - LMT 1880
6:57:05 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
8:00 Russia IRK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
9:00 - IRKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
8:00 - IRKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Asia/Chita covers...
# 92 RU-ZAB Zabaykalsky Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2008-03-01, (75) Chita Oblast and (80) Agin-Buryat
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (92, RU-ZAB) Zabaykalsky Krai.
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-01-02):
# [The] time zone in the Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaykalsky Krai) -
# Asia/Chita [is changing] from UTC+8 to UTC+9. Effective date will
# be March 27, 2016 at 2:00am....
# http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/000120151230010
Zone Asia/Chita 7:33:52 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
8:00 - IRKT 2016 Mar 27 2:00
9:00 - YAKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Yakutsk covers...
# 28 RU-AMU Amur Oblast
#
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-02 **** Aldansky District
# 14-04 **** Amginsky District
# 14-05 **** Anabarsky District
# 14-06 **** Bulunsky District
# 14-07 **** Verkhnevilyuysky District
# 14-10 **** Vilyuysky District
# 14-11 **** Gorny District
# 14-12 **** Zhigansky District
# 14-13 **** Kobyaysky District
# 14-14 **** Lensky District
# 14-15 **** Megino-Kangalassky District
# 14-16 **** Mirninsky District
# 14-18 **** Namsky District
# 14-19 **** Neryungrinsky District
# 14-21 **** Nyurbinsky District
# 14-23 **** Olenyoksky District
# 14-24 **** Olyokminsky District
# 14-26 **** Suntarsky District
# 14-27 **** Tattinsky District
# 14-29 **** Ust-Aldansky District
# 14-32 **** Khangalassky District
# 14-33 **** Churapchinsky District
# 14-34 **** Eveno-Bytantaysky National District
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Our commentary seems to have lost mention of (14-19) Neryungrinsky District.
# Since the surrounding districts of Sakha are all YAKT, assume this is, too.
# Also assume its history has been the same as the rest of Asia/Yakutsk.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Yakutsk was 8:38:58.
Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:58 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
9:00 - YAKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Vladivostok covers...
# 25 RU-PRI Primorsky Krai
# 27 RU-KHA Khabarovsk Krai
# 79 RU-YEV Jewish Autonomous Oblast
#
# ...and parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-09 **** Verkhoyansky District
# 14-31 **** Ust-Yansky District
# Milne 1899 says Vladivostok was 8:47:33.5.
# Byalokoz 1919 says Vladivostok was 8:47:31.
# Go with Byalokoz.
Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:31 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
9:00 Russia VLA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
10:00 - VLAT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Khandyga covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-28 **** Tomponsky District
# 14-30 **** Ust-Maysky District
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Tomponskij and Ust'-Majskij switched from Vladivostok time to Yakutsk time
# in 2011.
# From Paul Eggert (2012-11-25):
# Shanks and Pottenger (2003) has Khandyga on Yakutsk time.
# Make a wild guess that it switched to Vladivostok time in 2004.
# This transition is no doubt wrong, but we have no better info.
Zone Asia/Khandyga 9:02:13 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 2004
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
11:00 - VLAT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
10:00 - YAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
9:00 - YAKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Sakhalin covers...
# 65 RU-SAK Sakhalin Oblast
# ...with the exception of:
# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
# The Zone name should be Asia/Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Sakhalin 9:30:48 - LMT 1905 Aug 23
9:00 - JCST 1937 Oct 1
9:00 - JST 1945 Aug 25
11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Sakhalin T
10:00 Russia SAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia SAK%sT 1997 Mar lastSun 2:00s
10:00 Russia SAK%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
11:00 - SAKT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
10:00 - SAKT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2009-11-29):
# Asia/Magadan covers...
# 49 RU-MAG Magadan Oblast
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# Magadan Oblast is moving from UTC+12 to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26; however,
# several districts of Sakha Republic as well as Severo-Kurilsky District of
# the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands), represented
# until now by Asia/Magadan, will instead move to UTC+11. These regions will
# need their own zone.
Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
10:00 - MAGT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Asia/Srednekolymsk covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-01 **** Abyysky District
# 14-03 **** Allaikhovsky District
# 14-08 **** Verkhnekolymsky District
# 14-17 **** Momsky District
# 14-20 **** Nizhnekolymsky District
# 14-25 **** Srednekolymsky District
#
# ...and parts of (65, RU-SAK) Sakhalin Oblast:
# 65-11 **** Severo-Kurilsky District (North Kuril Islands)
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-02):
# Oymyakonsky District of Sakha Republic (represented by Ust-Nera), along with
# most of Sakhalin Oblast (represented by Sakhalin) will be moving to UTC+10 on
# 2014-10-26 to stay aligned with VLAT/SAKT; however, Severo-Kurilsky District
# of the Sakhalin Oblast (also known as the North Kuril Islands, represented by
# Severo-Kurilsk) will remain on UTC+11.
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06):
# Assume North Kuril Islands have history like Magadan before 2011-03-27.
# There is a decent chance this is wrong, in which case a new zone
# Asia/Severo-Kurilsk would become necessary.
#
# Srednekolymsk and Zyryanka are the most populous places amongst these
# districts, but have very similar populations. In fact, Wikipedia currently
# lists them both as having 3528 people, exactly 1668 males and 1860 females
# each! (Yikes!)
# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Srednekolymsky_District&oldid=603435276
# http://en.wikipedia.org/w/?title=Verkhnekolymsky_District&oldid=594378493
# Assume this is a mistake, albeit an amusing one.
#
# Looking at censuses, the populations of the two municipalities seem to have
# fluctuated recently. Zyryanka was more populous than Srednekolymsk in the
# 1989 and 2002 censuses, but Srednekolymsk was more populous in the most
# recent (2010) census, 3525 to 3170. (See pages 195 and 197 of
# http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/Documents/Vol1/pub-01-05.pdf
# in Russian.) In addition, Srednekolymsk appears to be a much older
# settlement and the population of Zyryanka seems to be declining.
# Go with Srednekolymsk.
#
# Since Magadan Oblast moves to UTC+10 on 2014-10-26, we cannot keep using MAGT
# as the abbreviation. Use SRET instead.
Zone Asia/Srednekolymsk 10:14:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - MAGT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
11:00 - SRET # Srednekolymsk Time
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Ust-Nera covers parts of (14, RU-SA) Sakha (Yakutia) Republic:
# 14-22 **** Oymyakonsky District
# From Arthur David Olson (2012-05-09):
# Ojmyakonskij [and the Kuril Islands] switched from
# Magadan time to Vladivostok time in 2011.
#
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-06), per Alexander Krivenyshev (2014-07-02):
# It's unlikely that any of the Kuril Islands were involved in such a switch,
# as the South and Middle Kurils have been on UTC+11 (SAKT) with the rest of
# Sakhalin Oblast since at least 2011-09, and the North Kurils have been on
# UTC+12 since at least then, too.
Zone Asia/Ust-Nera 9:32:54 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAKT 1981 Apr 1
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - MAGT 2011 Sep 13 0:00s # Decree 725?
11:00 - VLAT 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
10:00 - VLAT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03), per Oscar van Vlijmen (2001-08-25):
# Asia/Kamchatka covers...
# 91 RU-KAM Kamchatka Krai
#
# Note: Effective 2007-07-01, (41) Kamchatka Oblast and (82) Koryak
# Autonomous Okrug merged to form (91, RU-KAM) Kamchatka Krai.
# The Zone name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski or perhaps
# Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, but these are too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
12:00 Russia PET%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
11:00 Russia PET%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - PETT
# From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
# Asia/Anadyr covers...
# 87 RU-CHU Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
12:00 Russia ANA%sT 2010 Mar 28 2:00s
11:00 Russia ANA%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
12:00 - ANAT
# San Marino
# See Europe/Rome.
# Serbia
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
1:00 - CET 1945 May 8 2:00s
1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
# Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
# Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
1:00 EU CE%sT
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica # Montenegro
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
# Slovenia
# See Europe/Belgrade.
# Spain
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901 Jan 1 0:00s
0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30
1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979
1:00 EU CE%sT
Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901
0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00
0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00
0:00 - WET 1924
0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
1:00 - CET 1986
1:00 EU CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
-1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries T
0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 1:00u
0:00 EU WE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
# Sweden
# From Ivan Nilsson (2001-04-13), superseding Shanks & Pottenger:
#
# The law "Svensk författningssamling 1878, no 14" about standard time in 1879:
# From the beginning of 1879 (that is 01-01 00:00) the time for all
# places in the country is "the mean solar time for the meridian at
# three degrees, or twelve minutes of time, to the west of the
# meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated 1878-05-31.
#
# The observatory at that time had the meridian 18 degrees 03' 30"
# eastern longitude = 01:12:14 in time. Less 12 minutes gives the
# national standard time as 01:00:14 ahead of GMT....
#
# About the beginning of CET in Sweden. The lawtext ("Svensk
# författningssamling 1899, no 44") states, that "from the beginning
# of 1900... ... the same as the mean solar time for the meridian at
# the distance of one hour of time from the meridian of the English
# observatory at Greenwich, or at 12 minutes 14 seconds to the west
# from the meridian of the Observatory of Stockholm". The law is dated
# 1899-06-16. In short: At 1900-01-01 00:00:00 the new standard time
# in Sweden is 01:00:00 ahead of GMT.
#
# 1916: The lawtext ("Svensk författningssamling 1916, no 124") states
# that "1916-05-15 is considered to begin one hour earlier". It is
# pretty obvious that at 05-14 23:00 the clocks are set to 05-15 00:00....
# Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
#
# The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
# Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
# not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
# in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
# "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
# the Sök-button).
#
# (2001-05-13):
#
# I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
# summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
# 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time. The article also reports that some
# people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
# at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
# hour before the event took place.
#
# Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1879 Jan 1
1:00:14 - SET 1900 Jan 1 # Swedish Time
1:00 - CET 1916 May 14 23:00
1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Oct 1 1:00
1:00 - CET 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Switzerland
# From Howse:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
# Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
# From Shanks & Pottenger:
# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
# From Alois Treindl (2008-12-17):
# I have researched the DST usage in Switzerland during the 1940ies.
#
# As I wrote in an earlier message, I suspected the current tzdata values
# to be wrong. This is now verified.
#
# I have found copies of the original ruling by the Swiss Federal
# government, in 'Eidgenössische Gesetzessammlung 1941 and 1942' (Swiss
# federal law collection)...
#
# DST began on Monday 5 May 1941, 1:00 am by shifting the clocks to 2:00 am
# DST ended on Monday 6 Oct 1941, 2:00 am by shifting the clocks to 1:00 am.
#
# DST began on Monday, 4 May 1942 at 01:00 am
# DST ended on Monday, 5 Oct 1942 at 02:00 am
#
# There was no DST in 1940, I have checked the law collection carefully.
# It is also indicated by the fact that the 1942 entry in the law
# collection points back to 1941 as a reference, but no reference to any
# other years are made.
#
# Newspaper articles I have read in the archives on 6 May 1941 reported
# about the introduction of DST (Sommerzeit in German) during the previous
# night as an absolute novelty, because this was the first time that such
# a thing had happened in Switzerland.
#
# I have also checked 1916, because one book source (Gabriel, Traité de
# l'heure dans le monde) claims that Switzerland had DST in 1916. This is
# false, no official document could be found. Probably Gabriel got misled
# by references to Germany, which introduced DST in 1916 for the first time.
#
# The tzdata rules for Switzerland must be changed to:
# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
# Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
#
# The 1940 rules must be deleted.
#
# One further detail for Switzerland, which is probably out of scope for
# most users of tzdata: The [Europe/Zurich zone] ...
# describes all of Switzerland correctly, with the exception of
# the Canton de Genève (Geneva, Genf). Between 1848 and 1894 Geneva did not
# follow Bern Mean Time but kept its own local mean time.
# To represent this, an extra zone would be needed.
#
# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-11):
# The Federal regulations say
# http://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20071096/index.html
# ... the meridian for Bern mean time ... is 7 degrees 26' 22.50".
# Expressed in time, it is 0h29m45.5s.
# From Pierre-Yves Berger (2013-09-11):
# the "Circulaire du conseil fédéral" (December 11 1893)
# http://www.amtsdruckschriften.bar.admin.ch/viewOrigDoc.do?id=10071353
# clearly states that the [1894-06-01] change should be done at midnight
# but if no one is present after 11 at night, could be postponed until one
# hour before the beginning of service.
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-11):
# Round BMT to the nearest even second, 0:29:46.
#
# We can find no reliable source for Shanks's assertion that all of Switzerland
# except Geneva switched to Bern Mean Time at 00:00 on 1848-09-12. This book:
#
# Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
# Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
# ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
#
# suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
# agree about civil time during the transition. The timekeeping it gives the
# most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
# "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
# 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
# (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859). On p 72 Messerli writes that in
# practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
# offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
# (Google translation). For now, model this transition as occurring on
# 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
# legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Mon>=1 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Mon>=1 2:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
0:29:46 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Turkey
# From Amar Devegowda (2007-01-03):
# The time zone rules for Istanbul, Turkey have not been changed for years now.
# ... The latest rules are available at:
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=107
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-01-03):
# I have been able to find press records back to 1996 which all say that
# DST started 01:00 local time and end at 02:00 local time. I am not sure
# what happened before that. One example for each year from 1996 to 2001:
# http://newspot.byegm.gov.tr/arsiv/1996/21/N4.htm
# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING97/03/97X03X25.TXT
# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING98/03/98X03X02.HTM
# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING99/10/99X10X26.HTM#%2016
# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2000/03/00X03X06.HTM#%2021
# http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/CHR/ING2001/03/23x03x01.HTM#%2027
# From Paul Eggert (2007-01-03):
# Prefer the above source to Shanks & Pottenger for time stamps after 1990.
# From Steffen Thorsen (2007-03-09):
# Starting 2007 though, it seems that they are adopting EU's 1:00 UTC
# start/end time, according to the following page (2007-03-07):
# http://www.ntvmsnbc.com/news/402029.asp
# The official document is located here - it is in Turkish...:
# http://rega.basbakanlik.gov.tr/eskiler/2007/03/20070307-7.htm
# I was able to locate the following seemingly official document
# (on a non-government server though) describing dates between 2002 and 2006:
# http://www.alomaliye.com/bkk_2002_3769.htm
# From Gökdeniz Karadağ (2011-03-10):
# According to the articles linked below, Turkey will change into summer
# time zone (GMT+3) on March 28, 2011 at 3:00 a.m. instead of March 27.
# This change is due to a nationwide exam on 27th.
# http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=70872
# Turkish:
# http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/17230464.asp?gid=373
# From Faruk Pasin (2014-02-14):
# The DST for Turkey has been changed for this year because of the
# Turkish Local election....
# http://www.sabah.com.tr/Ekonomi/2014/02/12/yaz-saatinde-onemli-degisiklik
# ... so Turkey will move clocks forward one hour on March 31 at 3:00 a.m.
# From Randal L. Schwartz (2014-04-15):
# Having landed on a flight from the states to Istanbul (via AMS) on March 31,
# I can tell you that NOBODY (even the airlines) respected this timezone DST
# change delay. Maybe the word just didn't get out in time.
# From Paul Eggert (2014-06-15):
# The press reported massive confusion, as election officials obeyed the rule
# change but cell phones (and airline baggage systems) did not. See:
# Kostidis M. Eventful elections in Turkey. Balkan News Agency
# http://www.balkaneu.com/eventful-elections-turkey/ 2014-03-30.
# I guess the best we can do is document the official time.
# From Fatih (2015-09-29):
# It's officially announced now by the Ministry of Energy.
# Turkey delays winter time to 8th of November 04:00
# http://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/yaz-saati-uygulamasi-8-kasimda-sona-erecek/362217
#
# From BBC News (2015-10-25):
# Confused Turks are asking "what's the time?" after automatic clocks defied a
# government decision ... "For the next two weeks #Turkey is on EEST... Erdogan
# Engineered Standard Time," said Twitter user @aysekarahasan.
# http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34631326
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1986 1990 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule Turkey 1991 2006 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u
2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u
2:00 EU EE%sT 2014 Mar 30 1:00u
2:00 - EET 2014 Mar 31 1:00u
2:00 EU EE%sT 2015 Oct 25 1:00u
2:00 1:00 EEST 2015 Nov 8 1:00u
2:00 EU EE%sT
Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
# Ukraine
#
# From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
# via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
# BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government
# regulations No. 509, May 13, 1996. In my poor translation it says:
# "Time in Ukraine is set to second timezone (Kiev time). Each last Sunday
# of March at 3am the time is changing to 4am and each last Sunday of
# October the time at 4am is changing to 3am"
# From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-20):
# On September 20, 2011 the deputies of the Verkhovna Rada agreed to
# abolish the transfer clock to winter time.
#
# Bill No. 8330 of MP from the Party of Regions Oleg Nadoshi got
# approval from 266 deputies.
#
# Ukraine abolishes transfer back to the winter time (in Russian)
# http://news.mail.ru/politics/6861560/
#
# The Ukrainians will no longer change the clock (in Russian)
# http://www.segodnya.ua/news/14290482.html
#
# Deputies cancelled the winter time (in Russian)
# http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2011/09/20/6600616/
#
# From Philip Pizzey (2011-10-18):
# Today my Ukrainian colleagues have informed me that the
# Ukrainian parliament have decided that they will go to winter
# time this year after all.
#
# From Udo Schwedt (2011-10-18):
# As far as I understand, the recent change to the Ukrainian time zone
# (Europe/Kiev) to introduce permanent daylight saving time (similar
# to Russia) was reverted today:
# http://portal.rada.gov.ua/rada/control/en/publish/article/info_left?art_id=287324&cat_id=105995
#
# Also reported by Alexander Bokovoy (2011-10-18) who also noted:
# The law documents themselves are at
# http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/zweb_n/webproc4_1?id=&pf3511=41484
# From Vladimir in Moscow via Alois Treindl re Kiev time 1991/2 (2014-02-28):
# First in Ukraine they changed Time zone from UTC+3 to UTC+2 with DST:
# 03 25 1990 02:00 -03.00 1 Time Zone 3 with DST
# 07 01 1990 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 18.06.1990, No. 134.
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/T001500.html
#
# They did not end DST in September, 1990 (according to the law,
# "summer time" was still in action):
# 09 30 1990 03:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 21.09.1990, No. 272.
# http://search.ligazakon.ua/l_doc2.nsf/link1/KP900272.html
#
# Again no change in March, 1991 ("summer time" in action):
# 03 31 1991 02:00 -02.00 1 Time Zone 2 with DST
#
# DST ended in September 1991 ("summer time" ended):
# 09 29 1991 03:00 -02.00 0 Time Zone 2, no DST
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 25.09.1991, No. 225.
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_21/pg_iwgdoc.htm
# This is an answer.
#
# Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
# 03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1 DST started
# 09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0 DST ended
# * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
# http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
# "Kyiv" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
# "Kiev" is more common in English.
Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 1 2:00
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 3:00
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
# "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
# "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
1:00 - CET 1940
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26
1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
2:00 - EET 1992
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
# "Zaporizhia" is the transliteration of the Ukrainian name, but
# "Zaporozh'ye" is more common in English. Use the common English
# spelling, except omit the apostrophe as it is not allowed in
# portable Posix file names.
Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Vatican City
# See Europe/Rome.
###############################################################################
# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
#
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
# uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
# ...
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
# From: Tom Hofmann
# ...
#
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
# most European countries started DST. Before that year, only
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
# to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
# years...
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
# lastSun' in 1981 - I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
#
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
# ...
# ...
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
# From: Dik T. Winter
# ...
#
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
# about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.
#
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
# the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
# dates...
#
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
# in advance of normal time.
#
# ...
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
# ...
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978. Change at midnight.
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...
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