Boggle Solving in Rust
Boggle™ is a popular tabletop game in which, given a square 4⨯4 (or now, 5⨯5) grid of letters with a probabilistic distribution chosen by the manufacturer, the players must try to find as many valid words (as defined by the Scrabble!™ dictionary) as possible within three minutes.
It's my family's favorite game. Or at the very least, the easiest one to pull out without a lot of set-up and ceremony. It was also the subject of a recent whiteboarding exercise I did for an interview. I believe I did okay in the interview, but it wasn't until I got home that it hit me: dammit, the correct data structure for finding words is a trie!
After quickly reminding myself how tries work, I spent a couple of hours knocking this together. It's probably not the greatest Boggle solver in the world; it doesn't do anything fancy, it's just a brute force scan-the-board engine. It does terminate early if it generate a prefix for which no words exist in the sample dictionary. The trie is implemented more or less the way Wikipedia explains it, and its ability to distinguish between a whole word and a prefix is nicely clever, I think.
The multi-threaded version, small-board version of the solver (see "Features" in the next section) solves a standard Boggle board in about 500 nanoseconds using four threads.
There are two features that are not enabled by default and require the
use of the
--features flag to enable:
cargo build --features=large_board will enable the solver to work over
boards larger than 8x8. The regular board uses a 64-bit integer as a
bitmap for tracking completed work. With this feature enabled, a
dynamically sized bitmap is used instead. The dynamic bitmap uses two
lookups instead of one, but this doesn't seem to make a huge difference
cargo build --features=threaded will enable the multi-threaded version
of the solver. When this in enabled, the
solve() function will use
half the availble cores on your computer. Another function,
solve_mt(), has a second parameter to provide greater control over the
number of threads the library can use.
A standalone binary is generated during the build. Basic usage is:
boggle [-d <path to dictionary>] <board_file>
The program defaults to
/usr/share/dict/words if no dictionary is
The format for a board file is straightforward. It's a text file, with the letters per row, like so:
arni wier oaer hrpd
A copy of this particular example can be found in the
file in the project root directory. The parser is forgiving. It ignores
spaces and tabs and it doesn't care about case. All output will be in
The parser can handle any amount of whitespace between the letters, and will ignore blank rows after the data. Those were common sources of crashiness. The parser will complain if the rows are not all of the same length.
The letter 'Q' is an annoyance, as in Boggle it appears on the die face as "Qu" and Boggle rules allow it to be used as both 'Q' and 'Qu'. (The only two common words in English that are 'Q' but not 'Qu' are 'sheqel' and 'burqa'.) The code has a special case for handling it, which is why the 'choose a letter' and 'analyze the path from that letter' is in two different code groups. There is a unit test to assert it works.
The expected dictionary is the one found in /usr/share/dict/words on GNU installations, known as the "GNU common words dictionary." Your tests may not pass if you use a bigger dictionary or if that path is non-existent. Sorry about that.
twl06.txt.xz included in the project root is a
copy of the unofficial North American Scrabble™ word list.
Boggle Board Generator
A folder in this project contains a Boggle board generator, in case you feel like making your own. Like this one, it's a library with a standalone binary.
The binary is
ridiculously now slightly less primitive. Here's
the love it still needs:
- The parser should take STDIN as an option
- The documentation isn't being generated correctly
- Replace the nested
forloops with an iterator construct
I would be tempted to do a Haskell version, but there's a lot of mutation in this. I need to think harder, and practice more Haskell, before I attempt it.
- Boggle™ is a trademark of Parker Brothers, Inc.
- Scrabble™ is a trademark of Hasbro, Inc.
This Boggle™ solver is Copyright Elf M. Sternberg (c) 2019, and licensed with the Mozilla Public License vers. 2.0. A copy of the license file is included in the root folder.