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Lean Test Automation Architecture using Java and Selenium WebDriver

Actions Status

This project delivers to you a complete lean test architecture for your web tests using the best frameworks and practices.

Important information

Know issues

This current version has excluded the guava library from WebDriverManager and Allure Environment Writter 
due to a conflict with the guava version on Selenium 4

Java versions

The main branch uses Java 17.

If you want to use Java 11, please take a look at java-11 branch.


Local testing execution example

Local testing execution example

Parallel testing execution example with Docker Selenium

Parallel testing execution example with Docker Selenium

Languages and Frameworks

This project using the following languages and frameworks:

  • Java 11 as the programming language
  • TestNG as the UnitTest framework to support the test creation
  • Selenium WebDriver as the web browser automation framework using the Java binding
  • AssertJ as the fluent assertion library
  • Allure Report as the testing report strategy
  • JavaFaker as the faker data generation strategy
  • Log4J2 as the logging management strategy
  • WebDriverManager as the Selenium binaries management
  • Owner to minimize the code to handle the properties file

Test architecture

We know that any automation project starting with a good test architecture. This project can be your initial test architecture for a faster start. You will see the following items in this architecture:

Do you have any other items to add to this test architecture? Please do a pull request or open an issue to discuss.

Page Objects pattern

I will not explain the Page Object pattern because you can find a lot of good explanations and examples on the internet. Instead, I will explain what exactly about page objects I'm using in this project.


This class has a protected constructor to remove the necessity to init the elements using the Page Factory. Also, it sets the timeout from the timeout property value located on file.

All the Page Object classes should extend the AbstractPageObject. It also tries to remove the driver object from the Page Object class as much as possible.

Important information

There's a NavigationPage on the common package inside the Page Objects. Notice that all the pages extend this one instead of the AbstractPageObject. I implemented this way:

  • because the previous and next buttons are fixed on the page (there's no refresh on the page)
  • to avoid create or pass the new reference to the NavigationPage when we need to hit previous or next buttons

As much as possible avoid this strategy to not get an ElementNotFoundException or StaleElementReferenceException. Use this approach if you know that the page does not refresh.

Execution types

There are two execution types: local and remote. The TargetFactory class will resolve the target execution based on the target property value located on file. Its usage is placed on the BaseWeb class before each test execution.

Local execution

This execution type uses WebDriverManager class to instantiate the web browsers. When the target is local the createDriver() method is used from the BrowserFactory class to return the browser instance.

The browser used in the test is placed on the browser property in the file.

Remote execution

This execution is based on any Selenium Grid approach to execute the tests in remote machines (local or remote/cloud grid). When the target is remote the getOptions method is used from the BrowserFactory to return the browser option class as the remote execution needs the browser capability. The DriverFactory class has an internal method createRemoteInstance to return a RemoteWebDriver instance based on the browser capability.

You must pay attention to the two required information regarding the remote execution: the grid.url and grid.port property values on the file. You must update these values before the start.

If you are using the docker-compose.yml file to start the Docker Selenium grid, the values on the file should work.

Please take a look at the Parallel Execution section.

BrowserFactory class

This Factory class is a Java enum that has all implemented browsers to use during the test execution. Each browser is an enum, and each enum implements two methods:

  • createDriver(): creates the browser instance for the local execution. The browser driver is automatically managed by the WebDriverManager library
  • getOptions(): creates a new browser Options setting some specific configurations. It's used for the remote executions

You can see that the createDriver() method used the getOptions() to use specific configuration, as starting the browser maximized and others. The getOptions() is also used for the remote execution as it is a subclass of the AbstractDriverOptions and can be automatically accepted as either a Capabilities or MutableCapabilities class, which is required by the RemoteWebDriver class.

DriverManager class

The class DriverManager create a ThreadLocal for the WebDriver instance, to make sure there's no conflict when we run it in parallel.


This testing pattern was implemented on the BaseWeb class to automatically run the pre (setup) and post (teardown) conditions.

The pre-condition uses @BeforeMethod from TestNG creates the browser instance based on the values passed either local or remote execution. The post-condition uses @AfterMethod to close the browser instance. Both have the alwaysRun parameter as true to force the run on a pipeline.

Pay attention that it was designed to open a browser instance to each @Test located on the test class.

This class also the TestListener that is a custom TestNG listener, and will be described in the next section.


The TestListener is a class that implements ITestListener. The following method is used to help logging errors and attach additional information to the test report:

  • onTestStart: add the browser information into the test report
  • onTestFailure: log the exceptions and add a screenshot to the test report
  • onTestSkipped: add the skipped test on the log


All the log is done by the Log4J using the @Log4j2 annotation.

The has two strategies: console and file. A file with all the log information will be automatically created on the user folder with test_automation.log filename. If you want to change it, update the appender.file.fileName property value.

The log.error is used to log all the exceptions this architecture might throw. Use or log.debug to log important information, like the users, automatically generated by the factory BookingDataFactory

Parallel execution

The parallel test execution is based on the parallel tests feature on TestNG. This is used by parallel.xml test suite file which has the parallel="tests" attribute and value, whereas test item inside the test suite will execute in parallel. The browser in use for each test should be defined by a parameter, like:

<parameter name="browser" value="chrome"/>

You can define any parallel strategy.

It can be an excellent combination together with the grid strategy.

Execution with Docker Selenium Distributed

This project has the docker-compose.yml file to run the tests in a parallel way using Docker Selenium. To be able to run it in parallel the file has the Dynamic Grid Implementation that will start the container on demand.

This means that Docker Selenium will start a container test for a targeting browser.

Please not you need the following before run it in parallel:

  • Docker installed
  • Pull the images for Chrome and Firefox
    • docker pull selenium-standalog-chrome
    • docker pull selenium-standalog-firefox
  • Pay attention at the grid/config.toml file that has comments for each specific SO
  • Start the Grid running the following command inside the grid folder
    • docker-compose up

Configuration files

This project uses a library called Owner. You can find the class related to the property file reader in the following classes:

There are 3 properties (configuration) files located on src/test/java/resources/:

  • general configuration as the target execution, base url, timeout, and faker locale
  • url and port for the Selenium grid usage
  • browser to use in the local execution

The properties were divided into three different ones to better separate the responsibilities and enable the changes easy without have a lot of properties inside a single file.

Test Data Factory

Is the utilization of the Factory design pattern with the Fluent Builder to generate dynamic data. The BookingDataFactory has only one factory createBookingData returning a Booking object with dynamic data.

This dynamic data is generated by JavaFaker filling all the fields using the Build pattern. The Booking is the plain Java objects and the BookingBuilder is the builder class.

You can ses the use of the Builder pattern in the BookingDataFactory class.

Reading reference:

Profiles executors on pom.xml

There is a profile called web-execution created to execute the test suite local.xml inside src/test/resources/suites folder. To execute this suite, via the command line you can call the parameter -P and the profile id.

Eg: executing the multi_browser suite

mvn test -Pweb-execution -Dtestng.dtd.http=true 

If you have more than one suite on src/test/resources/suites folder you can parameterize the xml file name. To do this you need:

  • Create a property on pom.xml called suite
  • Change the profile id
  • Replace the xml file name to ${suite} on the profile
  • Use -Dsuite=suite_name to call the suite
mvn test -Pweb-execution -Dsuite=parallel -Dtestng.dtd.http=true 

Pipeline as a code

The two files of the pipeline as a code are inside pipeline_as_code folder.

  • GitHub Actions to use it inside the GitHub located at .github\workflows
  • Jenkins: Jenkinsfile to be used on a Jenkins pipeline located at pipeline_as_code
  • GitLab CI: .gitlab-ci.yml to be used on a GitLab CI pipeline_as_code


Ready to use Lean Test Automation Architecture using Java and Selenium WebDriver to speed up your test automation




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