This is a starting point for my WordPress + Git workflow. It makes use of the very handy WP-Cli command-line tools to manage your WordPress install.
100% of the credit for this setup goes to Marc Jenkins. Definitely read his article, for detailed info, but this is basically all you need to do, to get up & running:
Clone the repo
git clone [this repo] my-site
Install the dependencies
Install the latest version of WordPress
wp core download
Lastly, update the gulpfile based on your theme setup (the themePath variable, your Sass/CSS workflow, for example, etc., etc.). The gulpfile is pretty basic, so easily customizable, depending on how you're building your styles.
Normally, from this point, I'll drop a (renamed) copy of _s into my themes directory, add my custom Sass framework, and start there. You can obviously go down any path that suits you.
A command line interface for WordPress