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;;; files.el --- file input and output commands for Emacs -*- lexical-binding:t -*-
;; Copyright (C) 1985-1987, 1992-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
;; Maintainer:
;; Package: emacs
;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.
;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; GNU General Public License for more details.
;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs. If not, see <>.
;;; Commentary:
;; Defines most of Emacs's file- and directory-handling functions,
;; including basic file visiting, backup generation, link handling,
;; ITS-id version control, load- and write-hook handling, and the like.
;;; Code:
(require 'pcase)
(require 'easy-mmode)) ; For `define-minor-mode'.
(defvar font-lock-keywords)
(defgroup backup nil
"Backups of edited data files."
:group 'files)
(defgroup find-file nil
"Finding files."
:group 'files)
(defcustom delete-auto-save-files t
"Non-nil means delete auto-save file when a buffer is saved or killed.
Note that the auto-save file will not be deleted if the buffer is killed
when it has unsaved changes."
:type 'boolean
:group 'auto-save)
(defcustom directory-abbrev-alist
"Alist of abbreviations for file directories.
A list of elements of the form (FROM . TO), each meaning to replace
a match for FROM with TO when a directory name matches FROM. This
replacement is done when setting up the default directory of a
newly visited file buffer.
FROM is a regexp that is matched against directory names anchored at
the first character, so it should start with a \"\\\\\\=`\", or, if
directory names cannot have embedded newlines, with a \"^\".
FROM and TO should be equivalent names, which refer to the
same directory. TO should be an absolute directory name.
Do not use `~' in the TO strings.
Use this feature when you have directories which you normally refer to
via absolute symbolic links. Make TO the name of the link, and FROM
a regexp matching the name it is linked to."
:type '(repeat (cons :format "%v"
:value ("\\`" . "")
(regexp :tag "From")
(string :tag "To")))
:group 'abbrev
:group 'find-file)
(defcustom make-backup-files t
"Non-nil means make a backup of a file the first time it is saved.
This can be done by renaming the file or by copying.
Renaming means that Emacs renames the existing file so that it is a
backup file, then writes the buffer into a new file. Any other names
that the old file had will now refer to the backup file. The new file
is owned by you and its group is defaulted.
Copying means that Emacs copies the existing file into the backup
file, then writes the buffer on top of the existing file. Any other
names that the old file had will now refer to the new (edited) file.
The file's owner and group are unchanged.
The choice of renaming or copying is controlled by the variables
`backup-by-copying', `backup-by-copying-when-linked',
`backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' and
`backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch'. See also `backup-inhibited'."
:type 'boolean
:group 'backup)
;; Do this so that local variables based on the file name
;; are not overridden by the major mode.
(defvar backup-inhibited nil
"If non-nil, backups will be inhibited.
This variable is intended for use by making it local to a buffer,
but it is not an automatically buffer-local variable.")
(put 'backup-inhibited 'permanent-local t)
(defcustom backup-by-copying nil
"Non-nil means always use copying to create backup files.
See documentation of variable `make-backup-files'."
:type 'boolean
:group 'backup)
(defcustom backup-by-copying-when-linked nil
"Non-nil means use copying to create backups for files with multiple names.
This causes the alternate names to refer to the latest version as edited.
This variable is relevant only if `backup-by-copying' is nil."
:type 'boolean
:group 'backup)
(defcustom backup-by-copying-when-mismatch t
"Non-nil means create backups by copying if this preserves owner or group.
Renaming may still be used (subject to control of other variables)
when it would not result in changing the owner or group of the file;
that is, for files which are owned by you and whose group matches
the default for a new file created there by you.
This variable is relevant only if `backup-by-copying' is nil."
:version "24.1"
:type 'boolean
:group 'backup)
(put 'backup-by-copying-when-mismatch 'permanent-local t)
(defcustom backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch 200
"Non-nil means create backups by copying to preserve a privileged owner.
Renaming may still be used (subject to control of other variables)
when it would not result in changing the owner of the file or if the owner
has a user id greater than the value of this variable. This is useful
when low-numbered uid's are used for special system users (such as root)
that must maintain ownership of certain files.
This variable is relevant only if `backup-by-copying' and
`backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' are nil."
:type '(choice (const nil) integer)
:group 'backup)
(defvar backup-enable-predicate 'normal-backup-enable-predicate
"Predicate that looks at a file name and decides whether to make backups.
Called with an absolute file name as argument, it returns t to enable backup.")
(defcustom buffer-offer-save nil
"Non-nil in a buffer means always offer to save buffer on exiting Emacs.
Do so even if the buffer is not visiting a file.
Automatically local in all buffers.
Set to the symbol `always' to offer to save buffer whenever
`save-some-buffers' is called.
Note that this option has no effect on `kill-buffer';
if you want to control what happens when a buffer is killed,
use `kill-buffer-query-functions'."
:type '(choice (const :tag "Never" nil)
(const :tag "On Emacs exit" t)
(const :tag "Whenever save-some-buffers is called" always))
:group 'backup)
(make-variable-buffer-local 'buffer-offer-save)
(put 'buffer-offer-save 'permanent-local t)
(defcustom find-file-existing-other-name t
"Non-nil means find a file under alternative names, in existing buffers.
This means if any existing buffer is visiting the file you want
under another name, you get the existing buffer instead of a new buffer."
:type 'boolean
:group 'find-file)
(defcustom find-file-visit-truename nil
"Non-nil means visiting a file uses its truename as the visited-file name.
That is, the buffer visiting the file has the truename as the
value of `buffer-file-name'. The truename of a file is found by
chasing all links both at the file level and at the levels of the
containing directories."
:type 'boolean
:group 'find-file)
(put 'find-file-visit-truename 'safe-local-variable 'booleanp)
(defcustom revert-without-query nil
"Specify which files should be reverted without query.
The value is a list of regular expressions.
If the file name matches one of these regular expressions,
then `revert-buffer' reverts the file without querying
if the file has changed on disk and you have not edited the buffer."
:type '(repeat regexp)
:group 'find-file)
(defvar buffer-file-number nil
"The device number and file number of the file visited in the current buffer.
The value is a list of the form (FILENUM DEVNUM).
This pair of numbers uniquely identifies the file.
If the buffer is visiting a new file, the value is nil.")
(make-variable-buffer-local 'buffer-file-number)
(put 'buffer-file-number 'permanent-local t)
(defvar buffer-file-numbers-unique (not (memq system-type '(windows-nt)))
"Non-nil means that `buffer-file-number' uniquely identifies files.")
(defvar buffer-file-read-only nil
"Non-nil if visited file was read-only when visited.")
(make-variable-buffer-local 'buffer-file-read-only)
(defcustom small-temporary-file-directory
(if (eq system-type 'ms-dos) (getenv "TMPDIR"))
"The directory for writing small temporary files.
If non-nil, this directory is used instead of `temporary-file-directory'
by programs that create small temporary files. This is for systems that
have fast storage with limited space, such as a RAM disk."
:group 'files
:initialize 'custom-initialize-delay
:type '(choice (const nil) directory))
;; The system null device. (Should reference NULL_DEVICE from C.)
(defvar null-device (purecopy "/dev/null") "The system null device.")
(declare-function msdos-long-file-names "msdos.c")
(declare-function w32-long-file-name "w32proc.c")
(declare-function dired-get-filename "dired" (&optional localp no-error-if-not-filep))
(declare-function dired-unmark "dired" (arg &optional interactive))
(declare-function dired-do-flagged-delete "dired" (&optional nomessage))
(declare-function dos-8+3-filename "dos-fns" (filename))
(declare-function dosified-file-name "dos-fns" (file-name))
(defvar file-name-invalid-regexp
(cond ((and (eq system-type 'ms-dos) (not (msdos-long-file-names)))
(concat "^\\([^A-Z[-`a-z]\\|..+\\)?:\\|" ; colon except after drive
"[+, ;=|<>\"?*]\\|\\[\\|\\]\\|" ; invalid characters
"[\000-\037]\\|" ; control characters
"\\(/\\.\\.?[^/]\\)\\|" ; leading dots
"\\(/[^/.]+\\.[^/.]*\\.\\)"))) ; more than a single dot
((memq system-type '(ms-dos windows-nt cygwin))
(concat "^\\([^A-Z[-`a-z]\\|..+\\)?:\\|" ; colon except after drive
"[|<>\"?*\000-\037]"))) ; invalid characters
(t (purecopy "[\000]")))
"Regexp recognizing file names which aren't allowed by the filesystem.")
(defcustom file-precious-flag nil
"Non-nil means protect against I/O errors while saving files.
Some modes set this non-nil in particular buffers.
This feature works by writing the new contents into a temporary file
and then renaming the temporary file to replace the original.
In this way, any I/O error in writing leaves the original untouched,
and there is never any instant where the file is nonexistent.
Note that this feature forces backups to be made by copying.
Yet, at the same time, saving a precious file
breaks any hard links between it and other files.
This feature is advisory: for example, if the directory in which the
file is being saved is not writable, Emacs may ignore a non-nil value
of `file-precious-flag' and write directly into the file.
See also: `break-hardlink-on-save'."
:type 'boolean
:group 'backup)
(defcustom break-hardlink-on-save nil
"Whether to allow breaking hardlinks when saving files.
If non-nil, then when saving a file that exists under several
names \(i.e., has multiple hardlinks), break the hardlink
associated with `buffer-file-name' and write to a new file, so
that the other instances of the file are not affected by the
If `buffer-file-name' refers to a symlink, do not break the symlink.
Unlike `file-precious-flag', `break-hardlink-on-save' is not advisory.
For example, if the directory in which a file is being saved is not
itself writable, then error instead of saving in some
hardlink-nonbreaking way.
See also `backup-by-copying' and `backup-by-copying-when-linked'."
:type 'boolean
:group 'files
:version "23.1")
(defcustom version-control nil
"Control use of version numbers for backup files.
When t, make numeric backup versions unconditionally.
When nil, make them for files that have some already.
The value `never' means do not make them."
:type '(choice (const :tag "Never" never)
(const :tag "If existing" nil)
(other :tag "Always" t))
:group 'backup)
(defun version-control-safe-local-p (x)
"Return whether X is safe as local value for `version-control'."
(or (booleanp x) (equal x 'never)))
(put 'version-control 'safe-local-variable
(defcustom dired-kept-versions 2
"When cleaning directory, number of versions to keep."
:type 'integer
:group 'backup
:group 'dired)
(defcustom delete-old-versions nil
"If t, delete excess backup versions silently.
If nil, ask confirmation. Any other value prevents any trimming."
:type '(choice (const :tag "Delete" t)
(const :tag "Ask" nil)
(other :tag "Leave" other))
:group 'backup)
(defcustom kept-old-versions 2
"Number of oldest versions to keep when a new numbered backup is made."
:type 'integer
:group 'backup)
(put 'kept-old-versions 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
(defcustom kept-new-versions 2
"Number of newest versions to keep when a new numbered backup is made.
Includes the new backup. Must be greater than 0."
:type 'integer
:group 'backup)
(put 'kept-new-versions 'safe-local-variable 'integerp)
(defcustom require-final-newline nil
"Whether to add a newline automatically at the end of the file.
A value of t means do this only when the file is about to be saved.
A value of `visit' means do this right after the file is visited.
A value of `visit-save' means do it at both of those times.
Any other non-nil value means ask user whether to add a newline, when saving.
A value of nil means don't add newlines.
Certain major modes set this locally to the value obtained
from `mode-require-final-newline'."
:safe #'symbolp
:type '(choice (const :tag "When visiting" visit)
(const :tag "When saving" t)
(const :tag "When visiting or saving" visit-save)
(const :tag "Don't add newlines" nil)
(other :tag "Ask each time" ask))
:group 'editing-basics)
(defcustom mode-require-final-newline t
"Whether to add a newline at end of file, in certain major modes.
Those modes set `require-final-newline' to this value when you enable them.
They do so because they are often used for files that are supposed
to end in newlines, and the question is how to arrange that.
A value of t means do this only when the file is about to be saved.
A value of `visit' means do this right after the file is visited.
A value of `visit-save' means do it at both of those times.
Any other non-nil value means ask user whether to add a newline, when saving.
A value of nil means do not add newlines. That is a risky choice in this
variable since this value is used for modes for files that ought to have
final newlines. So if you set this to nil, you must explicitly check and
add a final newline, whenever you save a file that really needs one."
:type '(choice (const :tag "When visiting" visit)
(const :tag "When saving" t)
(const :tag "When visiting or saving" visit-save)
(const :tag "Don't add newlines" nil)
(other :tag "Ask each time" ask))
:group 'editing-basics
:version "22.1")
(defcustom auto-save-default t
"Non-nil says by default do auto-saving of every file-visiting buffer."
:type 'boolean
:group 'auto-save)
(defcustom auto-save-file-name-transforms
;; Don't put "\\2" inside expand-file-name, since it will be
;; transformed to "/2" on DOS/Windows.
,(concat temporary-file-directory "\\2") t))
"Transforms to apply to buffer file name before making auto-save file name.
Each transform is a list (REGEXP REPLACEMENT UNIQUIFY):
REGEXP is a regular expression to match against the file name.
If it matches, `replace-match' is used to replace the
matching part with REPLACEMENT.
If the optional element UNIQUIFY is non-nil, the auto-save file name is
constructed by taking the directory part of the replaced file-name,
concatenated with the buffer file name with all directory separators
changed to `!' to prevent clashes. This will not work
correctly if your filesystem truncates the resulting name.
All the transforms in the list are tried, in the order they are listed.
When one transform applies, its result is final;
no further transforms are tried.
The default value is set up to put the auto-save file into the
temporary directory (see the variable `temporary-file-directory') for
editing a remote file.
On MS-DOS filesystems without long names this variable is always
:group 'auto-save
:type '(repeat (list (string :tag "Regexp") (string :tag "Replacement")
(boolean :tag "Uniquify")))
:initialize 'custom-initialize-delay
:version "21.1")
(defvar auto-save--timer nil "Timer for `auto-save-visited-mode'.")
(defcustom auto-save-visited-interval 5
"Interval in seconds for `auto-save-visited-mode'.
If `auto-save-visited-mode' is enabled, Emacs will save all
buffers visiting a file to the visited file after it has been
idle for `auto-save-visited-interval' seconds."
:group 'auto-save
:type 'number
:version "26.1"
:set (lambda (symbol value)
(set-default symbol value)
(when auto-save--timer
(timer-set-idle-time auto-save--timer value :repeat))))
(define-minor-mode auto-save-visited-mode
"Toggle automatic saving to file-visiting buffers on or off.
With a prefix argument ARG, enable regular saving of all buffers
visiting a file if ARG is positive, and disable it otherwise.
Unlike `auto-save-mode', this mode will auto-save buffer contents
to the visited files directly and will also run all save-related
hooks. See Info node `Saving' for details of the save process.
If called from Lisp, enable the mode if ARG is omitted or nil,
and toggle it if ARG is `toggle'."
:group 'auto-save
:global t
(when auto-save--timer (cancel-timer auto-save--timer))
(setq auto-save--timer
(when auto-save-visited-mode
auto-save-visited-interval :repeat
#'save-some-buffers :no-prompt
(lambda ()
(and buffer-file-name
(not (and buffer-auto-save-file-name
;; The 'set' part is so we don't get a warning for using this variable
;; above, while still catching code that _sets_ the variable to get
;; the same effect as the new auto-save-visited-mode.
(make-obsolete-variable 'auto-save-visited-file-name 'auto-save-visited-mode
"Emacs 26.1" 'set)
(defcustom save-abbrevs t
"Non-nil means save word abbrevs too when files are saved.
If `silently', don't ask the user before saving."
:type '(choice (const t) (const nil) (const silently))
:group 'abbrev)
(defcustom find-file-run-dired t
"Non-nil means allow `find-file' to visit directories.
To visit the directory, `find-file' runs `find-directory-functions'."
:type 'boolean
:group 'find-file)
(defcustom find-directory-functions '(cvs-dired-noselect dired-noselect)
"List of functions to try in sequence to visit a directory.
Each function is called with the directory name as the sole argument
and should return either a buffer or nil."
:type '(hook :options (cvs-dired-noselect dired-noselect))
:group 'find-file)
;; FIXME: also add a hook for `(thing-at-point 'filename)'
(defcustom file-name-at-point-functions '(ffap-guess-file-name-at-point)
"List of functions to try in sequence to get a file name at point.
Each function should return either nil or a file name found at the
location of point in the current buffer."
:type '(hook :options (ffap-guess-file-name-at-point))
:group 'find-file)
;;;It is not useful to make this a local variable.
;;;(put 'find-file-not-found-hooks 'permanent-local t)
(define-obsolete-variable-alias 'find-file-not-found-hooks
'find-file-not-found-functions "22.1")
(defvar find-file-not-found-functions nil
"List of functions to be called for `find-file' on nonexistent file.
These functions are called as soon as the error is detected.
Variable `buffer-file-name' is already set up.
The functions are called in the order given until one of them returns non-nil.")
;;;It is not useful to make this a local variable.
;;;(put 'find-file-hooks 'permanent-local t)
(define-obsolete-variable-alias 'find-file-hooks 'find-file-hook "22.1")
(defcustom find-file-hook nil
"List of functions to be called after a buffer is loaded from a file.
The buffer's local variables (if any) will have been processed before the
functions are called. This includes directory-local variables, if any,
for the file's directory."
:group 'find-file
:type 'hook
:options '(auto-insert)
:version "22.1")
(define-obsolete-variable-alias 'write-file-hooks 'write-file-functions "22.1")
(defvar write-file-functions nil
"List of functions to be called before saving a buffer to a file.
Only used by `save-buffer'.
If one of them returns non-nil, the file is considered already written
and the rest are not called.
These hooks are considered to pertain to the visited file.
So any buffer-local binding of this variable is discarded if you change
the visited file name with \\[set-visited-file-name], but not when you
change the major mode.
This hook is not run if any of the functions in
`write-contents-functions' returns non-nil. Both hooks pertain
to how to save a buffer to file, for instance, choosing a suitable
coding system and setting mode bits. (See Info
node `(elisp)Saving Buffers'.) To perform various checks or
updates before the buffer is saved, use `before-save-hook'.")
(put 'write-file-functions 'permanent-local t)
(defvar local-write-file-hooks nil)
(make-variable-buffer-local 'local-write-file-hooks)
(put 'local-write-file-hooks 'permanent-local t)
(make-obsolete-variable 'local-write-file-hooks 'write-file-functions "22.1")
(define-obsolete-variable-alias 'write-contents-hooks
'write-contents-functions "22.1")
(defvar write-contents-functions nil
"List of functions to be called before writing out a buffer to a file.
Only used by `save-buffer'. If one of them returns non-nil, the
file is considered already written and the rest are not called
and neither are the functions in `write-file-functions'. This
hook can thus be used to create save behavior for buffers that
are not visiting a file at all.
This variable is meant to be used for hooks that pertain to the
buffer's contents, not to the particular visited file; thus,
`set-visited-file-name' does not clear this variable; but changing the
major mode does clear it.
For hooks that _do_ pertain to the particular visited file, use
`write-file-functions'. Both this variable and
`write-file-functions' relate to how a buffer is saved to file.
To perform various checks or updates before the buffer is saved,
use `before-save-hook'.")
(make-variable-buffer-local 'write-contents-functions)
(defcustom enable-local-variables t
"Control use of local variables in files you visit.
The value can be t, nil, :safe, :all, or something else.
A value of t means file local variables specifications are obeyed
if all the specified variable values are safe; if any values are
not safe, Emacs queries you, once, whether to set them all.
\(When you say yes to certain values, they are remembered as safe.)
:safe means set the safe variables, and ignore the rest.
:all means set all variables, whether safe or not.
(Don't set it permanently to :all.)
A value of nil means always ignore the file local variables.
Any other value means always query you once whether to set them all.
\(When you say yes to certain values, they are remembered as safe, but
this has no effect when `enable-local-variables' is \"something else\".)
This variable also controls use of major modes specified in
a -*- line.
The command \\[normal-mode], when used interactively,
always obeys file local variable specifications and the -*- line,
and ignores this variable."
:risky t
:type '(choice (const :tag "Query Unsafe" t)
(const :tag "Safe Only" :safe)
(const :tag "Do all" :all)
(const :tag "Ignore" nil)
(other :tag "Query" other))
:group 'find-file)
(defvar enable-dir-local-variables t
"Non-nil means enable use of directory-local variables.
Some modes may wish to set this to nil to prevent directory-local
settings being applied, but still respect file-local ones.")
;; This is an odd variable IMO.
;; You might wonder why it is needed, when we could just do:
;; (set (make-local-variable 'enable-local-variables) nil)
;; These two are not precisely the same.
;; Setting this variable does not cause -*- mode settings to be
;; ignored, whereas setting enable-local-variables does.
;; Only three places in Emacs use this variable: tar and arc modes,
;; and rmail. The first two don't need it. They already use
;; inhibit-local-variables-regexps, which is probably enough, and
;; could also just set enable-local-variables locally to nil.
;; Them setting it has the side-effect that dir-locals cannot apply to
;; eg tar files (?). FIXME Is this appropriate?
;; AFAICS, rmail is the only thing that needs this, and the only
;; reason it uses it is for BABYL files (which are obsolete).
;; These contain "-*- rmail -*-" in the first line, which rmail wants
;; to respect, so that find-file on a BABYL file will switch to
;; rmail-mode automatically (this is nice, but hardly essential,
;; since most people are used to explicitly running a command to
;; access their mail; M-x gnus etc). Rmail files may happen to
;; contain Local Variables sections in messages, which Rmail wants to
;; ignore. So AFAICS the only reason this variable exists is for a
;; minor convenience feature for handling of an obsolete Rmail file format.
(defvar local-enable-local-variables t
"Like `enable-local-variables', except for major mode in a -*- line.
The meaningful values are nil and non-nil. The default is non-nil.
It should be set in a buffer-local fashion.
Setting this to nil has the same effect as setting `enable-local-variables'
to nil, except that it does not ignore any mode: setting in a -*- line.
Unless this difference matters to you, you should set `enable-local-variables'
instead of this variable.")
(defcustom enable-local-eval 'maybe
"Control processing of the \"variable\" `eval' in a file's local variables.
The value can be t, nil or something else.
A value of t means obey `eval' variables.
A value of nil means ignore them; anything else means query."
:risky t
:type '(choice (const :tag "Obey" t)
(const :tag "Ignore" nil)
(other :tag "Query" other))
:group 'find-file)
(defcustom view-read-only nil
"Non-nil means buffers visiting files read-only do so in view mode.
In fact, this means that all read-only buffers normally have
View mode enabled, including buffers that are read-only because
you visit a file you cannot alter, and buffers you make read-only
using \\[read-only-mode]."
:type 'boolean
:group 'view)
(defvar file-name-history nil
"History list of file names entered in the minibuffer.
Maximum length of the history list is determined by the value
of `history-length', which see.")
(defvar save-silently nil
"If non-nil, avoid messages when saving files.
Error-related messages will still be printed, but all other
messages will not.")
(put 'ange-ftp-completion-hook-function 'safe-magic t)
(defun ange-ftp-completion-hook-function (op &rest args)
"Provides support for ange-ftp host name completion.
Runs the usual ange-ftp hook, but only for completion operations."
;; Having this here avoids the need to load ange-ftp when it's not
;; really in use.
(if (memq op '(file-name-completion file-name-all-completions))
(apply 'ange-ftp-hook-function op args)
(let ((inhibit-file-name-handlers
(cons 'ange-ftp-completion-hook-function
(and (eq inhibit-file-name-operation op)
(inhibit-file-name-operation op))
(apply op args))))
(declare-function dos-convert-standard-filename "dos-fns.el" (filename))
(declare-function w32-convert-standard-filename "w32-fns.el" (filename))
(defun convert-standard-filename (filename)
"Convert a standard file's name to something suitable for the OS.
This means to guarantee valid names and perhaps to canonicalize
certain patterns.
FILENAME should be an absolute file name since the conversion rules
sometimes vary depending on the position in the file name. E.g. c:/foo
is a valid DOS file name, but c:/bar/c:/foo is not.
This function's standard definition is trivial; it just returns
the argument. However, on Windows and DOS, replace invalid
characters. On DOS, make sure to obey the 8.3 limitations.
In the native Windows build, turn Cygwin names into native names.
See Info node `(elisp)Standard File Names' for more details."
((eq system-type 'cygwin)
(let ((name (copy-sequence filename))
(start 0))
;; Replace invalid filename characters with !
(while (string-match "[?*:<>|\"\000-\037]" name start)
(aset name (match-beginning 0) ?!)
(setq start (match-end 0)))
((eq system-type 'windows-nt)
(w32-convert-standard-filename filename))
((eq system-type 'ms-dos)
(dos-convert-standard-filename filename))
(t filename)))
(defun read-directory-name (prompt &optional dir default-dirname mustmatch initial)
"Read directory name, prompting with PROMPT and completing in directory DIR.
Value is not expanded---you must call `expand-file-name' yourself.
Default name to DEFAULT-DIRNAME if user exits with the same
non-empty string that was inserted by this function.
(If DEFAULT-DIRNAME is omitted, DIR combined with INITIAL is used,
or just DIR if INITIAL is nil.)
If the user exits with an empty minibuffer, this function returns
an empty string. (This can only happen if the user erased the
pre-inserted contents or if `insert-default-directory' is nil.)
Fourth arg MUSTMATCH non-nil means require existing directory's name.
Non-nil and non-t means also require confirmation after completion.
Fifth arg INITIAL specifies text to start with.
DIR should be an absolute directory name. It defaults to
the value of `default-directory'."
(unless dir
(setq dir default-directory))
(read-file-name prompt dir (or default-dirname
(if initial (expand-file-name initial dir)
mustmatch initial
(defun pwd (&optional insert)
"Show the current default directory.
With prefix argument INSERT, insert the current default directory
at point instead."
(interactive "P")
(if insert
(insert default-directory)
(message "Directory %s" default-directory)))
(defvar cd-path nil
"Value of the CDPATH environment variable, as a list.
Not actually set up until the first time you use it.")
(defun parse-colon-path (search-path)
"Explode a search path into a list of directory names.
Directories are separated by `path-separator' (which is colon in
GNU and Unix systems). Substitute environment variables into the
resulting list of directory names. For an empty path element (i.e.,
a leading or trailing separator, or two adjacent separators), return
nil (meaning `default-directory') as the associated list element."
(when (stringp search-path)
(mapcar (lambda (f)
(if (equal "" f) nil
(substitute-in-file-name (file-name-as-directory f))))
(split-string search-path path-separator))))
(defun cd-absolute (dir)
"Change current directory to given absolute file name DIR."
;; Put the name into directory syntax now,
;; because otherwise expand-file-name may give some bad results.
(setq dir (file-name-as-directory dir))
;; We used to additionally call abbreviate-file-name here, for an
;; unknown reason. Problem is that most buffers are setup
;; without going through cd-absolute and don't call
;; abbreviate-file-name on their default-directory, so the few that
;; do end up using a superficially different directory.
(setq dir (expand-file-name dir))
(if (not (file-directory-p dir))
(if (file-exists-p dir)
(error "%s is not a directory" dir)
(error "%s: no such directory" dir))
(unless (file-accessible-directory-p dir)
(error "Cannot cd to %s: Permission denied" dir))
(setq default-directory dir)
(setq list-buffers-directory dir)))
(defun cd (dir)
"Make DIR become the current buffer's default directory.
If your environment includes a `CDPATH' variable, try each one of
that list of directories (separated by occurrences of
`path-separator') when resolving a relative directory name.
The path separator is colon in GNU and GNU-like systems."
;; FIXME: There's a subtle bug in the completion below. Seems linked
;; to a fundamental difficulty of implementing `predicate' correctly.
;; The manifestation is that TAB may list non-directories in the case where
;; those files also correspond to valid directories (if your cd-path is (A/
;; B/) and you have A/a a file and B/a a directory, then both `a' and `a/'
;; will be listed as valid completions).
;; This is because `a' (listed because of A/a) is indeed a valid choice
;; (which will lead to the use of B/a).
(lambda ()
(setq-local minibuffer-completion-table
(apply-partially #'locate-file-completion-table
cd-path nil))
(setq-local minibuffer-completion-predicate
(lambda (dir)
(locate-file dir cd-path nil
(lambda (f) (and (file-directory-p f) 'dir-ok))))))
(unless cd-path
(setq cd-path (or (parse-colon-path (getenv "CDPATH"))
(list "./"))))
(read-directory-name "Change default directory: "
default-directory default-directory
(unless cd-path
(setq cd-path (or (parse-colon-path (getenv "CDPATH"))
(list "./"))))
;; locate-file doesn't support remote file names, so detect them
;; and support them here by hand.
(and (file-remote-p (expand-file-name dir))
(file-accessible-directory-p (expand-file-name dir))
(expand-file-name dir))
(locate-file dir cd-path nil
(lambda (f) (and (file-directory-p f) 'dir-ok)))
(error "No such directory found via CDPATH environment variable"))))
(defun directory-files-recursively (dir regexp &optional include-directories)
"Return list of all files under DIR that have file names matching REGEXP.
This function works recursively. Files are returned in \"depth first\"
order, and files from each directory are sorted in alphabetical order.
Each file name appears in the returned list in its absolute form.
Optional argument INCLUDE-DIRECTORIES non-nil means also include in the
output directories whose names match REGEXP."
(let ((result nil)
(files nil)
;; When DIR is "/", remote file names like "/method:" could
;; also be offered. We shall suppress them.
(tramp-mode (and tramp-mode (file-remote-p (expand-file-name dir)))))
(dolist (file (sort (file-name-all-completions "" dir)
(unless (member file '("./" "../"))
(if (directory-name-p file)
(let* ((leaf (substring file 0 (1- (length file))))
(full-file (expand-file-name leaf dir)))
;; Don't follow symlinks to other directories.
(unless (file-symlink-p full-file)
(setq result
(nconc result (directory-files-recursively
full-file regexp include-directories))))
(when (and include-directories
(string-match regexp leaf))
(setq result (nconc result (list full-file)))))
(when (string-match regexp file)
(push (expand-file-name file dir) files)))))
(nconc result (nreverse files))))
(defvar module-file-suffix)
(defun load-file (file)
"Load the Lisp file named FILE."
;; This is a case where .elc and .so/.dll make a lot of sense.
(interactive (list (let ((completion-ignored-extensions
(remove module-file-suffix
(remove ".elc"
(read-file-name "Load file: " nil nil 'lambda))))
(load (expand-file-name file) nil nil t))
(defun locate-file (filename path &optional suffixes predicate)
"Search for FILENAME through PATH.
If found, return the absolute file name of FILENAME; otherwise
return nil.
PATH should be a list of directories to look in, like the lists in
`exec-path' or `load-path'.
If SUFFIXES is non-nil, it should be a list of suffixes to append to
file name when searching. If SUFFIXES is nil, it is equivalent to (\"\").
Use (\"/\") to disable PATH search, but still try the suffixes in SUFFIXES.
If non-nil, PREDICATE is used instead of `file-readable-p'.
This function will normally skip directories, so if you want it to find
directories, make sure the PREDICATE function returns `dir-ok' for them.
PREDICATE can also be an integer to pass to the `access' system call,
in which case file-name handlers are ignored. This usage is deprecated.
For compatibility, PREDICATE can also be one of the symbols
`executable', `readable', `writable', or `exists', or a list of
one or more of those symbols."
(if (and predicate (symbolp predicate) (not (functionp predicate)))
(setq predicate (list predicate)))
(when (and (consp predicate) (not (functionp predicate)))
(setq predicate
(logior (if (memq 'executable predicate) 1 0)
(if (memq 'writable predicate) 2 0)
(if (memq 'readable predicate) 4 0))))
(locate-file-internal filename path suffixes predicate))
(defun locate-file-completion-table (dirs suffixes string pred action)
"Do completion for file names passed to `locate-file'."
((file-name-absolute-p string)
;; FIXME: maybe we should use completion-file-name-table instead,
;; tho at least for `load', the arg is passed through
;; substitute-in-file-name for historical reasons.
(read-file-name-internal string pred action))
((eq (car-safe action) 'boundaries)
(let ((suffix (cdr action)))
,(length (file-name-directory string))
,@(let ((x (file-name-directory suffix)))
(if x (1- (length x)) (length suffix))))))
(let ((names '())
;; If we have files like "foo.el" and "foo.elc", we could load one of
;; them with "foo.el", "foo.elc", or "foo", where just "foo" is the
;; preferred way. So if we list all 3, that gives a lot of redundant
;; entries for the poor soul looking just for "foo". OTOH, sometimes
;; the user does want to pay attention to the extension. We try to
;; diffuse this tension by stripping the suffix, except when the
;; result is a single element (i.e. usually we only list "foo" unless
;; it's the only remaining element in the list, in which case we do
;; list "foo", "foo.elc" and "foo.el").
(fullnames '())
(suffix (concat (regexp-opt suffixes t) "\\'"))
(string-dir (file-name-directory string))
(string-file (file-name-nondirectory string)))
(dolist (dir dirs)
(unless dir
(setq dir default-directory))
(if string-dir (setq dir (expand-file-name string-dir dir)))
(when (file-directory-p dir)
(dolist (file (file-name-all-completions
string-file dir))
(if (not (string-match suffix file))
(push file names)
(push file fullnames)
(push (substring file 0 (match-beginning 0)) names)))))
;; Switching from names to names+fullnames creates a non-monotonicity
;; which can cause problems with things like partial-completion.
;; To minimize the problem, filter out completion-regexp-list, so that
;; M-x load-library RET t/x.e TAB finds some files. Also remove elements
;; from `names' which only matched `string' when they still had
;; their suffix.
(setq names (all-completions string names))
;; Remove duplicates of the first element, so that we can easily check
;; if `names' really only contains a single element.
(when (cdr names) (setcdr names (delete (car names) (cdr names))))
(unless (cdr names)
;; There's no more than one matching non-suffixed element, so expand
;; the list by adding the suffixed elements as well.
(setq names (nconc names fullnames)))
string-dir names string-file pred action)))))
(defun locate-file-completion (string path-and-suffixes action)
"Do completion for file names passed to `locate-file'.
(declare (obsolete locate-file-completion-table "23.1"))
(locate-file-completion-table (car path-and-suffixes)
(cdr path-and-suffixes)
string nil action))
(defvar locate-dominating-stop-dir-regexp
(purecopy "\\`\\(?:[\\/][\\/][^\\/]+[\\/]\\|/\\(?:net\\|afs\\|\\.\\.\\.\\)/\\)\\'")
"Regexp of directory names which stop the search in `locate-dominating-file'.
Any directory whose name matches this regexp will be treated like
a kind of root directory by `locate-dominating-file' which will stop its search
when it bumps into it.
The default regexp prevents fruitless and time-consuming attempts to find
special files in directories in which filenames are interpreted as hostnames,
or mount points potentially requiring authentication as a different user.")
(defun locate-dominating-file (file name)
"Starting at FILE, look up directory hierarchy for directory containing NAME.
FILE can be a file or a directory. If it's a file, its directory will
serve as the starting point for searching the hierarchy of directories.
Stop at the first parent directory containing a file NAME,
and return the directory. Return nil if not found.
Instead of a string, NAME can also be a predicate taking one argument
\(a directory) and returning a non-nil value if that directory is the one for
which we're looking. The predicate will be called with every file/directory
the function needs to examine, starting with FILE."
;; Represent /home/luser/foo as ~/foo so that we don't try to look for
;; `name' in /home or in /.
(setq file (abbreviate-file-name (expand-file-name file)))
(let ((root nil)
(while (not (or root
(null file)
(string-match locate-dominating-stop-dir-regexp file)))
(setq try (if (stringp name)
(file-exists-p (expand-file-name name file))
(funcall name file)))
(cond (try (setq root file))
((equal file (setq file (file-name-directory
(directory-file-name file))))
(setq file nil))))
(if root (file-name-as-directory root))))
(defcustom user-emacs-directory-warning t
"Non-nil means warn if cannot access `user-emacs-directory'.
Set this to nil at your own risk..."
:type 'boolean
:group 'initialization
:version "24.4")
(defun locate-user-emacs-file (new-name &optional old-name)
"Return an absolute per-user Emacs-specific file name.
If NEW-NAME exists in `user-emacs-directory', return it.
Else if OLD-NAME is non-nil and ~/OLD-NAME exists, return ~/OLD-NAME.
Else return NEW-NAME in `user-emacs-directory', creating the
directory if it does not exist."
(let* ((home (concat "~" (or init-file-user "")))
(at-home (and old-name (expand-file-name old-name home)))
(bestname (abbreviate-file-name
(expand-file-name new-name user-emacs-directory))))
(if (and at-home (not (file-readable-p bestname))
(file-readable-p at-home))
;; Make sure `user-emacs-directory' exists,
;; unless we're in batch mode or dumping Emacs.
(or noninteractive
(let (errtype)
(if (file-directory-p user-emacs-directory)
(or (file-accessible-directory-p user-emacs-directory)
(setq errtype "access"))
(with-file-modes ?\700
(condition-case nil
(make-directory user-emacs-directory)
(error (setq errtype "create")))))
(when (and errtype
(not (get 'user-emacs-directory-warning 'this-session)))
;; Only warn once per Emacs session.
(put 'user-emacs-directory-warning 'this-session t)
(display-warning 'initialization
(format "\
Unable to %s `user-emacs-directory' (%s).
Any data that would normally be written there may be lost!
If you never want to see this message again,
customize the variable `user-emacs-directory-warning'."
errtype user-emacs-directory)))))
(defun executable-find (command)
"Search for COMMAND in `exec-path' and return the absolute file name.
Return nil if COMMAND is not found anywhere in `exec-path'."
;; Use 1 rather than file-executable-p to better match the behavior of
;; call-process.
(locate-file command exec-path exec-suffixes 1))
(defun load-library (library)
"Load the Emacs Lisp library named LIBRARY.
LIBRARY should be a string.
This is an interface to the function `load'. LIBRARY is searched
for in `load-path', both with and without `load-suffixes' (as
well as `load-file-rep-suffixes').
See Info node `(emacs)Lisp Libraries' for more details.
See `load-file' for a different interface to `load'."
(let (completion-ignored-extensions)
(list (completing-read "Load library: "
(apply-partially 'locate-file-completion-table
(load library))
(defun file-remote-p (file &optional identification connected)
"Test whether FILE specifies a location on a remote system.
A file is considered remote if accessing it is likely to
be slower or less reliable than accessing local files.
`file-remote-p' never opens a new remote connection. It can
only reuse a connection that is already open.
Return nil or a string identifying the remote connection
\(ideally a prefix of FILE). Return nil if FILE is a relative
file name.
When IDENTIFICATION is nil, the returned string is a complete
remote identifier: with components method, user, and host. The
components are those present in FILE, with defaults filled in for
any that are missing.
IDENTIFICATION can specify which part of the identification to
return. IDENTIFICATION can be the symbol `method', `user',
`host', or `localname'. Any other value is handled like nil and
means to return the complete identification. The string returned
for IDENTIFICATION `localname' can differ depending on whether
there is an existing connection.
If CONNECTED is non-nil, return an identification only if FILE is
located on a remote system and a connection is established to
that remote system.
Tip: You can use this expansion of remote identifier components
to derive a new remote file name from an existing one. For
example, if FILE is \"/sudo::/path/to/file\" then
(concat (file-remote-p FILE) \"/bin/sh\")
returns a remote file name for file \"/bin/sh\" that has the
same remote identifier as FILE but expanded; a name such as
(let ((handler (find-file-name-handler file 'file-remote-p)))
(if handler
(funcall handler 'file-remote-p file identification connected)
;; Probably this entire variable should be obsolete now, in favor of
;; something Tramp-related (?). It is not used in many places.
;; It's not clear what the best file for this to be in is, but given
;; it uses custom-initialize-delay, it is easier if it is preloaded
;; rather than autoloaded.
(defcustom remote-shell-program
;; This used to try various hard-coded places for remsh, rsh, and
;; rcmd, trying to guess based on location whether "rsh" was
;; "restricted shell" or "remote shell", but I don't see the point
;; in this day and age. Almost everyone will use ssh, and have
;; whatever command they want to use in PATH.
(let ((list '("ssh" "remsh" "rcmd" "rsh")))
(while (and list
(not (executable-find (car list)))
(setq list (cdr list))))
(or (car list) "ssh")))
"Program to use to execute commands on a remote host (e.g. ssh or rsh)."
:version "24.3" ; ssh rather than rsh, etc
:initialize 'custom-initialize-delay
:group 'environment
:type 'file)
(defcustom remote-file-name-inhibit-cache 10
"Whether to use the remote file-name cache for read access.
When nil, never expire cached values (caution)
When t, never use the cache (safe, but may be slow)
A number means use cached values for that amount of seconds since caching.
The attributes of remote files are cached for better performance.
If they are changed outside of Emacs's control, the cached values
become invalid, and must be reread. If you are sure that nothing
other than Emacs changes the files, you can set this variable to nil.
If a remote file is checked regularly, it might be a good idea to
let-bind this variable to a value less than the interval between
consecutive checks. For example:
(defun display-time-file-nonempty-p (file)
(let ((remote-file-name-inhibit-cache (- display-time-interval 5)))
(and (file-exists-p file)
(< 0 (nth 7 (file-attributes (file-chase-links file)))))))"
:group 'files
:version "24.1"
:type `(choice
(const :tag "Do not inhibit file name cache" nil)
(const :tag "Do not use file name cache" t)
(integer :tag "Do not use file name cache"
:format "Do not use file name cache older then %v seconds"
:value 10)))
(defun file-local-name (file)
"Return the local name component of FILE.
This function removes from FILE the specification of the remote host
and the method of accessing the host, leaving only the part that
identifies FILE locally on the remote system.
The returned file name can be used directly as argument of
`process-file', `start-file-process', or `shell-command'."
(or (file-remote-p file 'localname) file))
(defun file-local-copy (file)
"Copy the file FILE into a temporary file on this machine.
Returns the name of the local copy, or nil, if FILE is directly
;; This formerly had an optional BUFFER argument that wasn't used by
;; anything.
(let ((handler (find-file-name-handler file 'file-local-copy)))
(if handler
(funcall handler 'file-local-copy file)
(defun files--name-absolute-system-p (file)
"Return non-nil if FILE is an absolute name to the operating system.
This is like `file-name-absolute-p', except that it returns nil for
names beginning with `~'."
(and (file-name-absolute-p file)
(not (eq (aref file 0) ?~))))
(defun files--splice-dirname-file (dirname file)
"Splice DIRNAME to FILE like the operating system would.
If FILE is relative, return DIRNAME concatenated to FILE.
Otherwise return FILE, quoted as needed if DIRNAME and FILE have
different handlers; although this quoting is dubious if DIRNAME
is magic, it is not clear what would be better. This function
differs from `expand-file-name' in that DIRNAME must be a
directory name and leading `~' and `/:' are not special in FILE."
(let ((unquoted (if (files--name-absolute-system-p file)
(concat dirname file))))
(if (eq (find-file-name-handler dirname 'file-symlink-p)
(find-file-name-handler unquoted 'file-symlink-p))
(let (file-name-handler-alist) (file-name-quote unquoted)))))
(defun file-truename (filename &optional counter prev-dirs)
"Return the truename of FILENAME.
If FILENAME is not absolute, first expands it against `default-directory'.
The truename of a file name is found by chasing symbolic links
both at the level of the file and at the level of the directories
containing it, until no links are left at any level.
\(fn FILENAME)" ;; Don't document the optional arguments.
;; COUNTER and PREV-DIRS are only used in recursive calls.
;; COUNTER can be a cons cell whose car is the count of how many
;; more links to chase before getting an error.
;; PREV-DIRS can be a cons cell whose car is an alist
;; of truenames we've just recently computed.
(cond ((or (string= filename "") (string= filename "~"))
(setq filename (expand-file-name filename))
(if (string= filename "")
(setq filename "/")))
((and (string= (substring filename 0 1) "~")
(string-match "~[^/]*/?" filename))
(let ((first-part
(substring filename 0 (match-end 0)))
(rest (substring filename (match-end 0))))
(setq filename (concat (expand-file-name first-part) rest)))))
(or counter (setq counter (list 100)))
(let (done
;; For speed, remove the ange-ftp completion handler from the list.
;; We know it's not needed here.
;; For even more speed, do this only on the outermost call.
(if prev-dirs file-name-handler-alist
(let ((tem (copy-sequence file-name-handler-alist)))
(delq (rassq 'ange-ftp-completion-hook-function tem) tem)))))
(or prev-dirs (setq prev-dirs (list nil)))
;; - on Windows, there is an issue with
;; case differences being ignored by the OS, and short "8.3 DOS"
;; name aliases existing for all files. (The short names are not
;; reported by directory-files, but can be used to refer to files.)
;; It seems appropriate for file-truename to resolve these issues in
;; the most natural way, which on Windows is to call the function
;; `w32-long-file-name' - this returns the exact name of a file as
;; it is stored on disk (expanding short name aliases with the full
;; name in the process).
(if (eq system-type 'windows-nt)
(unless (string-match "[[*?]" filename)
;; If filename exists, use its long name. If it doesn't
;; exist, the recursion below on the directory of filename
;; will drill down until we find a directory that exists,
;; and use the long name of that, with the extra
;; non-existent path components concatenated.
(let ((longname (w32-long-file-name filename)))
(if longname
(setq filename longname)))))
;; If this file directly leads to a link, process that iteratively
;; so that we don't use lots of stack.
(while (not done)
(setcar counter (1- (car counter)))
(if (< (car counter) 0)
(error "Apparent cycle of symbolic links for %s" filename))
(let ((handler (find-file-name-handler filename 'file-truename)))
;; For file name that has a special handler, call handler.
;; This is so that ange-ftp can save time by doing a no-op.
(if handler
(setq filename (funcall handler 'file-truename filename)
done t)
(let ((dir (or (file-name-directory filename) default-directory))
target dirfile)
;; Get the truename of the directory.
(setq dirfile (directory-file-name dir))
;; If these are equal, we have the (or a) root directory.
(or (string= dir dirfile)
(and (file-name-case-insensitive-p dir)
(eq (compare-strings dir 0 nil dirfile 0 nil t) t))
;; If this is the same dir we last got the truename for,
;; save time--don't recalculate.
(if (assoc dir (car prev-dirs))
(setq dir (cdr (assoc dir (car prev-dirs))))
(let ((old dir)
(new (file-name-as-directory (file-truename dirfile counter prev-dirs))))
(setcar prev-dirs (cons (cons old new) (car prev-dirs)))
(setq dir new))))
(if (equal ".." (file-name-nondirectory filename))
(setq filename
(directory-file-name (file-name-directory (directory-file-name dir)))
done t)
(if (equal "." (file-name-nondirectory filename))
(setq filename (directory-file-name dir)
done t)
;; Put it back on the file name.
(setq filename (concat dir (file-name-nondirectory filename)))
;; Is the file name the name of a link?
(setq target (file-symlink-p filename))
(if target
;; Yes => chase that link, then start all over
;; since the link may point to a directory name that uses links.
;; We can't safely use expand-file-name here
;; since target might look like foo/../bar where foo
;; is itself a link. Instead, we handle . and .. above.
(setq filename (files--splice-dirname-file dir target)
done nil)
;; No, we are done!
(setq done t))))))))
(defun file-chase-links (filename &optional limit)
"Chase links in FILENAME until a name that is not a link.
Unlike `file-truename', this does not check whether a parent
directory name is a symbolic link.
If the optional argument LIMIT is a number,
it means chase no more than that many links and then stop."
(let (tem (newname filename)
(count 0))
(while (and (or (null limit) (< count limit))
(setq tem (file-symlink-p newname)))
(if (and (null limit) (= count 100))
(error "Apparent cycle of symbolic links for %s" filename))
;; In the context of a link, `//' doesn't mean what Emacs thinks.
(while (string-match "//+" tem)
(setq tem (replace-match "/" nil nil tem)))
;; Handle `..' by hand, since it needs to work in the
;; target of any directory symlink.
;; This code is not quite complete; it does not handle
;; embedded .. in some cases such as ./../foo and foo/bar/../../../lose.
(while (string-match "\\`\\.\\./" tem)
(setq tem (substring tem 3))
(setq newname (expand-file-name newname))
;; Chase links in the default dir of the symlink.
(setq newname
(directory-file-name (file-name-directory newname))))
;; Now find the parent of that dir.
(setq newname (file-name-directory newname)))
(setq newname (files--splice-dirname-file (file-name-directory newname)
(setq count (1+ count))))
;; A handy function to display file sizes in human-readable form.
;; See for the reference.
(defun file-size-human-readable (file-size &optional flavor)
"Produce a string showing FILE-SIZE in human-readable form.
Optional second argument FLAVOR controls the units and the display format:
If FLAVOR is nil or omitted, each kilobyte is 1024 bytes and the produced
suffixes are \"k\", \"M\", \"G\", \"T\", etc.
If FLAVOR is `si', each kilobyte is 1000 bytes and the produced suffixes
are \"k\", \"M\", \"G\", \"T\", etc.
If FLAVOR is `iec', each kilobyte is 1024 bytes and the produced suffixes
are \"KiB\", \"MiB\", \"GiB\", \"TiB\", etc."
(let ((power (if (or (null flavor) (eq flavor 'iec))
;; none, kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta, exa, zetta, yotta
(list "" "k" "M" "G" "T" "P" "E" "Z" "Y")))
(while (and (>= file-size power) (cdr post-fixes))
(setq file-size (/ file-size power)
post-fixes (cdr post-fixes)))
(format (if (> (mod file-size 1.0) 0.05)
(if (and (eq flavor 'iec) (string= (car post-fixes) "k"))
(car post-fixes))
(if (eq flavor 'iec) "iB" ""))))
(defcustom mounted-file-systems
(if (memq system-type '(windows-nt cygwin))
;; regexp-opt.el is not dumped into emacs binary.
;; "^" (regexp-opt '("/afs/" "/media/" "/mnt" "/net/" "/tmp_mnt/"))))
"File systems which ought to be mounted."
:group 'files
:version "26.1"
:require 'regexp-opt
:type 'regexp)
(defun temporary-file-directory ()
"The directory for writing temporary files.
In case of a remote `default-directory', this is a directory for
temporary files on that remote host. If such a directory does
not exist, or `default-directory' ought to be located on a
mounted file system (see `mounted-file-systems'), the function
returns `default-directory'.
For a non-remote and non-mounted `default-directory', the value of
the variable `temporary-file-directory' is returned."
(let ((handler (find-file-name-handler
default-directory 'temporary-file-directory)))
(if handler
(funcall handler 'temporary-file-directory)
(if (string-match mounted-file-systems default-directory)
(defun make-temp-file (prefix &optional dir-flag suffix text)
"Create a temporary file.
The returned file name (created by appending some random characters at the end
of PREFIX, and expanding against `temporary-file-directory' if necessary),
is guaranteed to point to a newly created file.
You can then use `write-region' to write new data into the file.
If DIR-FLAG is non-nil, create a new empty directory instead of a file.
If SUFFIX is non-nil, add that at the end of the file name.
If TEXT is a string, insert it into the new file; DIR-FLAG should be nil.
Otherwise the file will be empty."
(let ((absolute-prefix
(if (or (zerop (length prefix)) (member prefix '("." "..")))
(concat (file-name-as-directory temporary-file-directory) prefix)
(expand-file-name prefix temporary-file-directory))))
(if (find-file-name-handler absolute-prefix 'write-region)
(files--make-magic-temp-file absolute-prefix dir-flag suffix text)
(make-temp-file-internal absolute-prefix
(if dir-flag t) (or suffix "") text))))
(defun files--make-magic-temp-file (absolute-prefix
&optional dir-flag suffix text)
"Implement (make-temp-file ABSOLUTE-PREFIX DIR-FLAG SUFFIX TEXT).
This implementation works on magic file names."
;; Create temp files with strict access rights. It's easy to
;; loosen them later, whereas it's impossible to close the
;; time-window of loose permissions otherwise.
(with-file-modes ?\700
(let ((contents (if (stringp text) text ""))
(while (condition-case ()
(setq file (make-temp-name absolute-prefix))
(if suffix
(setq file (concat file suffix)))
(if dir-flag
(make-directory file)
(write-region contents nil file nil 'silent nil 'excl))
(file-already-exists t))
;; the file was somehow created by someone else between
;; `make-temp-name' and `write-region', let's try again.
(defun make-nearby-temp-file (prefix &optional dir-flag suffix)
"Create a temporary file as close as possible to `default-directory'.
If PREFIX is a relative file name, and `default-directory' is a
remote file name or located on a mounted file systems, the
temporary file is created in the directory returned by the
function `temporary-file-directory'. Otherwise, the function
`make-temp-file' is used. PREFIX, DIR-FLAG and SUFFIX have the
same meaning as in `make-temp-file'."
(let ((handler (find-file-name-handler
default-directory 'make-nearby-temp-file)))
(if (and handler (not (file-name-absolute-p default-directory)))
(funcall handler 'make-nearby-temp-file prefix dir-flag suffix)
(let ((temporary-file-directory (temporary-file-directory)))
(make-temp-file prefix dir-flag suffix)))))
(defun recode-file-name (file coding new-coding &optional ok-if-already-exists)
"Change the encoding of FILE's name from CODING to NEW-CODING.
The value is a new name of FILE.
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if a file of the new name
already exists unless optional fourth argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS
is non-nil. A number as fourth arg means request confirmation if
the new name already exists. This is what happens in interactive
use with M-x."
(let ((default-coding (or file-name-coding-system
(filename (read-file-name "Recode filename: " nil nil t))
from-coding to-coding)
(if (and default-coding
;; We provide the default coding only when it seems that
;; the filename is correctly decoded by the default
;; coding.
(let ((charsets (find-charset-string filename)))
(and (not (memq 'eight-bit-control charsets))
(not (memq 'eight-bit-graphic charsets)))))
(setq from-coding (read-coding-system
(format "Recode filename %s from (default %s): "
filename default-coding)
(setq from-coding (read-coding-system
(format "Recode filename %s from: " filename))))
;; We provide the default coding only when a user is going to
;; change the encoding not from the default coding.
(if (eq from-coding default-coding)
(setq to-coding (read-coding-system
(format "Recode filename %s from %s to: "
filename from-coding)))
(setq to-coding (read-coding-system
(format "Recode filename %s from %s to (default %s): "
filename from-coding default-coding)
(list filename from-coding to-coding)))
(let* ((default-coding (or file-name-coding-system
;; FILE should have been decoded by DEFAULT-CODING.
(encoded (encode-coding-string file default-coding))
(newname (decode-coding-string encoded coding))
(new-encoded (encode-coding-string newname new-coding))
;; Suppress further encoding.
(file-name-coding-system nil)
(default-file-name-coding-system nil)
(locale-coding-system nil))
(rename-file encoded new-encoded ok-if-already-exists)
(defcustom confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer 'after-completion
"Whether confirmation is requested before visiting a new file or buffer.
If nil, confirmation is not requested.
If the value is `after-completion', confirmation is only
requested if the user called `minibuffer-complete' right before
Any other non-nil value means to request confirmation.
This affects commands like `switch-to-buffer' and `find-file'."
:group 'find-file
:version "23.1"
:type '(choice (const :tag "After completion" after-completion)
(const :tag "Never" nil)
(other :tag "Always" t)))
(defun confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer ()
"Whether to request confirmation before visiting a new file or buffer.
The variable `confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer' determines the
return value, which may be passed as the REQUIRE-MATCH arg to
`read-buffer' or `find-file-read-args'."
(cond ((eq confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer 'after-completion)
(t nil)))
(defmacro minibuffer-with-setup-hook (fun &rest body)
"Temporarily add FUN to `minibuffer-setup-hook' while executing BODY.
By default, FUN is prepended to `minibuffer-setup-hook'. But if FUN is of
the form `(:append FUN1)', FUN1 will be appended to `minibuffer-setup-hook'
instead of prepending it.
BODY should use the minibuffer at most once.
Recursive uses of the minibuffer are unaffected (FUN is not
called additional times).
This macro actually adds an auxiliary function that calls FUN,
rather than FUN itself, to `minibuffer-setup-hook'."
(declare (indent 1) (debug t))
(let ((hook (make-symbol "setup-hook"))
(funsym (make-symbol "fun"))
(append nil))
(when (eq (car-safe fun) :append)
(setq append '(t) fun (cadr fun)))
`(let ((,funsym ,fun)
(setq ,hook
(lambda ()
;; Clear out this hook so it does not interfere
;; with any recursive minibuffer usage.
(remove-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook ,hook)
(funcall ,funsym)))
(add-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook ,hook ,@append)
(remove-hook 'minibuffer-setup-hook ,hook)))))
(defun find-file-read-args (prompt mustmatch)
(list (read-file-name prompt nil default-directory mustmatch)
(defun find-file (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME.
Switch to a buffer visiting file FILENAME,
creating one if none already exists.
Interactively, the default if you just type RET is the current directory,
but the visited file name is available through the minibuffer history:
type \\[next-history-element] to pull it into the minibuffer.
The first time \\[next-history-element] is used after Emacs prompts for
the file name, the result is affected by `file-name-at-point-functions',
which by default try to guess the file name by looking at point in the
current buffer. Customize the value of `file-name-at-point-functions'
or set it to nil, if you want only the visited file name and the
current directory to be available on first \\[next-history-element]
You can visit files on remote machines by specifying something
like /ssh:SOME_REMOTE_MACHINE:FILE for the file name. You can
also visit local files as a different user by specifying
/sudo::FILE for the file name.
See the Info node `(tramp)File name Syntax' in the Tramp Info
manual, for more about this.
Interactively, or if WILDCARDS is non-nil in a call from Lisp,
expand wildcards (if any) and visit multiple files. You can
suppress wildcard expansion by setting `find-file-wildcards' to nil.
To visit a file without any kind of conversion and without
automatically choosing a major mode, use \\[find-file-literally]."
(find-file-read-args "Find file: "
(let ((value (find-file-noselect filename nil nil wildcards)))
(if (listp value)
(mapcar 'pop-to-buffer-same-window (nreverse value))
(pop-to-buffer-same-window value))))
(defun find-file-other-window (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME, in another window.
Like \\[find-file] (which see), but creates a new window or reuses
an existing one. See the function `display-buffer'.
Interactively, the default if you just type RET is the current directory,
but the visited file name is available through the minibuffer history:
type \\[next-history-element] to pull it into the minibuffer.
The first time \\[next-history-element] is used after Emacs prompts for
the file name, the result is affected by `file-name-at-point-functions',
which by default try to guess the file name by looking at point in the
current buffer. Customize the value of `file-name-at-point-functions'
or set it to nil, if you want only the visited file name and the
current directory to be available on first \\[next-history-element]
Interactively, or if WILDCARDS is non-nil in a call from Lisp,
expand wildcards (if any) and visit multiple files."
(find-file-read-args "Find file in other window: "
(let ((value (find-file-noselect filename nil nil wildcards)))
(if (listp value)
(setq value (nreverse value))
(switch-to-buffer-other-window (car value))
(mapc 'switch-to-buffer (cdr value))
(switch-to-buffer-other-window value))))
(defun find-file-other-frame (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME, in another frame.
Like \\[find-file] (which see), but creates a new frame or reuses
an existing one. See the function `display-buffer'.
Interactively, the default if you just type RET is the current directory,
but the visited file name is available through the minibuffer history:
type \\[next-history-element] to pull it into the minibuffer.
The first time \\[next-history-element] is used after Emacs prompts for
the file name, the result is affected by `file-name-at-point-functions',
which by default try to guess the file name by looking at point in the
current buffer. Customize the value of `file-name-at-point-functions'
or set it to nil, if you want only the visited file name and the
current directory to be available on first \\[next-history-element]
Interactively, or if WILDCARDS is non-nil in a call from Lisp,
expand wildcards (if any) and visit multiple files."
(find-file-read-args "Find file in other frame: "
(let ((value (find-file-noselect filename nil nil wildcards)))
(if (listp value)
(setq value (nreverse value))
(switch-to-buffer-other-frame (car value))
(mapc 'switch-to-buffer (cdr value))
(switch-to-buffer-other-frame value))))
(defun find-file-existing (filename)
"Edit the existing file FILENAME.
Like \\[find-file], but only allow a file that exists, and do not allow
file names with wildcards."
(interactive (nbutlast (find-file-read-args "Find existing file: " t)))
(if (and (not (called-interactively-p 'interactive))
(not (file-exists-p filename)))
(error "%s does not exist" filename)
(find-file filename)
(defun find-file--read-only (fun filename wildcards)
(unless (or (and wildcards find-file-wildcards
(not (file-name-quoted-p filename))
(string-match "[[*?]" filename))
(file-exists-p filename))
(error "%s does not exist" filename))
(let ((value (funcall fun filename wildcards)))
(mapc (lambda (b) (with-current-buffer b (read-only-mode 1)))
(if (listp value) value (list value)))
(defun find-file-read-only (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME but don't allow changes.
Like \\[find-file], but marks buffer as read-only.
Use \\[read-only-mode] to permit editing."
(find-file-read-args "Find file read-only: "
(find-file--read-only #'find-file filename wildcards))
(defun find-file-read-only-other-window (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME in another window but don't allow changes.
Like \\[find-file-other-window], but marks buffer as read-only.
Use \\[read-only-mode] to permit editing."
(find-file-read-args "Find file read-only other window: "
(find-file--read-only #'find-file-other-window filename wildcards))
(defun find-file-read-only-other-frame (filename &optional wildcards)
"Edit file FILENAME in another frame but don't allow changes.
Like \\[find-file-other-frame], but marks buffer as read-only.
Use \\[read-only-mode] to permit editing."
(find-file-read-args "Find file read-only other frame: "
(find-file--read-only #'find-file-other-frame filename wildcards))
(defun find-alternate-file-other-window (filename &optional wildcards)
"Find file FILENAME as a replacement for the file in the next window.
This command does not select that window.
See \\[find-file] for the possible forms of the FILENAME argument.
Interactively, or if WILDCARDS is non-nil in a call from Lisp,
expand wildcards (if any) and replace the file with multiple files."
(other-window 1)
(let ((file buffer-file-name)
(file-name nil)
(file-dir nil))
(and file
(setq file-name (file-name-nondirectory file)
file-dir (file-name-directory file)))
(list (read-file-name
"Find alternate file: " file-dir nil
(confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer) file-name)
(if (one-window-p)
(find-file-other-window filename wildcards)
(other-window 1)
(find-alternate-file filename wildcards))))
;; Defined and used in buffer.c, but not as a DEFVAR_LISP.
(defvar kill-buffer-hook nil
"Hook run when a buffer is killed.
The buffer being killed is current while the hook is running.
See `kill-buffer'.
Note: Be careful with let-binding this hook considering it is
frequently used for cleanup.")
(defun find-alternate-file (filename &optional wildcards)
"Find file FILENAME, select its buffer, kill previous buffer.
If the current buffer now contains an empty file that you just visited
\(presumably by mistake), use this command to visit the file you really want.
See \\[find-file] for the possible forms of the FILENAME argument.
Interactively, or if WILDCARDS is non-nil in a call from Lisp,
expand wildcards (if any) and replace the file with multiple files.
If the current buffer is an indirect buffer, or the base buffer
for one or more indirect buffers, the other buffer(s) are not
(let ((file buffer-file-name)
(file-name nil)
(file-dir nil))
(and file
(setq file-name (file-name-nondirectory file)
file-dir (file-name-directory file)))
(list (read-file-name
"Find alternate file: " file-dir nil
(confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer) file-name)
(unless (run-hook-with-args-until-failure 'kill-buffer-query-functions)
(user-error "Aborted"))
(and (buffer-modified-p) buffer-file-name
(not (yes-or-no-p
(format-message "Kill and replace buffer `%s' without saving it? "
(user-error "Aborted"))
(let ((obuf (current-buffer))
(ofile buffer-file-name)
(onum buffer-file-number)
(odir dired-directory)
(otrue buffer-file-truename)
(oname (buffer-name)))
;; Run `kill-buffer-hook' here. It needs to happen before
;; variables like `buffer-file-name' etc are set to nil below,
;; because some of the hooks that could be invoked
;; (e.g., `save-place-to-alist') depend on those variables.
;; Note that `kill-buffer-hook' is not what queries whether to
;; save a modified buffer visiting a file. Rather, `kill-buffer'
;; asks that itself. Thus, there's no need to temporarily do
;; `(set-buffer-modified-p nil)' before running this hook.
(run-hooks 'kill-buffer-hook)
;; Okay, now we can end-of-life the old buffer.
(if (get-buffer " **lose**")
(kill-buffer " **lose**"))
(rename-buffer " **lose**")
;; This prevents us from finding the same buffer
;; if we specified the same file again.
(setq buffer-file-name nil)
(setq buffer-file-number nil)
(setq buffer-file-truename nil)
;; Likewise for dired buffers.
(setq dired-directory nil)
(find-file filename wildcards))
(when (eq obuf (current-buffer))
;; This executes if find-file gets an error
;; and does not really find anything.
;; We put things back as they were.
;; If find-file actually finds something, we kill obuf below.
(setq buffer-file-name ofile)
(setq buffer-file-number onum)
(setq buffer-file-truename otrue)
(setq dired-directory odir)
(rename-buffer oname)))
(unless (eq (current-buffer) obuf)
(with-current-buffer obuf
;; We already ran these; don't run them again.
(let (kill-buffer-query-functions kill-buffer-hook)
(kill-buffer obuf))))))
;; FIXME we really need to fold the uniquify stuff in here by default,
;; not using advice, and add it to the doc string.
(defun create-file-buffer (filename)
"Create a suitably named buffer for visiting FILENAME, and return it.
FILENAME (sans directory) is used unchanged if that name is free;
otherwise a string <2> or <3> or ... is appended to get an unused name.
Emacs treats buffers whose names begin with a space as internal buffers.
To avoid confusion when visiting a file whose name begins with a space,
this function prepends a \"|\" to the final result if necessary."
(let ((lastname (file-name-nondirectory filename)))
(if (string= lastname "")
(setq lastname filename))
(generate-new-buffer (if (string-match-p "\\` " lastname)
(concat "|" lastname)
(defun generate-new-buffer (name)
"Create and return a buffer with a name based on NAME.
Choose the buffer's name using `generate-new-buffer-name'."
(get-buffer-create (generate-new-buffer-name name)))
(defcustom automount-dir-prefix (purecopy "^/tmp_mnt/")
"Regexp to match the automounter prefix in a directory name."
:group 'files
:type 'regexp)
(make-obsolete-variable 'automount-dir-prefix 'directory-abbrev-alist "24.3")
(defvar abbreviated-home-dir nil
"Regexp matching the user's homedir at the beginning of file name.
The value includes abbreviation according to `directory-abbrev-alist'.")
(defun abbreviate-file-name (filename)
"Return a version of FILENAME shortened using `directory-abbrev-alist'.
This also substitutes \"~\" for the user's home directory (unless the
home directory is a root directory) and removes automounter prefixes
\(see the variable `automount-dir-prefix').
When this function is first called, it caches the user's home
directory as a regexp in `abbreviated-home-dir', and reuses it
afterwards (so long as the home directory does not change;
if you want to permanently change your home directory after having
started Emacs, set `abbreviated-home-dir' to nil so it will be recalculated)."
;; Get rid of the prefixes added by the automounter.
(if (and automount-dir-prefix
(string-match automount-dir-prefix filename)
(file-exists-p (file-name-directory
(substring filename (1- (match-end 0))))))
(setq filename (substring filename (1- (match-end 0)))))
;; Avoid treating /home/foo as /home/Foo during `~' substitution.
(let ((case-fold-search (file-name-case-insensitive-p filename)))
;; If any elt of directory-abbrev-alist matches this name,
;; abbreviate accordingly.
(dolist (dir-abbrev directory-abbrev-alist)
(if (string-match (car dir-abbrev) filename)
(setq filename
(concat (cdr dir-abbrev)
(substring filename (match-end 0))))))
;; Compute and save the abbreviated homedir name.
;; We defer computing this until the first time it's needed, to
;; give time for directory-abbrev-alist to be set properly.
;; We include a slash at the end, to avoid spurious matches
;; such as `/usr/foobar' when the home dir is `/usr/foo'.
(unless abbreviated-home-dir
(put 'abbreviated-home-dir 'home (expand-file-name "~"))
(setq abbreviated-home-dir
(let ((abbreviated-home-dir "$foo"))
(setq abbreviated-home-dir
(concat "\\`"
(get 'abbreviated-home-dir 'home))
;; Depending on whether default-directory does or
;; doesn't include non-ASCII characters, the value
;; of abbreviated-home-dir could be multibyte or
;; unibyte. In the latter case, we need to decode
;; it. Note that this function is called for the
;; first time (from startup.el) when
;; locale-coding-system is already set up.
(if (multibyte-string-p abbreviated-home-dir)
(decode-coding-string abbreviated-home-dir
(if (eq system-type 'windows-nt)
;; If FILENAME starts with the abbreviated homedir,
;; and ~ hasn't changed since abbreviated-home-dir was set,
;; make it start with `~' instead.
;; If ~ has changed, we ignore abbreviated-home-dir rather than
;; invalidating it, on the assumption that a change in HOME
;; is likely temporary (eg for testing).
;; FIXME Is it even worth caching abbreviated-home-dir?
;; Ref:
(if (and (string-match abbreviated-home-dir filename)
;; If the home dir is just /, don't change it.
(not (and (= (match-end 0) 1)
(= (aref filename 0) ?/)))
;; MS-DOS root directories can come with a drive letter;
;; Novell Netware allows drive letters beyond `Z:'.
(not (and (memq system-type '(ms-dos windows-nt cygwin))
(string-match "^[a-zA-`]:/$" filename))))
(equal (get 'abbreviated-home-dir 'home)
(save-match-data (expand-file-name "~"))))
(setq filename
(concat "~"
(match-string 1 filename)
(substring filename (match-end 0)))))
(defun find-buffer-visiting (filename &optional predicate)
"Return the buffer visiting file FILENAME (a string).
This is like `get-file-buffer', except that it checks for any buffer
visiting the same file, possibly under a different name.
If PREDICATE is non-nil, only buffers satisfying it are eligible,
and others are ignored.
If there is no such live buffer, return nil."
(let ((predicate (or predicate #'identity))
(truename (abbreviate-file-name (file-truename filename))))
(or (let ((buf (get-file-buffer filename)))
(when (and buf (funcall predicate buf)) buf))
(let ((list (buffer-list)) found)
(while (and (not found) list)
(with-current-buffer (car list)
(if (and buffer-file-name
(string= buffer-file-truename truename)
(funcall predicate (current-buffer)))
(setq found (car list))))
(setq list (cdr list)))
(let* ((attributes (file-attributes truename))
(number (nthcdr 10 attributes))
(list (buffer-list)) found)
(and buffer-file-numbers-unique
(car-safe number) ;Make sure the inode is not just nil.
(while (and (not found) list)
(with-current-buffer (car list)
(if (and buffer-file-name
(equal buffer-file-number number)
;; Verify this buffer's file number
;; still belongs to its file.
(file-exists-p buffer-file-name)
(equal (file-attributes buffer-file-truename)
(funcall predicate (current-buffer)))
(setq found (car list))))
(setq list (cdr list))))
(defcustom find-file-wildcards t
"Non-nil means file-visiting commands should handle wildcards.
For example, if you specify `*.c', that would visit all the files
whose names match the pattern."
:group 'files
:version "20.4"
:type 'boolean)
(defcustom find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings nil
"Non-nil means suppress warning messages for symlinked files.
When nil, Emacs prints a warning when visiting a file that is already
visited, but with a different name. Setting this option to t
suppresses this warning."
:group 'files
:version "21.1"
:type 'boolean)
(defcustom large-file-warning-threshold 10000000
"Maximum size of file above which a confirmation is requested.
When nil, never request confirmation."
:group 'files
:group 'find-file
:version "22.1"
:type '(choice integer (const :tag "Never request confirmation" nil)))
(defcustom out-of-memory-warning-percentage nil
"Warn if file size exceeds this percentage of available free memory.
When nil, never issue warning. Beware: This probably doesn't do what you
think it does, because \"free\" is pretty hard to define in practice."
:group 'files
:group 'find-file
:version "25.1"
:type '(choice integer (const :tag "Never issue warning" nil)))
(defun abort-if-file-too-large (size op-type filename)
"If file SIZE larger than `large-file-warning-threshold', allow user to abort.
OP-TYPE specifies the file operation being performed (for message to user)."
(when (and large-file-warning-threshold size
(> size large-file-warning-threshold)
(not (y-or-n-p (format "File %s is large (%s), really %s? "
(file-name-nondirectory filename)
(file-size-human-readable size) op-type))))
(user-error "Aborted")))
(defun warn-maybe-out-of-memory (size)
"Warn if an attempt to open file of SIZE bytes may run out of memory."
(when (and (numberp size) (not (zerop size))
(integerp out-of-memory-warning-percentage))
(let ((meminfo (memory-info)))
(when (consp meminfo)
(let ((total-free-memory (float (+ (nth 1 meminfo) (nth 3 meminfo)))))
(when (> (/ size 1024)
(/ (* total-free-memory out-of-memory-warning-percentage)
"You are trying to open a file whose size (%s)
exceeds the %S%% of currently available free memory (%s).
If that fails, try to open it with `find-file-literally'
\(but note that some characters might be displayed incorrectly)."
(file-size-human-readable size)
(file-size-human-readable (* total-free-memory 1024)))))))))
(defun files--message (format &rest args)
"Like `message', except sometimes don't print to minibuffer.
If the variable `save-silently' is non-nil, the message is not
displayed on the minibuffer."
(apply #'message format args)
(when save-silently (message nil)))
(defun find-file-noselect (filename &optional nowarn rawfile wildcards)
"Read file FILENAME into a buffer and return the buffer.
If a buffer exists visiting FILENAME, return that one, but
verify that the file has not changed since visited or saved.
The buffer is not selected, just returned to the caller.
Optional second arg NOWARN non-nil means suppress any warning messages.
Optional third arg RAWFILE non-nil means the file is read literally.
Optional fourth arg WILDCARDS non-nil means do wildcard processing
and visit all the matching files. When wildcards are actually
used and expanded, return a list of buffers that are visiting
the various files."
(setq filename
(expand-file-name filename)))
(if (file-directory-p filename)
(or (and find-file-run-dired
(if find-file-visit-truename
(abbreviate-file-name (file-truename filename))
(error "%s is a directory" filename))
(if (and wildcards
(not (file-name-quoted-p filename))
(string-match "[[*?]" filename))
(let ((files (condition-case nil
(file-expand-wildcards filename t)
(error (list filename))))
(find-file-wildcards nil))
(if (null files)
(find-file-noselect filename)
(mapcar #'find-file-noselect files)))
(let* ((buf (get-file-buffer filename))
(truename (abbreviate-file-name (file-truename filename)))
(attributes (file-attributes truename))
(number (nthcdr 10 attributes))
;; Find any buffer for a file which has same truename.
(other (and (not buf) (find-buffer-visiting filename))))
;; Let user know if there is a buffer with the same truename.
(if other
(or nowarn
(string-equal filename (buffer-file-name other))
(files--message "%s and %s are the same file"
filename (buffer-file-name other)))
;; Optionally also find that buffer.
(if (or find-file-existing-other-name find-file-visit-truename)
(setq buf other))))
;; Check to see if the file looks uncommonly large.
(when (not (or buf nowarn))
(abort-if-file-too-large (nth 7 attributes) "open" filename)
(warn-maybe-out-of-memory (nth 7 attributes)))
(if buf
;; We are using an existing buffer.
(let (nonexistent)
(or nowarn
(verify-visited-file-modtime buf)
(cond ((not (file-exists-p filename))
(setq nonexistent t)
(message "File %s no longer exists!" filename))
;; Certain files should be reverted automatically
;; if they have changed on disk and not in the buffer.
((and (not (buffer-modified-p buf))
(let ((tail revert-without-query)
(found nil))
(while tail
(if (string-match (car tail) filename)
(setq found t))
(setq tail (cdr tail)))
(with-current-buffer buf
(message "Reverting file %s..." filename)
(revert-buffer t t)
(message "Reverting file %s...done" filename)))
(if (string= (file-name-nondirectory filename)
(buffer-name buf))
(if (buffer-modified-p buf)
"File %s changed on disk. Discard your edits? "
"File %s changed on disk. Reread from disk? ")
(file-name-nondirectory filename))
(if (buffer-modified-p buf)
"File %s changed on disk. Discard your edits in %s? "
"File %s changed on disk. Reread from disk into %s? ")
(file-name-nondirectory filename)
(buffer-name buf))))
(with-current-buffer buf
(revert-buffer t t)))))
(with-current-buffer buf
;; Check if a formerly read-only file has become
;; writable and vice versa, but if the buffer agrees
;; with the new state of the file, that is ok too.
(let ((read-only (not (file-writable-p buffer-file-name))))
(unless (or nonexistent
(eq read-only buffer-file-read-only)
(eq read-only buffer-read-only))
(when (or nowarn
(let* ((new-status
(if read-only "read-only" "writable"))
(format "File %s is %s on disk. Make buffer %s, too? "
new-status new-status)))
(y-or-n-p question)))
(setq buffer-read-only read-only)))
(setq buffer-file-read-only read-only))
(unless (or (eq (null rawfile) (null find-file-literally))
;; It is confusing to ask whether to visit
;; non-literally if they have the file in
;; hexl-mode or image-mode.
(memq major-mode '(hexl-mode image-mode)))
(if (buffer-modified-p)
(if (y-or-n-p
(if rawfile
"The file %s is already visited normally,
and you have edited the buffer. Now you have asked to visit it literally,
meaning no coding system handling, format conversion, or local variables.
Emacs can only visit a file in one way at a time.
Do you want to save the file, and visit it literally instead? "
"The file %s is already visited literally,
meaning no coding system handling, format conversion, or local variables.
You have edited the buffer. Now you have asked to visit the file normally,
but Emacs can only visit a file in one way at a time.
Do you want to save the file, and visit it normally instead? ")
(file-name-nondirectory filename)))
(find-file-noselect-1 buf filename nowarn
rawfile truename number))
(if (y-or-n-p
(if rawfile
Do you want to discard your changes, and visit the file literally now? "
Do you want to discard your changes, and visit the file normally now? ")))
(find-file-noselect-1 buf filename nowarn
rawfile truename number)
(error (if rawfile "File already visited non-literally"
"File already visited literally"))))
(if (y-or-n-p
(if rawfile
"The file %s is already visited normally.
You have asked to visit it literally,
meaning no coding system decoding, format conversion, or local variables.
But Emacs can only visit a file in one way at a time.
Do you want to revisit the file literally now? "
"The file %s is already visited literally,
meaning no coding system decoding, format conversion, or local variables.
You have asked to visit it normally,
but Emacs can only visit a file in one way at a time.
Do you want to revisit the file normally now? ")
(file-name-nondirectory filename)))
(find-file-noselect-1 buf filename nowarn
rawfile truename number)
(error (if rawfile "File already visited non-literally"
"File already visited literally"))))))
;; Return the buffer we are using.
;; Create a new buffer.
(setq buf (create-file-buffer filename))
;; find-file-noselect-1 may use a different buffer.
(find-file-noselect-1 buf filename nowarn
rawfile truename number))))))
(defun find-file-noselect-1 (buf filename nowarn rawfile truename number)
(let (error)
(with-current-buffer buf
(kill-local-variable 'find-file-literally)
;; Needed in case we are re-visiting the file with a different
;; text representation.
(kill-local-variable 'buffer-file-coding-system)
(kill-local-variable 'cursor-type)
(let ((inhibit-read-only t))
(and (default-value 'enable-multibyte-characters)
(not rawfile)
(set-buffer-multibyte t))
(if rawfile
(condition-case ()
(let ((inhibit-read-only t))
(insert-file-contents-literally filename t))
(when (and (file-exists-p filename)
(not (file-readable-p filename)))
(kill-buffer buf)
(signal 'file-error (list "File is not readable"
;; Unconditionally set error
(setq error t)))
(condition-case ()
(let ((inhibit-read-only t))
(insert-file-contents filename t))
(when (and (file-exists-p filename)
(not (file-readable-p filename)))
(kill-buffer buf)
(signal 'file-error (list "File is not readable"
;; Run find-file-not-found-functions until one returns non-nil.
(or (run-hook-with-args-until-success 'find-file-not-found-functions)
;; If they fail too, set error.
(setq error t)))))
;; Record the file's truename, and maybe use that as visited name.
(if (equal filename buffer-file-name)
(setq buffer-file-truename truename)
(setq buffer-file-truename
(abbreviate-file-name (file-truename buffer-file-name))))
(setq buffer-file-number number)
(if find-file-visit-truename
(setq buffer-file-name (expand-file-name buffer-file-truename)))
;; Set buffer's default directory to that of the file.
(setq default-directory (file-name-directory buffer-file-name))
;; Turn off backup files for certain file names. Since
;; this is a permanent local, the major mode won't eliminate it.
(and backup-enable-predicate
(not (funcall backup-enable-predicate buffer-file-name))
(make-local-variable 'backup-inhibited)
(setq backup-inhibited t)))
(if rawfile
(set-buffer-multibyte nil)
(setq buffer-file-coding-system 'no-conversion)
(set-buffer-major-mode buf)
(setq-local find-file-literally t))
(after-find-file error (not nowarn)))
(defun insert-file-contents-literally (filename &optional visit beg end replace)
"Like `insert-file-contents', but only reads in the file literally.
See `insert-file-contents' for an explanation of the parameters.
A buffer may be modified in several ways after reading into the buffer,
due to Emacs features such as format decoding, character code
conversion, `find-file-hook', automatic uncompression, etc.
This function ensures that none of these modifications will take place."
(let ((format-alist nil)
(after-insert-file-functions nil)
(coding-system-for-read 'no-conversion)
(coding-system-for-write 'no-conversion)
;; FIXME: Yuck!! We should turn insert-file-contents-literally
;; into a file operation instead!
(append '(jka-compr-handler image-file-handler epa-file-handler)
(inhibit-file-name-operation 'insert-file-contents))
(insert-file-contents filename visit beg end replace)))
(defun insert-file-1 (filename insert-func)
(if (file-directory-p filename)
(signal 'file-error (list "Opening input file" "Is a directory"
;; Check whether the file is uncommonly large
(abort-if-file-too-large (nth 7 (file-attributes filename)) "insert" filename)
(let* ((buffer (find-buffer-visiting (abbreviate-file-name (file-truename filename))
(tem (funcall insert-func filename)))
(push-mark (+ (point) (car (cdr tem))))
(when buffer
(message "File %s already visited and modified in buffer %s"
filename (buffer-name buffer)))))
(defun insert-file-literally (filename)
"Insert contents of file FILENAME into buffer after point with no conversion.
This function is meant for the user to run interactively.
Don't call it from programs! Use `insert-file-contents-literally' instead.
\(Its calling sequence is different; see its documentation)."
(declare (interactive-only insert-file-contents-literally))
(interactive "*fInsert file literally: ")
(insert-file-1 filename #'insert-file-contents-literally))
(defvar find-file-literally nil
"Non-nil if this buffer was made by `find-file-literally' or equivalent.
This has the `permanent-local' property, which takes effect if you
make the variable buffer-local.")
(put 'find-file-literally 'permanent-local t)
(defun find-file-literally (filename)
"Visit file FILENAME with no conversion of any kind.
Format conversion and character code conversion are both disabled,
and multibyte characters are disabled in the resulting buffer.
The major mode used is Fundamental mode regardless of the file name,
and local variable specifications in the file are ignored.
Automatic uncompression and adding a newline at the end of the
file due to `require-final-newline' is also disabled.
If Emacs already has a buffer which is visiting the file,
this command asks you whether to visit it literally instead.
In non-interactive use, the value is the buffer where the file is
visited literally. If the file was visited in a buffer before
this command was invoked, it will reuse the existing buffer,
regardless of whether it was created literally or not; however,
the contents of that buffer will be the literal text of the file
without any conversions.
In a Lisp program, if you want to be sure of accessing a file's
contents literally, you should create a temporary buffer and then read
the file contents into it using `insert-file-contents-literally'."
(list (read-file-name
"Find file literally: " nil default-directory
(switch-to-buffer (find-file-noselect filename nil t)))
(defun after-find-file (&optional error warn noauto
"Called after finding a file and by the default revert function.
Sets buffer mode, parses file-local and directory-local variables.
Optional args ERROR, WARN, and NOAUTO: ERROR non-nil means there was an
error in reading the file. WARN non-nil means warn if there
exists an auto-save file more recent than the visited file.
NOAUTO means don't mess with auto-save mode.
\(see `revert-buffer-in-progress-p' for similar functionality).
Fifth arg NOMODES non-nil means don't alter the file's modes.
Finishes by calling the functions in `find-file-hook'
unless NOMODES is non-nil."
(setq buffer-read-only (not (file-writable-p buffer-file-name)))
(if noninteractive
(let* (not-serious
((not warn) nil)
((and error (file-attributes buffer-file-name))
(setq buffer-read-only t)
(if (and (file-symlink-p buffer-file-name)
(not (file-exists-p
(file-chase-links buffer-file-name))))
"Symbolic link that points to nonexistent file"
"File exists, but cannot be read"))
((not buffer-read-only)
(if (and warn
;; No need to warn if buffer is auto-saved
;; under the name of the visited file.
(not (and buffer-file-name
(file-newer-than-file-p (or buffer-auto-save-file-name
(format "%s has auto save data; consider M-x recover-this-file"
(file-name-nondirectory buffer-file-name))
(setq not-serious t)
(if error "(New file)" nil)))
((not error)
(setq not-serious t)
"Note: file is write protected")
((file-attributes (directory-file-name default-directory))
"File not found and directory write-protected")
((file-exists-p (file-name-directory buffer-file-name))
(setq buffer-read-only nil))
(setq buffer-read-only nil)
"Use M-x make-directory RET RET to create the directory and its parents"))))
(when msg
(message "%s" msg)
(or not-serious (sit-for 1 t))))
(when (and auto-save-default (not noauto))
(auto-save-mode 1)))
;; Make people do a little extra work (C-x C-q)
;; before altering a backup file.
(when (backup-file-name-p buffer-file-name)
(setq buffer-read-only t))
;; When a file is marked read-only,
;; make the buffer read-only even if root is looking at it.
(when (and (file-modes (buffer-file-name))
(zerop (logand (file-modes (buffer-file-name)) #o222)))
(setq buffer-read-only t))
(unless nomodes
(when (and view-read-only view-mode)
(view-mode -1))
(normal-mode t)
;; If requested, add a newline at the end of the file.
(and (memq require-final-newline '(visit visit-save))
(> (point-max) (point-min))
(/= (char-after (1- (point-max))) ?\n)
(not (and (eq selective-display t)
(= (char-after (1- (point-max))) ?\r)))
(not buffer-read-only)
(goto-char (point-max))
(ignore-errors (insert "\n"))))
(when (and buffer-read-only
(not (eq (get major-mode 'mode-class) 'special)))
(run-hooks 'find-file-hook)))
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'report-errors 'with-demoted-errors "25.1")
(defun normal-mode (&optional find-file)
"Choose the major mode for this buffer automatically.
Also sets up any specified local variables of the file or its directory.
Uses the visited file name, the -*- line, and the local variables spec.
This function is called automatically from `find-file'. In that case,
we may set up the file-specified mode and local variables,
depending on the value of `enable-local-variables'.
In addition, if `local-enable-local-variables' is nil, we do
not set local variables (though we do notice a mode specified with -*-.)
`enable-local-variables' is ignored if you run `normal-mode' interactively,
or from Lisp without specifying the optional argument FIND-FILE;
in that case, this function acts as if `enable-local-variables' were t."
(unless delay-mode-hooks
(run-hooks 'change-major-mode-after-body-hook
(let ((enable-local-variables (or (not find-file) enable-local-variables)))
;; FIXME this is less efficient than it could be, since both
;; s-a-m and h-l-v may parse the same regions, looking for "mode:".
(with-demoted-errors "File mode specification error: %s"
;; `delay-mode-hooks' being non-nil will have prevented the major
;; mode's call to `run-mode-hooks' from calling
;; `hack-local-variables'. In that case, call it now.
(when delay-mode-hooks
(with-demoted-errors "File local-variables error: %s"
(hack-local-variables 'no-mode))))
;; Turn font lock off and on, to make sure it takes account of
;; whatever file local variables are relevant to it.
(when (and font-lock-mode
;; Font-lock-mode (now in font-core.el) can be ON when
;; font-lock.el still hasn't been loaded.
(boundp 'font-lock-keywords)
(eq (car font-lock-keywords) t))
(setq font-lock-keywords (cadr font-lock-keywords))
(font-lock-mode 1)))
(defcustom auto-mode-case-fold t
"Non-nil means to try second pass through `auto-mode-alist'.
This means that if the first case-sensitive search through the alist fails
to find a matching major mode, a second case-insensitive search is made.
On systems with case-insensitive file names, this variable is ignored,
since only a single case-insensitive search through the alist is made."
:group 'files
:version "22.1"
:type 'boolean)
(defvar auto-mode-alist
;; Note: The entries for the modes defined in cc-mode.el (c-mode,
;; c++-mode, java-mode and more) are added through autoload
;; directives in that file. That way is discouraged since it
;; spreads out the definition of the initial value.
(lambda (elt)
(cons (purecopy (car elt)) (cdr elt)))
`(;; do this first, so that is Polish html, not Perl
("\\.[sx]?html?\\(\\.[a-zA-Z_]+\\)?\\'" . mhtml-mode)
("\\.svgz?\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.svgz?\\'" . xml-mode)
("\\.x[bp]m\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.x[bp]m\\'" . c-mode)
("\\.p[bpgn]m\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.tiff?\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.gif\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.png\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.jpe?g\\'" . image-mode)
("\\.te?xt\\'" . text-mode)
("\\.[tT]e[xX]\\'" . tex-mode)
("\\.ins\\'" . tex-mode) ;Installation files for TeX packages.
("\\.ltx\\'" . latex-mode)
("\\.dtx\\'" . doctex-mode)
("\\.org\\'" . org-mode)
("\\.el\\'" . emacs-lisp-mode)
("Project\\.ede\\'" . emacs-lisp-mode)
("\\.\\(scm\\|stk\\|ss\\|sch\\)\\'" . scheme-mode)
("\\.l\\'" . lisp-mode)
("\\.li?sp\\'" . lisp-mode)
("\\.[fF]\\'" . fortran-mode)
("\\.for\\'" . fortran-mode)
("\\.p\\'" . pascal-mode)
("\\.pas\\'" . pascal-mode)
("\\.\\(dpr\\|DPR\\)\\'" . delphi-mode)
("\\.ad[abs]\\'" . ada-mode)
("\\.ad[bs].dg\\'" . ada-mode)
("\\.\\([pP]\\([Llm]\\|erl\\|od\\)\\|al\\)\\'" . perl-mode)
("Imakefile\\'" . makefile-imake-mode)
("Makeppfile\\(?:\\.mk\\)?\\'" . makefile-makepp-mode) ; Put this before .mk
("\\.makepp\\'" . makefile-makepp-mode)
,@(if (memq system-type '(berkeley-unix darwin))
'(("\\.mk\\'" . makefile-bsdmake-mode)
("\\.make\\'" . makefile-bsdmake-mode)
("GNUmakefile\\'" . makefile-gmake-mode)
("[Mm]akefile\\'" . makefile-bsdmake-mode))
'(("\\.mk\\'" . makefile-gmake-mode) ; Might be any make, give GNU the host advantage
("\\.make\\'" . makefile-gmake-mode)
("[Mm]akefile\\'" . makefile-gmake-mode)))
("\\.am\\'" . makefile-automake-mode)
;; Less common extensions come here
;; so more common ones above are found faster.
("\\.texinfo\\'" . texinfo-mode)
("\\.te?xi\\'" . texinfo-mode)
("\\.[sS]\\'" . asm-mode)
("\\.asm\\'" . asm-mode)
("\\.css\\'" . css-mode)
("\\.mixal\\'" . mixal-mode)
("\\.gcov\\'" . compilation-mode)
;; Besides .gdbinit, gdb documents other names to be usable for init
;; files, cross-debuggers can use something like
;; .PROCESSORNAME-gdbinit so that the host and target gdbinit files
;; don't interfere with each other.
("/\\.[a-z0-9-]*gdbinit" . gdb-script-mode)
;; GDB 7.5 introduced OBJFILE-gdb.gdb script files; e.g. a file
;; named 'emacs-gdb.gdb', if it exists, will be automatically
;; loaded when GDB reads an objfile called 'emacs'.
("-gdb\\.gdb" . gdb-script-mode)
("[cC]hange\\.?[lL]og?\\'" . change-log-mode)
("[cC]hange[lL]og[-.][0-9]+\\'" . change-log-mode)
("\\$CHANGE_LOG\\$\\.TXT" . change-log-mode)
("\\.scm\\.[0-9]*\\'" . scheme-mode)
("\\.[ckz]?sh\\'\\|\\.shar\\'\\|/\\.z?profile\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\.bash\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\(/\\|\\`\\)\\.\\(bash_\\(profile\\|history\\|log\\(in\\|out\\)\\)\\|z?log\\(in\\|out\\)\\)\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\(/\\|\\`\\)\\.\\(shrc\\|zshrc\\|m?kshrc\\|bashrc\\|t?cshrc\\|esrc\\)\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\(/\\|\\`\\)\\.\\([kz]shenv\\|xinitrc\\|startxrc\\|xsession\\)\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\.m?spec\\'" . sh-mode)
("\\.m[mes]\\'" . nroff-mode)
("\\.man\\'" . nroff-mode)
("\\.sty\\'" . latex-mode)
("\\.cl[so]\\'" . latex-mode) ;LaTeX 2e class option
("\\.bbl\\'" . latex-mode)
("\\.bib\\'" . bibtex-mode)
("\\.bst\\'" . bibtex-style-mode)
("\\.sql\\'" . sql-mode)
("\\.m[4c]\\'" . m4-mode)
("\\.mf\\'" . metafont-mode)
("\\.mp\\'" . metapost-mode)
("\\.vhdl?\\'" . vhdl-mode)
("\\.article\\'" . text-mode)
("\\.letter\\'" . text-mode)
("\\.i?tcl\\'" . tcl-mode)
("\\.exp\\'" . tcl-mode)
("\\.itk\\'" . tcl-mode)
("\\.icn\\'" . icon-mode)
("\\.sim\\'" . simula-mode)
("\\.mss\\'" . scribe-mode)
;; The Fortran standard does not say anything about file extensions.
;; .f90 was widely used for F90, now we seem to be trapped into
;; using a different extension for each language revision.
;; Anyway, the following extensions are supported by gfortran.
("\\.f9[05]\\'" . f90-mode)
("\\.f0[38]\\'" . f90-mode)
("\\.indent\\.pro\\'" . fundamental-mode) ; to avoid idlwave-mode
("\\.\\(pro\\|PRO\\)\\'" . idlwave-mode)
("\\.srt\\'" . srecode-template-mode)
("\\.prolog\\'" . prolog-mode)
("\\.tar\\'" . tar-mode)
;; The list of archive file extensions should be in sync with
;; `auto-coding-alist' with `no-conversion' coding system.
ARC\\|ZIP\\|LZH\\|LHA\\|ZOO\\|[JEW]AR\\|XPI\\|RAR\\|CBR\\|7Z\\)\\'" . archive-mode)
("\\.oxt\\'" . archive-mode) ;(Open|Libre)Office extensions.
("\\.\\(deb\\|[oi]pk\\)\\'" . archive-mode) ; Debian/Opkg packages.
;; Mailer puts message to be edited in
;; /tmp/Re.... or Message
("\\`/tmp/Re" . text-mode)
("/Message[0-9]*\\'" . text-mode)
;; some news reader is reported to use this
("\\`/tmp/fol/" . text-mode)
("\\.oak\\'" . scheme-mode)
("\\.sgml?\\'" . sgml-mode)
("\\.x[ms]l\\'" . xml-mode)
("\\.dbk\\'" . xml-mode)
("\\.dtd\\'" . sgml-mode)
("\\.ds\\(ss\\)?l\\'" . dsssl-mode)
("\\.jsm?\\'" . javascript-mode)
("\\.json\\'" . javascript-mode)
("\\.jsx\\'" . js-jsx-mode)
("\\.[ds]?vh?\\'" . verilog-mode)
("\\.by\\'" . bovine-grammar-mode)
("\\.wy\\'" . wisent-grammar-mode)
;; .emacs or .gnus or .viper following a directory delimiter in
;; Unix or MS-DOS syntax.
("[:/\\]\\..*\\(emacs\\|gnus\\|viper\\)\\'" . emacs-lisp-mode)
("\\`\\..*emacs\\'" . emacs-lisp-mode)
;; _emacs following a directory delimiter in MS-DOS syntax
("[:/]_emacs\\'" . emacs-lisp-mode)
("/crontab\\.X*[0-9]+\\'" . shell-script-mode)
("\\.ml\\'" . lisp-mode)
;; Linux-2.6.9 uses some different suffix for linker scripts:
;; "ld", "lds", "lds.S", "", "ld.script", and "ld.script.balo".
;; eCos uses "ld" and "ldi". Netbsd uses "ldscript.*".
("\\.ld[si]?\\'" . ld-script-mode)
("ld\\.?script\\'" . ld-script-mode)
;; .xs is also used for ld scripts, but seems to be more commonly
;; associated with Perl .xs files (C with Perl bindings). (Bug#7071)
("\\.xs\\'" . c-mode)
;; Explained in binutils ld/ Eg:
;; A .x script file is the default script.
;; A .xr script is for linking without relocation (-r flag). Etc.
("\\.x[abdsru]?[cnw]?\\'" . ld-script-mode)
("\\.zone\\'" . dns-mode)
("\\.soa\\'" . dns-mode)
;; Common Lisp ASDF package system.
("\\.asd\\'" . lisp-mode)
("\\.\\(asn\\|mib\\|smi\\)\\'" . snmp-mode)
("\\.\\(as\\|mi\\|sm\\)2\\'" . snmpv2-mode)
("\\.\\(diffs?\\|patch\\|rej\\)\\'" . diff-mode)
("\\.\\(dif\\|pat\\)\\'" . diff-mode) ; for MS-DOS
("\\.[eE]?[pP][sS]\\'" . ps-mode)
("\\.\\(?:PDF\\|DVI\\|OD[FGPST]\\|DOCX?\\|XLSX?\\|PPTX?\\|pdf\\|djvu\\|dvi\\|od[fgpst]\\|docx?\\|xlsx?\\|pptx?\\)\\'" . doc-view-mode-maybe)
("configure\\.\\(ac\\|in\\)\\'" . autoconf-mode)
("\\.s\\(v\\|iv\\|ieve\\)\\'" . sieve-mode)
("BROWSE\\'" . ebrowse-tree-mode)
("\\.ebrowse\\'" . ebrowse-tree-mode)
("#\\*mail\\*" . mail-mode)
("\\.g\\'" . antlr-mode)
("\\.mod\\'" . m2-mode)
("\\.ses\\'" . ses-mode)
("\\.docbook\\'" . sgml-mode)
("\\.com\\'" . dcl-mode)
("/config\\.\\(?:bat\\|log\\)\\'" . fundamental-mode)
;; Windows candidates may be opened case sensitively on Unix
("\\.\\(?:[iI][nN][iI]\\|[lL][sS][tT]\\|[rR][eE][gG]\\|[sS][yY][sS]\\)\\'" . conf-mode)
("\\.la\\'" . conf-unix-mode)
("\\.ppd\\'" . conf-ppd-mode)
("java.+\\.conf\\'" . conf-javaprop-mode)
("\\.properties\\(?:\\.[a-zA-Z0-9._-]+\\)?\\'" . conf-javaprop-mode)
("\\.toml\\'" . conf-toml-mode)
("\\.desktop\\'" . conf-desktop-mode)
("\\`/etc/\\(?:DIR_COLORS\\|ethers\\|.?fstab\\|.*hosts\\|lesskey\\|login\\.?de\\(?:fs\\|vperm\\)\\|magic\\|mtab\\|pam\\.d/.*\\|permissions\\(?:\\.d/.+\\)?\\|protocols\\|rpc\\|services\\)\\'" . conf-space-mode)
("\\`/etc/\\(?:acpid?/.+\\|aliases\\(?:\\.d/.+\\)?\\|default/.+\\|group-?\\|hosts\\..+\\|inittab\\|ksysguarddrc\\|opera6rc\\|passwd-?\\|shadow-?\\|sysconfig/.+\\)\\'" . conf-mode)
;; ChangeLog.old etc. Other change-log-mode entries are above;
;; this has lower priority to avoid matching changelog.sgml etc.
("[cC]hange[lL]og[-.][-0-9a-z]+\\'" . change-log-mode)
;; either user's dot-files or under /etc or some such
("/\\.?\\(?:gitconfig\\|gnokiirc\\|hgrc\\|kde.*rc\\|mime\\.types\\|wgetrc\\)\\'" . conf-mode)
;; alas not all ~/.*rc files are like this
("/\\.\\(?:enigma\\|gltron\\|gtk\\|hxplayer\\|net\\|neverball\\|qt/.+\\|realplayer\\|scummvm\\|sversion\\|sylpheed/.+\\|xmp\\)rc\\'" . conf-mode)
("/\\.\\(?:gdbtkinit\\|grip\\|orbital/.+txt\\|rhosts\\|tuxracer/options\\)\\'" . conf-mode)
("/\\.?X\\(?:default\\|resource\\|re\\)s\\>" . conf-xdefaults-mode)
("/X11.+app-defaults/\\|\\.ad\\'" . conf-xdefaults-mode)
("/X11.+locale/.+/Compose\\'" . conf-colon-mode)
;; this contains everything twice, with space and with colon :-(
("/X11.+locale/compose\\.dir\\'" . conf-javaprop-mode)
;; Get rid of any trailing .n.m and try again.
;; This is for files saved by cvs-merge that look like .#<file>.<rev>
;; or .#<file>.<rev>-<rev> or VC's <file>.~<rev>~.
;; Using mode nil rather than `ignore' would let the search continue
;; through this list (with the shortened name) rather than start over.
("\\.~?[0-9]+\\.[0-9][-.0-9]*~?\\'" nil t)
("\\.\\(?:orig\\|in\\|[bB][aA][kK]\\)\\'" nil t)
;; This should come after "in" stripping (e.g.
;; *.cf, *.cfg, *.conf, *.config[.local|.de_DE.UTF8|...], */config
("[/.]c\\(?:on\\)?f\\(?:i?g\\)?\\(?:\\.[a-zA-Z0-9._-]+\\)?\\'" . conf-mode-maybe)
;; The following should come after the ChangeLog pattern
;; for the sake of ChangeLog.1, etc.
;; and after the .scm.[0-9] and CVS' <file>.<rev> patterns too.
("\\.[1-9]\\'" . nroff-mode)))
"Alist of filename patterns vs corresponding major mode functions.
Each element looks like (REGEXP . FUNCTION) or (REGEXP FUNCTION NON-NIL).
\(NON-NIL stands for anything that is not nil; the value does not matter.)
Visiting a file whose name matches REGEXP specifies FUNCTION as the
mode function to use. FUNCTION will be called, unless it is nil.
If the element has the form (REGEXP FUNCTION NON-NIL), then after
calling FUNCTION (if it's not nil), we delete the suffix that matched
REGEXP and search the list again for another match.
The extensions whose FUNCTION is `archive-mode' should also
appear in `auto-coding-alist' with `no-conversion' coding system.
See also `interpreter-mode-alist', which detects executable script modes
based on the interpreters they specify to run,
and `magic-mode-alist', which determines modes based on file contents.")
(put 'auto-mode-alist 'risky-local-variable t)
(defun conf-mode-maybe ()
"Select Conf mode or XML mode according to start of file."
(if (save-excursion
(goto-char (point-min))
(looking-at "<\\?xml \\|<!-- \\|<!DOCTYPE ")))
(defvar interpreter-mode-alist
;; Note: The entries for the modes defined in cc-mode.el (awk-mode
;; and pike-mode) are added through autoload directives in that
;; file. That way is discouraged since it spreads out the
;; definition of the initial value.
(lambda (l)
(cons (purecopy (car l)) (cdr l)))
'(("\\(mini\\)?perl5?" . perl-mode)
("wishx?" . tcl-mode)
("tcl\\(sh\\)?" . tcl-mode)
("expect" .