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#1.1 Expressions
1 + 1
"Arr, matey!"
6*7
#1.2 Logical Values
3 < 4
2 + 2 == 5
#1.3 Variables
x <- 42
x / 2
x <- "Arr, matey!"
x
x <- TRUE
#1.4 Functions
sum(1, 3, 5)
rep("Yo ho!", times = 3)
sqrt(16)
#1.5 Help
help(sum)
example(min)
help(rep)
#1.6 Files
list.files()
source("bottle1.R")
source("bottle2.R")
# run "bottle2.R"
#2.1 Vectors
c(4, 7, 9)
c('a', 'b', 'c')
c(1, TRUE, "three")
#2.2 Sequence Vectors
5:9
seq(5, 9)
seq(5, 9, 0.5)
9:5
#2.3 Vector Access
sentence[3]
sentence[1]
sentence[3] <- "dog"
sentence[4] <- 'to'
sentence[c(1, 3)]
sentence[2:4]
sentence[5:7] <- c('the', 'poop', 'deck')
sentence[6]
#2.4 Vector Names
names(ranks) <- c("first", "second", "third")
ranks["first"]
ranks["third"] <- 4
#2.5 Plotting One Vector
barplot(vesselsSunk)
names(vesselsSunk) <- c("England", "France", "Norway")
barplot(vesselsSunk)
barplot(c(1:100))
#2.6 Vector Math
a + 1
a / 2
a*2
a + b
a - b
a == c(1, 99, 3)
a < b
sin(a)
sqrt(a)
#2.7 Scatterplots
y <- sin(x)
plot(x, y)
plot(values, absolutes)
#2.8 NA Values
sum(a)
help(sum)
sum(a, na.rm = TRUE)
#3.1 Matrices
matrix(0, 3, 4)
a <- 1:12
print(a)
matrix(a, 3, 4)
plank <- 1:8
dim(plank) <- c(2, 4)
print(plank)
matrix(1:25, 5, 5)
#3.2 Matrix Access
print(plank)
plank[2, 3]
plank[1, 4]
plank[1, 4] <- 0
plank[2, ]
plank[, 4]
plank[, 2:4]
#3.3 Matrix Plotting
elevation <- matrix(1, 10, 10)
elevation[4, 6] <- 0
contour(elevation)
persp(elevation)
persp(elevation, expand = 0.2)
contour(volcano)
persp(volcano, expand = 0.2)
image(volcano)
#4.1 Mean
mean(limbs)
barplot(limbs)
abline(h = mean(limbs))
#4.2 Median
abline(h = mean(limbs))
median(limbs)
abline(h = median(limbs))
#4.3 Standard Deviation
abline(h = meanValue)
deviation <- sd(pounds)
abline(h = meanValue + deviation)
abline(h = meanValue - deviation)
#5.1 Creating Factors
types <- factor(chests)
print(chests)
print(types)
as.integer(types)
levels(types)
#5.2 Plots with Factors
plot(weights, prices)
plot(weights, prices, pch = as.integer(types))
legend("topright", c("gems", "gold", "silver"), pch = 1:3)
legend("topright", levels(types), pch = 1:length(levels(types)))
#6.1 Data Frames
treasure <- data.frame(weights, prices, types)
print(treasure)
#6.2 Data Frame Access
treasure[[2]]
treasure[["weights"]]
treasure$prices
treasure$types
#6.3 Loading Data Frames
read.csv("targets.csv")
read.table("infantry.txt", sep = "\t")
read.table("infantry.txt", sep = "\t", header = TRUE)
#6.4 Merging Data Frames
merge(x = targets, y = infantry)