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Handled exceptions raised by REST framework.
In addition Django's built in 403 and 404 exceptions are handled.
(`django.http.Http404` and `django.core.exceptions.PermissionDenied`)
import math
from django.http import JsonResponse
from django.utils.encoding import force_text
from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
from django.utils.translation import ngettext
from rest_framework import status
from rest_framework.utils.serializer_helpers import ReturnDict, ReturnList
def _get_error_details(data, default_code=None):
Descend into a nested data structure, forcing any
lazy translation strings or strings into `ErrorDetail`.
if isinstance(data, list):
ret = [
_get_error_details(item, default_code) for item in data
if isinstance(data, ReturnList):
return ReturnList(ret, serializer=data.serializer)
return ret
elif isinstance(data, dict):
ret = {
key: _get_error_details(value, default_code)
for key, value in data.items()
if isinstance(data, ReturnDict):
return ReturnDict(ret, serializer=data.serializer)
return ret
text = force_text(data)
code = getattr(data, 'code', default_code)
return ErrorDetail(text, code)
def _get_codes(detail):
if isinstance(detail, list):
return [_get_codes(item) for item in detail]
elif isinstance(detail, dict):
return {key: _get_codes(value) for key, value in detail.items()}
return detail.code
def _get_full_details(detail):
if isinstance(detail, list):
return [_get_full_details(item) for item in detail]
elif isinstance(detail, dict):
return {key: _get_full_details(value) for key, value in detail.items()}
return {
'message': detail,
'code': detail.code
class ErrorDetail(str):
A string-like object that can additionally have a code.
code = None
def __new__(cls, string, code=None):
self = super().__new__(cls, string)
self.code = code
return self
def __eq__(self, other):
r = super().__eq__(other)
return r and self.code == other.code
except AttributeError:
return r
def __ne__(self, other):
return not self.__eq__(other)
def __repr__(self):
return 'ErrorDetail(string=%r, code=%r)' % (
def __hash__(self):
return hash(str(self))
class APIException(Exception):
Base class for REST framework exceptions.
Subclasses should provide `.status_code` and `.default_detail` properties.
status_code = status.HTTP_500_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR
default_detail = _('A server error occurred.')
default_code = 'error'
def __init__(self, detail=None, code=None):
if detail is None:
detail = self.default_detail
if code is None:
code = self.default_code
self.detail = _get_error_details(detail, code)
def __str__(self):
return str(self.detail)
def get_codes(self):
Return only the code part of the error details.
Eg. {"name": ["required"]}
return _get_codes(self.detail)
def get_full_details(self):
Return both the message & code parts of the error details.
Eg. {"name": [{"message": "This field is required.", "code": "required"}]}
return _get_full_details(self.detail)
# The recommended style for using `ValidationError` is to keep it namespaced
# under `serializers`, in order to minimize potential confusion with Django's
# built in `ValidationError`. For example:
# from rest_framework import serializers
# raise serializers.ValidationError('Value was invalid')
class ValidationError(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST
default_detail = _('Invalid input.')
default_code = 'invalid'
def __init__(self, detail=None, code=None):
if detail is None:
detail = self.default_detail
if code is None:
code = self.default_code
# For validation failures, we may collect many errors together,
# so the details should always be coerced to a list if not already.
if not isinstance(detail, dict) and not isinstance(detail, list):
detail = [detail]
self.detail = _get_error_details(detail, code)
class ParseError(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST
default_detail = _('Malformed request.')
default_code = 'parse_error'
class AuthenticationFailed(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED
default_detail = _('Incorrect authentication credentials.')
default_code = 'authentication_failed'
class NotAuthenticated(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_401_UNAUTHORIZED
default_detail = _('Authentication credentials were not provided.')
default_code = 'not_authenticated'
class PermissionDenied(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN
default_detail = _('You do not have permission to perform this action.')
default_code = 'permission_denied'
class NotFound(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_404_NOT_FOUND
default_detail = _('Not found.')
default_code = 'not_found'
class MethodNotAllowed(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_405_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED
default_detail = _('Method "{method}" not allowed.')
default_code = 'method_not_allowed'
def __init__(self, method, detail=None, code=None):
if detail is None:
detail = force_text(self.default_detail).format(method=method)
super().__init__(detail, code)
class NotAcceptable(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_406_NOT_ACCEPTABLE
default_detail = _('Could not satisfy the request Accept header.')
default_code = 'not_acceptable'
def __init__(self, detail=None, code=None, available_renderers=None):
self.available_renderers = available_renderers
super().__init__(detail, code)
class UnsupportedMediaType(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_415_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE
default_detail = _('Unsupported media type "{media_type}" in request.')
default_code = 'unsupported_media_type'
def __init__(self, media_type, detail=None, code=None):
if detail is None:
detail = force_text(self.default_detail).format(media_type=media_type)
super().__init__(detail, code)
class Throttled(APIException):
status_code = status.HTTP_429_TOO_MANY_REQUESTS
default_detail = _('Request was throttled.')
extra_detail_singular = _('Expected available in {wait} second.')
extra_detail_plural = _('Expected available in {wait} seconds.')
default_code = 'throttled'
def __init__(self, wait=None, detail=None, code=None):
if detail is None:
detail = force_text(self.default_detail)
if wait is not None:
wait = math.ceil(wait)
detail = ' '.join((
self.wait = wait
super().__init__(detail, code)
def server_error(request, *args, **kwargs):
Generic 500 error handler.
data = {
'error': 'Server Error (500)'
return JsonResponse(data, status=status.HTTP_500_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
def bad_request(request, exception, *args, **kwargs):
Generic 400 error handler.
data = {
'error': 'Bad Request (400)'
return JsonResponse(data, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)
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