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Citing this work

The design of FUSE is presented in this paper. If you want to use FUSE for your academic projects, please cite

    author = {Lennart Braun and Moritz Huppert and Nora Khayata and Thomas Schneider and Oleksandr Tkachenko},
    title = {{FUSE} -- {F}lexible File Format and Intermediate Representation for Secure Multi-Party Computation},
    booktitle = {AsiaCCS},
    year = {2023},

Repository Structure

  • .github/workflows: Contains configuration of Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline
  • extern: Other Repositories used in this implementation, currently consisting of:
  • examples: Contains example circuits in
  • fbs: FlatBuffers schemas
  • src: C++ Source files
    • src/backend: C++ header and source files to translate FUSE IR to other representations or to execute with Secure Multiparty Computation backends
    • src/core: C++ utility to build and use FUSE IR in frontends, backends, or passes
    • src/examples: Contains small example code snippets to show how to use FUSE IR
    • src/frontend: Translate other formats to FUSE IR, currently being Bristol Format and the .circ format
    • src/passes: Contains analyses and optimizations for FUSE IR
  • tests: Contains googletest tests for the source code
  • benchmarks: Contains source code for the benchmarks in our paper


TL;DR -- Install flatbuffers locally, then compile FUSE

python3 -sb

Please install the project dependencies and HyCC frontend dependencies beforehand.

Project Dependencies

To build FUSE successfully, you will need the following the packages:

apt-get install build-essential software-properties-common cmake libssl-dev libgoogle-perftools-dev libboost-all-dev libz-dev curl git-lfs

Also, you will need a C++ compiler with support for C++-20 to be able to compile this framework, e.g., gcc-11 or newer.

HyCC Frontend Dependencies

If you want to use the HyCC Frontend for FUSE IR, you will need additional setup:

apt-get install libwww-perl
apt-get clean && apt-get update && apt-get install -y locales
locale-gen en_US.UTF-8
apt-get install flex bison default-jdk

Troubleshooting CMake when installing the MOTION Backend

As both FUSE and MOTION use FlatBuffers in their implementation, both projects have CMake dependencies on the FlatBuffers project. CMake has troubles with such dependency situations, so it may produce errors indicating that the FlatBuffers library is being imported twice or not at all. In that case, you will have to compile and install FlatBuffers from sources locally:

cd extern/flatbuffers
cmake -G "Unix Makefiles" -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release
cmake -B build
cmake --build build
cd build && make install

How to Build FUSE

Clone this repository

git clone --recurse-submodules

Then, use CMake to build this project:

cmake -B build
cmake --build build

If you want to run the Developer Tutorial:

cd build/bin

Example Circuits

For benchmarking and testing, we have used example circuits in Bristol Format and HyCC binary format. We have decided to only keep the Bristol format examples for easy access inside the repostory, to not blow up the size of this repository. However, there is a public ZIP-file containing both Bristol Format and HyCC circuits available in the TUdatalib. It is sufficient to unpack the ZIP-file and move the folder examples/hycc-circuits to FUSE/examples/hycc-circuits.


FUSE: A Framework for Unifying and Optimizing Secure Multi-Party Computation Implementations with Efficient Circuit Storage.







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