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       \/_/\/_/    \/_____/    `\/__/    \/_/ \/_/  \/__/       \/_/.2


                 HAXATHON SUPREMACY VIRTUAL MACHINE v1.2
                             Design Document
                      endeavor@rainbowsandpwnies.com
                               19 SEP 2012

==========================
= Table of Contents
==========================
This document is broken into the following sections
 - Background
 - Bug Reports
 - HSVMv1 Conventions
 - Instruction Encoding
 - Registers
 - Instructions
 - System Calls


==========================
= BACKGROUND
==========================
The HSVMv1 implements a big-endian, RISC CPU with 16-bit registers, 32-bit
fixed-width instructions and 64kb of byte-addressable memory. It has been
developed to facilitate binary analysis tasks in the contest Haxathon
Supremacy.

There are four components to HSVMv1: assembler, disassembler, vm and debugger.

This document outlines the details of the HSVMv1 instruction set.


==========================
= BUG REPORTS
==========================
Just like every challenge released during Haxathon Supremacy, HSVMv1 is 100%
gauranteed bug-free. If you think you've found a bug, you haven't. If you
_really_ think you've found a bug, maybe you should keep it to yourself because
MAYBE, just _maybe_, *perhaps* there's a /tiny/, [slight] possibility it's
important.


==========================
= HSVMv1 Conventions
==========================
The r0 register is used for returning results.

All registers _except_ for r0 must be callee saved.

Arguments are passed on the stack. Caller is responsible for stack cleanup.
This is the same as the cdecl calling convention.

Program execution will begin at address 0.

There is no convention for format of data and code. The two are often found
freely mixed throughout binaries. This may frustrate disassembly.

System calls are performed by loading the desired system call to perform in r0
and the remaining arguments in registers r1-r7 in ascending order.


==========================
= INSTRUCTION ENCODING
==========================
Instructions are encoded according to the following struct:

struct _instruction {
    uint8_t opcode;
    uint8_t operand_0;
    union {
        struct {
            uint8_t operand_1;
            uint8_t operand_2;
        } __attribute__((packed));
        uint16_t lval;
    };
} __attribute__((packed));

This enables the following encodings:

 0-7            8-15           16-23           24-31          Encoding Name
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       |              |              |              | Encoding-A
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       | REGISTER-A   |              |              | Encoding-B
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       | REGISTER-A   | REGISTER-B   |              | Encoding-C
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       | REGISTER-A   | REGISTER-B   | REGISTER-C   | Encoding-D
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       | REGISTER-A   | LVAL                        | Encoding-E
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|
| OPCODE       |              | LVAL                        | Encoding-F
|--------------|--------------|--------------|--------------|

The format of the instruction is determined by the opcode. Not all instructions
require all 32-bits. However, the size of instructions is fixed at 32-bits.
Instruction bytes not required for the instruction may contain any value and
will not invalidate the instruction.

While all instructions are 32-bits, instructions have no alignment
requirements.


==========================
= REGISTERS
==========================
There are 10 general purpose registers. The first eight are of the form:
r0, r1, r2, r3, r4, r5, r6 and r7
The last two GPRs are rsp and rbp. The register rsp is modified directly by the
instructions push, pop, call and ret.

The instruction pointer is rip and is directly accessible by the user in all
places where other GPRs are accessible.

There is a flags register unavailable to the user. It is set by the result of
the cmp instruction.

The encodings for the user-accessible registers are:
r0  : 0x00
r1  : 0x01
r2  : 0x02
r3  : 0x03
r4  : 0x04
r5  : 0x05
r6  : 0x06
r7  : 0x0A
rbp : 0x08
rsp : 0x09
rip : 0x07

It may seem odd that rip is 0x07 while 0x07 is 0x0A. This decision was made
carefully... check your ASCII charts.


==========================
= INSTRUCTIONS
==========================

The HSVMv1 instructions are:

add,  sub,   mul,  div,   mod,  and, or, xor
cmp,  je,    jne,  jl,    jle,  jg,  jge
call, jmp,   ret
load, loadb, stor, storb, push, pop
in,   out
mov,  hlt, nop, syscall

--------------------------
- Arithmethic Instructions
--------------------------
add, sub, mul, div, mod, and, or, xor

All arithmetic instructions support Encoding-D and Encoding-E

When given Encoding-D, the interpretation is:
A = B OP C
ex: add r0, r1, r2   ; r0 = r1 + r2

The opcode encodings are:
add : 0x10
sub : 0x12
mul : 0x14
div : 0x16
mod : 0x18
and : 0x1A
or  : 0x1C
xor : 0x1E

When given Encoding-E, the interpretation is:
A = A OP LVAL
ex: add r0, 1        ; r0 = r0 + 1

The opcode encodings are:
add : 0x11
sub : 0x13
mul : 0x15
div : 0x17
mod : 0x19
and : 0x1B
or  : 0x1D
xor : 0x1F

------------------------------------
- Conditional Branching Instructions
------------------------------------
cmp, je, jne, jl, jle, jg, jge

The cmp instruction supports Encoding-C and Encoding-E

When given Encoding-C, the interpretation is:
flags = A - B
ex: cmp r0, r2       ; flags = r0 - r2

The opcode encoding is:
cmp : 0x53

When given Encoding-E, the interpretation is:
flags = A - LVAL
ex: cmp r0, 2        ; flags = r0 - 2

The opcode encoding is:
cmp : 0x54

The je, jne, jl, jle, jg and jge instructions support Encoding-F, where
the LVAL is added to rip if the condition is met.

The conditions for each are:

je  -> flags == 0
jne -> flags != 0
jl  -> flags <  0
jle -> flags <= 0
jg  -> flags >  0
jge -> flags >= 0

je  : 0x21
jne : 0x22
jl  : 0x23
jle : 0x24
jg  : 0x25
jge : 0x26

----------------------------------------
- Non-Conditional Branching Instructions
----------------------------------------
call, jmp, ret

The call instruction supports Encoding-B and Encoding-F

When given Encoding-B, the interpretation is:
memory[rsp] = rip
rsp = rsp - 2
rip += A
ex: call r0

The opcode encoding is:
call : 0x28

When given Encoding-F, the interpretation is:
memory[rsp] = rip
rsp = rsp - 2
rip += LVAL
ex: call 48

The jmp instruction supports Encoding-F

When given Encoding-F, the interpreration is:
rip += LVAL

The opcode encoding is:
jmp : 0x20
ex: jmp -24

The ret instruction supports Encoding-A

When given Encoding-A, the interpretation is:
rsp = rsp + 2
rip = mem[rsp]
ex: ret

The opcode encoding is:
ret : 0x29

----------------------------
- Memory-Access Instructions
----------------------------
load, loadb, stor, storb, push, pop

There are three families of memory access instructions.
load,  stor   = load and store 16-bit values
loadb, storb, = load and store 8-bit values
push,  pop    = push and pop 16-bit value to/from the stack

load, stor, loadb and storb support Encoding-C and Encoding-E

The opcode encodings for Encoding-C are:
load  : 0x31
loadb : 0x33
stor  : 0x35
storb : 0x37

Pseudocode for these instructions are:
load  r0, r1 : r0 = mem[r1]
loadb r0, r1 : r0 = mem[r1] & 0x00FF
stor  r0, r1 : mem[r0] = r1
storb r0, r1 : mem[r0] = r1 & 0x00FF (only modifies a single byte)

The opcode encodings for Encoding-E are:
load  : 0x30
loadb : 0x32
stor  : 0x34
storb : 0x36

Pseudocode for these instructions are:
load  r0, 0x0040 : r0 = mem[0x0040]
loadb r0, 0x0040 : r0 = mem[0x0040] & 0x00FF
stor  0x0040, r0 : mem[0x0040] = r0
storb 0x0040, r0 : mem[0x0040] = r0 & 0x00FF (only modifies a single byte)

push supports Encoding-B and Encoding-F

When given Encoding-B, the interpretation is:
rsp = rsp - 2
mem[rsp] = A
ex: push r0

The opcode encoding is:
push : 0x42

When given Encoding-F, the interpretation is:
rsp = rsp - 2
mem[rsp] = LVAL
ex: push 0x0090

The opcode encoding is:
push : 0x43

pop supports Encoding-B

When given Encoding-B, the interpreration is:
A = mem[rsp]
rsp = rsp + 2
ex: pop r0

The opcode encoding is:
pop : 0x44

------------------
- I/O Instructions
------------------
in, out

These instructions deal with stdin/stdout one byte at a time.

in and out support Encoding -B

When given Encoding-B, the interpretation of in is:
A = getchar();
ex: in r0

The opcode encoding is:
in : 0x40

When given Encoding-B, the interpretation of out is:
putchar(A);
ex: out r0

The opcode encoding is:
out: 0x41

----------------------------
- Miscellaneous Instructions
----------------------------
mov, hlt, nop, syscall

The mov instruction is used to move values into registers and to move values
between registers.

mov supports Encoding-C and Encoding-E

When given Encoding-C, the interpretation of mov is:
A = B
ex: mov r0, r1

The opcode encoding is:
mov : 0x51

When given Encoding-E, the interpretation of mov is:
A = LVAL
ex: mov r0, 0x0040

The opcode encoding is:
mov : 0x52

The hlt instruction terminates execution of the VM. The nop instruction
advances the instruction pointer and performs no operation. The syscall
instruction performs a system call and is handled directly by the VM. More
information about system calls is detailed in the system calls section.

nop, syscall and hlt support Encoding-A

The opcode encodings are:
hlt     : 0x60
nop     : 0x90
syscall : 0x61

The syscall instruction performs a system call and is handled directly by
the VM. More information about system calls is detailed in the syscall section.


==========================
= SYSTEM CALLS
==========================

System calls are executed with the syscall instruction. r0 is set to a value
corresponding to the desired system call. The registers r1-r7 are set to the
arguments of the system call. The system call result is placed in r0 on return.

There are four implement system calls in HSVMv1. They are:

0: OPEN
1: READ
2: WRITE
3: CLOSE

------
- open
------

uint16 open (const char * path, int oflag);

oflag is a bitmask of the following values:
  READ   - 1 - Open the file for reading
  WRITE  - 2 - Open the file for writing
  APPEND - 4 - Append to the file
  CREATE - 8 - Create the file if it does not exist

HSVM Assembly Example:
  filename: "thefile"
  mov r1, filename ; r1 holds the address of string "thefile"
  mov r2, 1        ; r2 is set to READ
  mov r0, 0        ; r0 is set to OPEN
  syscall          ; r0 now holds the file descriptor, or 0xffff on error

------
- read
------

uint16 read (uint16 filedes, void * buf, uint16 buf_size);

HSVM Assembly Example:
  filename: "thefile"
  mov r1, filename ; r1 holds the address of string "thefile"
  mov r2, 1        ; r2 is set to READ
  mov r0, 0        ; r0 is set to OPEN
  syscall          ; r0 now holds the file descriptor, or 0xffff on error

  mov r1, r0       ; set r1 to file descriptor
  mov r2, rbp
  sub r2, 0x80     ; buf is 64 bytes below base pointer
  mov r3, 64       ; buffer is 32 bytes large
  mov r0, 1        ; r0 is set to READ
  syscall

-------------
- write, close
-------------

write and close do not include assembly examples.

uint16 write (uint16 filedes, void * buf, uint16 buf_size);
uint16 close (uint16 filedes);