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REFERENCE TAXONOMY INCIDENT Taxonomy (human readable version)

This is the Reference Security Incident Classification Taxonomy.

See the machine readable version as well. It should have an identical contents to the human readable version. Note that the 1st column is mandatory, the 2nd colum is an optional but desired field.

Version: 1002

Generated from machine readable version. Please DO NOT edit this file directly in github, rather use the machinev1 file.

CLASSIFICATION (1ST COLUMN) INCIDENT EXAMPLES (2ND COLUMN) Description / Examples
Abusive Content Spam Or 'Unsolicited Bulk Email', this means that the recipient has not granted verifiable permission for the message to be sent and that the message is sent as part of a larger collection of messages, all having a functionally comparable content. This IOC refers to resources which make up spam infrastructure, for example, harvesters like address verification, URLs in spam emails, etc.
Abusive Content Harmful Speech Bullying, harassment or discrimination of somebody, e.g., cyber stalking, racism or threats against one or more individuals.
Abusive Content (Child) Sexual Exploitation/Sexual/Violent Content Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE), sexual content, glorification of violence, etc.
Malicious Code Infected System System infected with malware, e.g., a PC, smartphone or server infected with a rootkit. Most often this refers to a connection to a sinkholed command and control server.
Malicious Code C2 Server Command and control server contacted by malware on infected systems.
Malicious Code Malware Distribution URI used for malware distribution, e.g., a download URL included in fake invoice malware spam or exploit kits (on websites).
Malicious Code Malware Configuration URI hosting a malware configuration file, e.g., web injects for a banking trojan.
Information Gathering Scanning Attacks that send requests to a system to discover weaknesses. This also includes testing processes to gather information on hosts, services and accounts. This includes fingerd, DNS querying, ICMP, SMTP (EXPN, RCPT, etc) port scanning.
Information Gathering Sniffing Observing and recording of network traffic (i.e. wiretapping).
Information Gathering Social Engineering Gathering information from a human being in a non-technical way (e.g., using lies, tricks, bribes, or threats).
Intrusion Attempts Exploitation of Known Vulnerabilities An attempt to compromise a system or to disrupt any service by exploiting vulnerabilities with a standardised identifier such as CVE name (e.g., using a buffer overflow, backdoor, cross site scripting)
Intrusion Attempts Login Attempts Multiple brute-force login attempts (including guessing or cracking of passwords). This IOC refers to a resource, which has been observed to perform brute-force attacks over a given application protocol.
Intrusion Attempts New Attack Signature An attack using an unknown exploit.
Intrusions Privileged Account Compromise Compromise of a system where the attacker has gained administrative privileges.
Intrusions Unprivileged Account Compromise Compromise of a system using an unprivileged (user/service) account.
Intrusions Application Compromise Compromise of an application by exploiting (un)known software vulnerabilities, e.g., SQL injection.
Intrusions System Compromise Compromise of a system, e.g., unauthorised logins or commands. This includes attempts to compromise honeypot systems.
Intrusions Burglary Physical intrusion, e.g., into a corporate building or data centre.
Availability Denial of Service Denial of Service attack, e.g., sending specially crafted requests to a web application which causes the application to crash or slow down.
Availability Distributed Denial of Service Distributed Denial of Service attack, e.g., SYN flood or UDP-based reflection/amplification attacks.
Availability Misconfiguration Software misconfiguration resulting in service availability issues, e.g., DNS server with outdated DNSSEC Root Zone KSK.
Availability Sabotage Physical sabotage, e.g., cutting wires or malicious arson.
Availability Outage An outage caused, for example, by air conditioning failure or natural disaster.
Information Content Security Unauthorised Access to Information Unauthorised access to information, e.g., by abusing stolen login credentials for a system or application, intercepting traffic or gaining access to physical documents.
Information Content Security Unauthorised Modification of Information Unauthorised modification of information, e.g., by an attacker abusing stolen login credentials for a system or application, or ransomware encrypting data. Also includes defacements.
Information Content Security Data Loss Loss of data caused by, for example, hard disk failure or physical theft.
Information Content Security Leak of Confidential Information Leaked confidential information, e.g., credentials or personal data.
Fraud Unauthorised Use of Resources Using resources for unauthorised purposes including profit-making ventures, e.g., the use of email to participate in illegal profit chain letters or pyramid schemes.
Fraud Copyright Offering or installing copies of unlicensed commercial software or other copyright protected materials (also known as Warez).
Fraud Masquerade Type of attack in which one entity illegitimately impersonates the identity of another in order to benefit from it.
Fraud Phishing Masquerading as another entity in order to persuade the user to reveal private credentials. This IOC most often refers to a URL, which is used to phish user credentials.
Vulnerable Weak Cryptography Publicly accessible services offering weak cryptography, e.g., web servers susceptible to POODLE/FREAK attacks.
Vulnerable DDoS Amplifier Publicly accessible services that can be abused for conducting DDoS reflection/amplification attacks, e.g., DNS open-resolvers or NTP servers with monlist enabled.
Vulnerable Potentially Unwanted Accessible Services Potentially unwanted publicly accessible services, e.g., Telnet, RDP or VNC.
Vulnerable Information disclosure Publicly accessible services potentially disclosing sensitive information, e.g., SNMP or Redis.
Vulnerable Vulnerable System A system which is vulnerable to certain attacks, e.g., misconfigured client proxy settings (such as WPAD), outdated operating system version, or cross-site scripting vulnerabilities.
Other Uncategorised All incidents which don't fit in one of the given categories should be put into this class or the incident is not categorised.
Other Undetermined The categorisation of the incident is unknown/undetermined.
Test Test Meant for testing.