Backbone.drupal extension provides Drupal compatible using Services module
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Backbone.Drupal is a standalone plugin to connect Marionette JS and Backbone JS applications with Drupal 7/8 to execute RESTful States to elaborate operation GET, POST, DELETE etc.

Originally Inspired in JS files from Drupal 7 Module

Backbone.Drupal has compatibility with Backform Drupal 8 return an object for each property if you enable this compatibility attibuttes will be flatten to an array property -> value. But this feature could be used for other implementations.

Also in included in Yeoman Marionette Drupal Generator if you are interested in start with a more sofisticated implementation in a Headless Drupal soltuion


Check test/index.html for Drupal 8 example and indexd7.html for Drupal 7 example.

Before to test in Drupal 8 be sure the REST Resource Content for methods Get, Post, Update , Delete and Patch has json as format and Basic Auth as Authentication method.

However you can use any other Authentication provider if you are instered in create your Authentication Provider you can use the Drupal Console project to generate a new one using the command generate:authentication:provider. You can review an implementation using contributed module IP Consumer Auth

Enable Rest Resources

You can enable Rest resources using Drupal Console command rest:enable

Additionally you could enable Rest resources with contributed module Rest UI I recommend use the git version until Drupal 8 get his first official release.

Your configuration must look similar to following image.

REST UI Content

Code Sample

Let me show you an example of how you can use Backbone.Drupal

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Backbone Drupal Library</title>
    <script src="./jquery.js"></script>
    <script src="./underscore.js"></script>
    <script src="./backbone.js"></script>
    <script src="./backbone.drupal.js"></script>
    <script src="./"></script>
      $(function() {
        // Set API Information
        Backbone.Drupal.restEndpoint = {
          root: '', // Set Drupal Backend Server URL
          version: 8
          //dataType: '.json', // Only required in Drupal 7

        // Define auth object, set crossDomain if is necessary
        var Auth = new Backbone.Drupal.Auth({crossDomain: true});
        // Request executed in sync mode
        // If status is token further ajax will use the proper token
        var auth_status =  = Auth.login('admin', 'admin');

        if(auth_status) {

          // Check user retrieve

          // Set Backform Compatibility (
          var User = new Backbone.Drupal.Models.User({uid: 1, backform: true});
            success: function (user) {
              // Check information retrived, could be used directly in a template

          //  Check users retrive

          var Users = new Backbone.Drupal.Collections.UserIndex();
            success: function (users) {
              // Check information retrived, could be used directly in a template
        } else {
          alert('Auth Error');



Note: This plugin could be used with RequireJS.

Bower install

If you are using Bower you can download Backbone.drupal following this instructions

Bower command

$ bower install backbone.drupal

Include as dependencie

If your application has a list of bower dependencies, you can include as dependency as shown below.

  "name": "YOURAPP",
  "version": "0.0.0",
  "dependencies": {
    "backbone.drupal": "~0.2.0-alpha",

Check the releases section to verify the latest version.


Authentication: Option login with Drupal user account to enable to execute REST operation PUT, DELETE, ADD. If Cross-origin is enabled login is required for operations.

REST: Integration with Services Server type REST

Models: Created Backbone models for Nodes, Users and Comments Entities

You can add extra fields to modules to use as extra information in you application, these extra fields could be mark as noSaveAttributes. Check the following example.

var Property = Backbone.Drupal.Models.Node.extend({
      initialize : function(options) {
        // Setting the Id Attribute for Drupal model
        this.attributes.nid = options.property_id;
        this.noSaveAttributes = ['property_id'];

        // Extended Backbone.Drupal.Models.Node to my own service for Drupal Nodes.
        // This Rest service return absolute URL for field pictures
        this.urlSource = "node_waterbed";


Right now we have two kind of collections

  • Entity Collections: Enable to create to generic REST End point in Drupal to fetch list of Users, Nodes and Views.

  • Generic Collections: Enable to call a Custom REST End Point in Drupal, check the following example

var myCollection =  Backbone.Drupal.Collection.extend({
    initialize: function() {
      console.log("initialize a Custom collection");
      this.model =  myModel;
      this.urlSource = "custon/end/point";


Using CORS we can use Drupal as Backend Server in a Domain i.e and use for instance a Backbone/Marionette App as Front End server in other domain i.e

Drupal 8

Because the Drupal module CORS doesn't have a version for Drupal 8 yet and Drupal Core won't have a native solution for that until Drupal 8.1.

Meanwhile you must modify you .htaccess file to accept the OPTIONS requests, as you can see in the following instructions to .htacces

# Intercept OPTIONS calls
RewriteRule .* / [R=200,L]

Also we have to enable REST Methdos POST, GET, OPTIONS, PATCH, DELETE and allow request from different origin. Check the instructions below.

<IfModule mod_headers.c>
  Header always set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*"
  Header always set Access-Control-Allow-Methods "POST, GET, OPTIONS, PATCH, DELETE"
  Header always set Access-Control-Allow-Headers: Authorization

Double check your apache has header module or run sudo a2enmod headers

Also a intructions to enable Basic Auth is required.

When issues and get resolved this implementation will be updated.


Drupal 8 doesn't implement yet the end point /user/login to enable remote login, this method in Drupal allow validate the credentials and request a CRS Token to be used in further request.

Right now there are only two methods of authentications Cookie (same domain) and Basic Auth for remote request, becuase this library is oriented to create a fronted 100% separate of backed the Auth process use Basic Auth.

When function Auth is called the credentials are not validated, they are just encoded using base64 and configured to use the enconded credentials in further request.

Remember the credentials travel to your backend server encoded NOT encrypted for tha reason you MUST use a SSL certificate in your backend site to protect your users.

Drupal 7

In your Drupal Server you must setup HTTP Access Control to enable connection, below an example.


You must change the origin to use the domain you are using to run your application.

I strong recommend to use the Drupal module CORS to configure the HTTP Access Control


  • Implement Collections for Taxonomies and Search
  • Create integration with module Restws in Drupal 7
  • Test Drupal 8 POST method and Views integrations.